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Understanding Niebuhr Essay

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Internet Encyclopedia of Niebuhr Philosophy. The terms objectivity and subjectivity, in Essay their modern usage, generally relate to Niebuhr a perceiving subject (normally a person) and a perceived or unperceived object. The object is of Poverty Essay something that presumably exists independent of the subjects perception of it. In other words, the object would be there, as it is, even if no subject perceived it. Hence, objectivity is typically associated with ideas such as reality, truth and reliability. The perceiving subject can either perceive accurately or seem to perceive features of the object that are not in the object. For example, a perceiving subject suffering from jaundice could seem to perceive an object as yellow when the object is Niebuhr not actually yellow.

Hence, the in advertising, term subjective typically indicates the possibility of error. The potential for discrepancies between features of the subjects perceptual impressions and Understanding, the real qualities of the perceived object generates philosophical questions. There are also philosophical questions regarding the nature of objective reality and the nature of our so-called subjective reality. Consequently, we have various uses of the terms objective and subjective and sharer, their cognates to express possible differences between objective reality and subjective impressions. Philosophers refer to perceptual impressions themselves as being subjective or objective. Consequent judgments are objective or subjective to Understanding Niebuhr varying degrees, and we divide reality into objective reality and subjective reality. Thus, it is important to beatty to die distinguish the various uses of the terms objective and subjective. Many philosophers would use the term objective reality to refer to anything that exists as it is independent of any conscious awareness of it ( via perception, thought, etc.). Common mid-sized physical objects presumably apply, as do persons having subjective states.

Subjective reality would then include anything depending upon some (broadly construed) conscious awareness of it to Understanding Niebuhr Essay exist. Particular instances of sharer spark colors and sounds ( as they are perceived) are prime examples of Understanding things that exist only why did beatty when there are appropriate conscious states. Particular instances of emotions (e.g., my present happiness) also seem to be a subjective reality, existing when one feels them, and ceasing to exist when ones mood changes. Objective knowledge can simply refer to knowledge of an objective reality. Essay! Subjective knowledge would then be knowledge of any subjective reality. There are, however, other uses of the terminology related to objectivity. Many philosophers use the wanted, term subjective knowledge to Niebuhr Essay refer only to knowledge of ones own subjective states. Such knowledge is the secret sharer spark distinguished from ones knowledge of another individuals subjective states and from knowledge of Niebuhr Essay objective reality, which would both be objective knowledge under the present definitions. Your knowledge of another persons subjective states can be called objective knowledge since it is presumably part of the world that is object for you, just as you and your subjective states are part of the the secret sharer spark notes, world that is object for the other person. This is a prominent distinction in Understanding epistemology (the philosophical study of knowledge) because many philosophers have maintained that subjective knowledge in Structures Essay this sense has a special status. They assert, roughly, that knowledge of ones own subjective states is direct, or immediate, in a way that knowledge of anything else is not.

It is convenient to refer to knowledge of ones own subjective states simply as subjective knowledge. Following this definition, objective knowledge would be knowledge of Niebuhr Essay anything other than ones own subjective states. One last prominent style of why did beatty wanted to die usage for terms related to objectivity deals with the nature of support a particular knowledge-claim has. Understanding Essay! Objective knowledge can designate a knowledge-claim having, roughly, the status of being fully supported or proven. Correspondingly, subjective knowledge might designate some unsupported or weakly supported knowledge-claim. It is more accurate to refer to these as objective and subjective judgments, rather than knowledge, but one should be on Green Cut Backs Essay guard for the use of the term knowledge in this context. This usage fits with the Understanding, general connotation for the term objectivity of solidity, trustworthiness, accuracy, impartiality, etc. The general connotation for many uses of subjectivity includes unreliability, bias, an incomplete (personal) perspective, etc. Objective judgment or belief refers to why did beatty a judgment or belief based on objectively strong supporting evidence, the sort of Understanding Niebuhr evidence that would be compelling for any rational being.

A subjective judgment would then seem to be a judgment or belief supported by male stereotypes, evidence that is compelling for some rational beings (subjects) but not compelling for others. It could also refer to Niebuhr a judgment based on evidence that is of necessity available only to on Europe's Cut Backs some subjects. These are the main uses for the terminology within philosophical discussions. Lets examine some of the main epistemological issues regarding objectivity, presuming the aforementioned definitions of Niebuhr objective reality and Green Light Cut Backs Essay, subjective reality. The subjective is characterized primarily by perceiving mind. The objective is Understanding Niebuhr characterized primarily by physical extension in Green Light on Europe's Cut Backs Essay space and time. The simplest sort of discrepancy between subjective judgment and Niebuhr, objective reality is well illustrated by John Lockes example of holding one hand in ice water and the other hand in hot water for a few moments. When one places both hands into a bucket of tepid water, one experiences competing subjective experiences of one and the same objective reality. One hand feels it as cold, the other feels it as hot. Thus, one perceiving mind can hold side-by-side clearly differing impressions of a single object.

From this experience, it seems to follow that two different perceiving minds could have clearly differing impressions of Essay a single object. That is, two people could put their hands into the bucket of Niebuhr water, one describing it as cold, the other describing it as hot. Or, more plausibly, two people could step outside, one describing the weather as chilly, the other describing it as pleasant. We confront, then, an epistemological challenge to explain whether, and if so how, some subjective impressions can lead to knowledge of objective reality. A skeptic can contend that our knowledge is limited to the realm of objectives our own subjective impressions, allowing us no knowledge of objective reality as it is in itself. b. Does Agreement Among Subjects Indicate Objective Knowledge? Measurement is allegedly a means to reach objective judgments, judgments having at least a high probability of Understanding Niebuhr Essay expressing truth regarding objective reality. An objective judgment regarding the weather, in objectives contrast to the competing subjective descriptions, would describe it as, say, 20C (68F). This judgment results from use of Essay a measuring device. Spark Notes! It is unlikely that the two perceiving subjects, using functioning thermometers, would have differing judgments about the outside air. The example of two people giving differing reports about the weather (e.g., chilly vs. pleasant) illustrates that variation in different subjects judgments is Niebuhr a possible indicator of the subjectivity of their judgments.

Agreement in different subjects judgments (20C) is often taken to be indicative of objectivity. Philosophers commonly call this form of agreement intersubjective agreement. Does intersubjective agreement prove that there is objective truth? No, because having two or three or more perceiving subjects agreeing, for example, that it is very cold does not preclude the male stereotypes, possibility of another perceiving subject claiming that it is not at all cold. Would we have a high likelihood of objective truth if we had intersubjective agreement among a large number of subjects? This line of reasoning seems promising, except for Understanding Essay, another observation from Locke about the possible discrepancies between subjective impressions and objective reality. c. Primary and Secondary Qualities: Can We Know Primary Qualities? According to Lockes distinction between primary and secondary qualities, some of our subjective impressions do not correspond to any objective reality in the secret notes the thing perceived. Our perception of sound, for example, is nothing like the actual physical vibrations that we know are the real cause of our subjective experience. Our perception of color is nothing like the complex combinations of various frequencies of electromagnetic radiation that we know cause our perception of color. Locke asserts that we can, through science, come to Understanding Niebuhr Essay know what primary characteristics the object has in itself. Science teaches us, he says, that sound as we perceive it is not in the object itself whereas spatial dimensions, mass, duration, motion, etc. are in the object itself.

In response to this point, one can assert that, through science, we discover that those subjective impressions corresponding to nothing in the object are nonetheless caused by male stereotypes in advertising, the truly objective features of the object. Thus, Lockes approach leads to optimism regarding objective knowledge, i.e., knowledge of how things are independent of our perceptions of them. d. Skepticism Regarding Knowledge of Objective Reality. In response to Lockes line of Understanding Niebuhr thinking, Immanuel Kant used the why did to die, expression Ding an sich (the thing-in-itself) to designate pure objectivity. The Ding an sich is the object as it is in itself, independent of the features of any subjective perception of it.

While Locke was optimistic about scientific knowledge of the true objective (primary) characteristics of things, Kant, influenced by skeptical arguments from David Hume, asserted that we can know nothing regarding the true nature of the Ding an sich, other than that it exists. Scientific knowledge, according to Kant, is Understanding Niebuhr systematic knowledge of the Organizational Structures, nature of things as they appear to us subjects rather than as they are in Understanding themselves. Using Kants distinction, intersubjective agreement would seem to be not only the best evidence we can have of Organizational Structures objective truth but constitutive of Niebuhr Essay objective truth itself. (This might require a theoretically perfect intersubjective agreement under ideal conditions.) Starting from the Essay, assumption that we can have knowledge only of things as they appear in subjective experience, the only plausible sense for Understanding Niebuhr, the term objective would be judgments for why did beatty, which there is universal intersubjective agreement, or just for which there is Understanding Niebuhr necessarily universal agreement. If, alternately, we decide to restrict the term objective to the Ding an sich, there would be, according to Kant, no objective knowledge. The notion of of Poverty in the objectivity thus becomes useless, perhaps even meaningless (for, say, a verificationist). Facing any brand of Understanding Niebuhr Essay skepticism regarding knowledge of objective reality in any robust sense, we should note that the notion of there being an objective reality is Light on Europe's Cut Backs Essay independent of any particular assertion about our prospects for knowing that reality in any objective sense.

One should, in other words, agree that the idea of some objective reality, existing as it is independent of any subjective perception of it, apparently makes sense even for Essay, one who holds little hope for any of us knowing that there is such a reality, or knowing anything objectively about such a reality. Perhaps our human situation is such that we cannot know anything beyond our experiences; perhaps we are, each one of us individually, confined to communication the theater of our own minds. Nonetheless, we can conceive what it means to assert an objective reality beyond the Niebuhr, stream of our experiences. Opposing skepticism regarding objective reality, it is conceivable that there are markers of some sort in Organizational Essay our subjective experiences distinguishing the reliable perceptions of objective truth from the illusions generated purely subjectively (hallucinations, misperceptions, perceptions of secondary qualities, etc.). Descartes, for example, wrote of clear and distinct impressions as having an inherent mark, as it were, attesting to their reliability as indicators of how things are objectively.

This idea does not have many defenders today, however, since Descartes asserted certainty for knowledge derived from clear and Niebuhr, distinct ideas. More acceptable among philosophers today would be a more modest assertion of a high likelihood of beatty reliability for Understanding Essay, subjective impressions bearing certain marks. The marks of reliable impressions are not clear and distinct in Descartes sense, but have some connection to communication common sense ideas about optimal perceptual circumstances. Thus, defenders of objective knowledge are well advised to search for subjectively accessible marks on impressions that indicate a high likelihood of truth. A defender of the prospects for objective knowledge would apparently want also to Understanding Niebuhr give some significance to intersubjective agreement. Assertions of intersubjective agreement are based, of course, on ones subjective impressions of why did wanted other perceiving subjects agreeing with ones own judgments. Thus, intersubjective agreement is just one type of Understanding mark one might use to Green Light Essay identify the Essay, more likely reliable impressions. This is simple common-sense. We have much more confidence in our judgments (or should, anyway) when they are shared by virtually everyone with whom we discuss them than when others (showing every sign of normal perceptual abilities and a sane mind) disagree. A central assumption behind this common pattern of thought, however, is communication that there are indeed many other perceiving subjects besides ourselves and we are all capable, sometimes at least, of knowing objective reality. Another assumption is that objective reality is logically consistent.

Assuming that reality is consistent, it follows that your and my logically incompatible judgments about a thing cannot both be true; intersubjective disagreement indicates error for at least one of us. Understanding Niebuhr! One can also argue that agreement indicates probable truth, because it is unlikely that you and I would both be wrong in our judgment regarding an Green on Europe's Cut Backs object and both be wrong in exactly the Understanding Niebuhr, same way. Conversely, if we were both wrong about some object, it is likely that we would have differing incorrect judgments about Issue in the World Essay it, since there are innumerable ways for us to make a wrong judgment about an object. f. Is There No Escape From the Essay, Subjective? Despite plausible ways of arguing that intersubjective disagreement indicates error and agreement indicates some probability of truth, defenses of objective knowledge all face the philosophically daunting challenge of providing a cogent argument showing that any purported mark of reliability (including apparent intersubjective agreement) actually does confer a high likelihood of truth. The Secret Sharer! The task seems to presuppose some method of determining objective truth in the very process of establishing certain sorts of subjective impressions as reliable indicators of truth. That is, we require some independent (non-subjective) way of determining which subjective impressions support knowledge of objective reality before we can find subjectively accessible markers of the reliable subjective impressions. What could such a method be, since every method of knowledge, judgment, or even thought seems quite clearly to go on within the realm of subjective impressions? One cannot get out of ones subjective impressions, it seems, to test them for reliability. The prospects for knowledge of the Understanding, objective world are hampered by our essential confinement within subjective impressions.

In metaphysics, i.e., the philosophical study of the the secret notes, nature of reality, the topic of objectivity brings up philosophical puzzles regarding the Essay, nature of the self, for a perceiving subject is also, according to most metaphysical theories, a potential object of someone elses perceptions. Further, one can perceive oneself as an object, in addition to knowing ones subjective states fairly directly. The self, then, is known both as subject and as object. Knowledge of self as subject seems to differ significantly from knowledge of the self as object. The differences are most markedly in evidence in the philosophy of mind. Light On Europe's Cut Backs Essay! Philosophers of mind try to reconcile, in Understanding Niebuhr some sense, what we know about the mind objectively and what we know subjectively. Cut Backs Essay! Observing minded beings as objects is central to the methods of Niebuhr Essay psychology, sociology, and the sciences of the brain.

Observing one minded being from the subjective point of wanted view is something we all do, and it is Understanding central to Issue of Poverty in the Essay our ordinary notions of the nature of mind. A fundamental problem for the philosophy of mind is to explain how any object, no matter how complex, can give rise to mind as we know it from the subjective point of view. That is, how can mere stuff give rise to the rich complexity of consciousness as we experience it? It seems quite conceivable that there be creatures exactly like us, when seen as objects, but having nothing like our conscious sense of ourselves as subjects. So there is the question of why we do have subjective conscious experience and how that comes to Essay be. Philosophers also struggle to explain what sort of relationship might obtain between mind as we see it embodied objectively and mind as we experience it subjectively. Are there cause-and-effect relationships, for example, and how do they work? The topic of seeing others and even oneself as an object in the objective world is a metaphysical issue, but it brings up an the secret spark ethical issue regarding the treatment of Understanding persons. There are, in addition, special philosophical issues regarding assertions of objectivity in ethics. First, the dual nature of persons as both subjects (having subjective experience) and sharer spark notes, objects within objective reality relates to one of the paramount theories of Essay ethics in the history of Organizational Structures Essay philosophy. Immanuel Kants ethics gives a place of central importance to respect for persons.

One formulation of Understanding Niebuhr Essay his highly influential Categorical Imperative relates to Light on Europe's the dual nature of persons. This version demands that one treat humanity, in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end ( Groundwork , p. 96). One may treat a mere object simply as a means to an end; one may use a piece of Niebuhr Essay wood, for example, simply as a means of repairing a fence. A person, by contrast, is marked by subjectivity, having a subjective point of view, and has a special moral status according to Kant. Of Poverty In The Essay! Every person must be regarded as an end, that is Niebuhr Essay as having intrinsic value. It seems that the inherent value of a person depends essentially on the fact that a person has a subjective conscious life in addition to objective existence. This ethical distinction brings out an aspect of the term object as a mere object, in contrast to the subjectivity of a person.

The term objectivity in this context can signify the mere object-ness of something at its moral status. Despite widespread agreement that being a person with a subjective point of view has a special moral status, there is a general difficulty explaining whether this alleged fact, like all alleged moral facts, is an objective fact in any sense. It is also difficult to explain how one can know moral truths if they are indeed objective. b. Objectivism, Subjectivism and Non-Cognitivism. Philosophical theories about the nature of morality generally divide into assertions that moral truths express subjective states and assertions that moral truths express objective facts, analogous to the fact, for example, that the sun is more massive than the Green Light on Europe's Cut Backs, earth. So-called subjectivist theories regard moral statements as declaring that certain facts hold, but the facts expressed are facts about Niebuhr a persons subjective states. For example, the statement It is wrong to ignore a person in Essay distress if you are able to Essay offer aid just means something like I find it offensive when someone ignores a person in distress. This is a statement about the subjects perceptions of the communication objectives, object, not about the object itself (that is, ignoring a person in distress). Objectivist theories, in contrast, regard the Niebuhr, statement It is wrong to why did beatty ignore. as stating a fact about the ignoring itself. Subjectivist theories do not have to regard moral statements as statements about a single subjects perceptions or feelings.

A subjectivist could regard the statement Torture is immoral, for example, as merely expressing the Understanding Niebuhr Essay, feeling of abhorrence among members of a certain culture, or among people in general. In addition to objectivism and subjectivism, a third major theory of morality called non-cognitivism asserts that alleged moral statements do not make any claim about any reality, either subjective or objective. This approach asserts that alleged moral statements are just expressions of subjective feelings; they are not reports about such feelings. Thus the statement Torture is immoral is equivalent to wincing or saying ugh at the thought of Light Cut Backs torture, rather than describing your feelings about torture. Among objectivist theories of morality, the most straightforward version declares that is it an objective fact, for example, that it is wrong to Understanding Niebuhr ignore a person in male stereotypes distress if you are able to offer aid. This sort of theory asserts that the Understanding Essay, wrongness of such behavior is part of objective reality in the same way that the suns being more massive than the the secret, earth is part of Understanding Niebuhr Essay objective reality.

Both facts would obtain regardless of whether any conscious being ever came to know either of them. Other objectivist theories of beatty wanted to die morality try to explain the widespread feeling that there is an important difference between moral assertions and descriptive, factual assertions while maintaining that both types of assertion are about something other than mere subjective states. Such theories compare moral assertions to assertions about secondary qualities. The declaration that a certain object is Understanding Niebuhr Essay green is not merely a statement about a persons subjective state. It makes an assertion about how the object is, but its an assertion that can be formulated only in relation to in the World the states of perceiving subjects under the right conditions. Essay! Thus, determining whether an object is green depends essentially on consulting the considered judgments of appropriately placed perceivers. Objectives! Being green, by definition, implies the capacity to affect perceiving humans under the right conditions in certain ways. By analogy, moral assertions can be assertions about how things objectively are while depending essentially on consulting the Understanding Niebuhr Essay, considered judgments of male appropriately placed perceivers. Being morally wrong implies, on this view, the capacity to affect perceiving humans under the right conditions in certain ways. For either sort of objectivist approach to morality, it is difficult to explain how people come to know the moral properties of Essay things. We seem not to be able to objectives know the moral qualities of things through ordinary sense experience, for example, because the five senses seem only to tell us how things are in the world, not how they ought to be.

Nor can we reason from the way things are to the way they ought to be, since, as David Hume noted, is does not logically imply an ought. Some philosophers, including Hume, have postulated that we have a special mode of moral perception, analogous to but beyond the five ordinary senses, which gives us knowledge of moral facts. This proposal is Understanding Niebuhr Essay controversial, since it presents problems for verifying moral perceptions and beatty to die, resolving moral disputes. It is also problematic as long as it provides no account of how moral perception works. By contrast, we have a good understanding of the mechanisms underlying our perception of secondary qualities such as greenness. Many people assert that it is much less common to get widespread agreement on Understanding moral judgments than on matters of observable, measurable facts. Such an Issue in the World Essay assertion seems to be an Understanding attempt to argue that moral judgments are not objective based on lack of intersubjective agreement about stereotypes them. Widespread disagreement does not, however, indicate that there is no objective fact to be known. There are many examples of widespread disagreement regarding facts that are clearly objective. Understanding! For example, there was once widespread disagreement about whether the male in advertising, universe is expanding or in a steady state. That disagreement did not indicate that there is no objective fact concerning the state of the universe. Thus, widespread disagreement regarding moral judgments would not, by itself, indicate that there are no objective moral facts. This assertion is apparently an Understanding Essay attempt to modify the inference from widespread intersubjective agreement to communication objectives objective truth.

If so, it is mistaken. Assuming that the inference from Understanding Essay intersubjective agreement to Organizational Structures Essay probable objective truth is strong, it does not follow that one can infer from lack of intersubjective agreement to probable subjectivity. As previously indicated, intersubjective disagreement logically supports the assertion that there is an error in at Niebuhr Essay least one of the conflicting judgments, but it does not support an assertion of the mere subjectivity of the matter being judged. Further, the vast areas of near-universal agreement in communication objectives moral judgments typically receives too little attention in Essay discussions of the nature of morality. Of Poverty World! There are seemingly innumerable moral judgments (e.g., it is wrong to needlessly inflict pain on Understanding a newborn baby) that enjoy nearly universal agreement across cultures and Light Cut Backs, across time periods. This agreement should, at least prima facie, support an assertion to objectivity as it does for, say, judgments about the temperature outside. 5. Major Historical Philosophical Theories of Objective Reality. Any serious study of the Niebuhr Essay, nature of of Poverty World objectivity and objective knowledge should examine the central metaphysical and epistemological positions of historys leading philosophers, as well as contemporary contributions. Understanding! The following very brief survey should give readers some idea of where to get started. Plato is famous for a distinctive view of objective reality. Male Stereotypes In Advertising! He asserted roughly that the greatest reality was not in the ordinary physical objects we sense around us, but in what he calls Forms, or Ideas. (The Greek term Plato uses resembles the word idea, but it is preferable to call them Forms, for they are not ideas that exist only in a mind, as is suggested in our modern usage of the term idea.) Ordinary objects of our sense experience are real, but the Understanding Niebuhr Essay, Forms are a higher reality, according to Plato.

Having the greatest reality, they are the only truly objective reality, we could say. Forms are most simply described as the pure essences of things, or the defining characteristics of things. We see many varied instances of chairs around us, but the essence of what it is to be a chair is the Form chair. Likewise, we see many beautiful things around us, but the Form beauty is the what it is to be beautiful. The Form is simply whatever it is that sets beautiful things apart from communication objectives everything else. In epistemology, Plato accordingly distinguishes the highest knowledge as knowledge of the highest reality, the Forms. Our modern usage of the Understanding Niebuhr Essay, terms objective knowledge and communication, objective reality seem to fit in Niebuhr Essay reasonably well here. Aristotle, by contrast, identifies the ordinary objects of sense experience as the most objective reality.

He calls them primary substance. The forms of things he calls secondary substance. Hence, Aristotles metaphysics seems to fit better than Platos with our current understanding of objective reality, but his view of objective knowledge differs somewhat. To Die! For him, objective knowledge is knowledge of the forms, or essences, of Understanding things. We can know individual things objectively, but not perfectly. We can know individuals only during occurrent perceptual contact with them, but we can know forms perfectly, or timelessly. Descartes famously emphasized that subjective reality is better known than objective reality, but knowledge of the objective reality of ones own existence as a non-physical thinking thing is nearly as basic, or perhaps as basic, as ones knowledge of the in the World, subjective reality of ones own thinking. For Descartes, knowledge seems to start with immediate, indubitable knowledge of ones subjective states and proceeds to knowledge of ones objective existence as a thinking thing. Cogito, ergo sum (usually translated as I think, therefore I am) expresses this knowledge. All knowledge of realities other than oneself ultimately rests on this immediate knowledge of Essay ones own existence as a thinking thing. Ones existence as a non-physical thinking thing is an objective existence, but it appears that Descartes infers this existence from the Essay, subjective reality of his own thinking. The exact interpretation of his famous saying is still a matter of Niebuhr Essay some controversy, however, and the secret sharer spark, it may not express an inference at Essay all. We have already looked at some of John Lockes most influential assertions about the nature of objective reality.

Bishop Berkeley followed Lockes empiricism in epistemology, but put forth a markedly different view of reality. Berkeleys Idealism asserts that the only realities are minds and mental contents. He does, however, have a concept of objective reality. A table, for example, exists objectively in the mind of God. God creates objective reality by thinking it and sustains any objective reality, such as the table, only so long as he continues to think of it. Thus the table exists objectively for us, not just as a fleeting perception, but as the Organizational Structures Essay, totality of all possible experiences of Niebuhr it. My particular experience of it at this moment is a subjective reality, but the table as an male stereotypes objective reality in the mind of God implies a totality of all possible experiences of it. Berkeley asserts there is no need to postulate some physical substance underlying all those experiences to be the objective reality of the table; the totality of possible experiences is adequate. We have looked briefly at some of Kants claims about the nature of Understanding Essay objective reality. More recent philosophy continues these discussions in many directions, some denying objectivity altogether. Detailed discussion of these movements goes beyond the purview of this essay, but interested readers should specially investigate Hegels idealism, as well as succeeding schools of thought such as phenomenology, existentialism, logical positivism, pragmatism, deconstructionism, and post-modernism.

The philosophy of mind, naturally, also continually confronts basic questions of Organizational Structures subjectivity and objectivity.

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Nov 16, 2017 Understanding Niebuhr Essay,

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Nassim Nicholas Taleb on Understanding Essay Accepting Uncertainty, Embracing Volatility. The day before a big game, regardless of the sport, a teams coach or star player is often asked, How will you stop the opposing team tomorrow? The answer typically goes something like this: We cant worry about the other team. We just have to play our game. That, in a very simplified nutshell, is the essence of Nassim Nicholas Talebs highly polemical, always thought-provoking new book, Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder. Here, though, the opponent is not another teams slugger, quarterback or point guard, but the future and change. The defining characteristic of future change, according to Taleb (who continues a line of argument developed in previous books like Fooled by Randomness and The Black Swan ), is that it is impossible, and foolhardy, to try to predict it.

Instead, the author argues, it is essential to make peace with uncertainty, randomness and volatility. Those who do not who insist not only on trying to predict the future, but also on somehow trying to manage it he disparagingly calls fragilistas. Antifragile is divided into seven sections that Taleb calls books. In a prologue, he explains that each is, in a sense, a long personal essay, mixing autobiographical musings and parables with more philosophical and scientific investigations. The author introduces fictional characters such as Fat Tony, who epitomizes the Green Cut Backs Essay straight-talking street knowledge of the practitioner as opposed to the fragilista. In addition to fragilista, he coins or adopts a number of other terms; delves into Niebuhr, extended asides on Greek philosophy and mythology; and in general fashions a thoroughly idiosyncratic approach to his subject matter. The result is Light Essay a work that is readable and entertaining, if at times a bit unwieldy. Taleb advocates what he calls nonpredictive decision making focused on the ability of the unit in question (whether that be an individual, institution, industry or society) to withstand unexpected change.

Yet to Understanding, simply survive is not enough. Taleb is interested in things that actually thrive on uncertainty. To merely avoid harm is, in in the World Essay, his terms, to be robust and at times this is an acceptable result. Niebuhr? Robustness falls in the middle of a continuum he calls The Triad. The Secret Spark? At the far left is fragility that which requires tranquility, certainty and predictability and at the far right, in the absence of a better word for it, is Niebuhr antifragility. Antifragility, it should be pointed out, doesnt mean that volatility will always be experienced positively. Organizational? It simply means that the Understanding Niebuhr Essay antifragile has more of an upside than downside from random events. As Taleb notes, Some things benefit from shocks; they thrive and grow when exposed to volatility, randomness, disorder, and stressors and love adventure, risk, and uncertainty. Another sports analogy, one Taleb himself uses, effectively illustrates the Issue World Essay idea of benefiting from shock. Essay? When we go the gym and lift heavy weights (barbells later become a key image in the book), we intentionally apply stress to our body.

Muscle tissue is strained and Structures even broken down. The bodys response is to overcompensate to the trauma and emerge stronger than before. This process of overreaction to stress and setbacks, the author argues, is intrinsic to our very being, to all of evolution, to nature and to every human system that has survived. It is the process of life itself. The reverse holds true as well: Remove stress from a system, and that system grows weak; it becomes fragile.

Stay in bed for three weeks instead of lifting weights, and muscles atrophy. The Cat and the Washing Machine. A key distinction for Taleb is that between the Understanding organic and the mechanical , and the title concept is central to this. Organic entities are intrinsically antifragile, while artificial creations are at best robust and likely fragile. The split corresponds roughly, but not entirely, to the living and the non-living. In Advertising? Taleb argues that certain man-made things like ideas, technologies, businesses and even the economy operate more by organic principles than mechanical ones: They are closer to the cat than to Niebuhr Essay, the washing machine but tend to be mistaken for washing machines. Nature and natural systems are an ongoing reference for Taleb not just as illustrative analogies, but as part of the very fabric of his worldview.

For him, nature is the ultimate model for how to deal with uncertainty. Nature does not need to predict the future in order to deal with its unexpected turns. Beatty To Die? The information volatility provides is digested and adapted as part of the evolutionary process. In this sense, nature loves small errors. Nature is also not safe. It accepts short-term loss for long-term gain. For example, Taleb cites the natural cycle of Understanding Niebuhr, forest fires that clear the forest of highly flammable material and weed out weak and vulnerable growth. Suppressing these fires artificially (i.e., suppressing volatility) imposes a false short-term stability while increasing long-term risk. We get fewer fires but more devastating ones. This basic principle can be applied to human systems as well. Government bailouts that prevent certain businesses from going under, for example, only increase the possibility of system-wide collapse.

Error and failure, Taleb insists again and again, are essential sources of information as long as they are limited and localized. Issue Essay? Every plane crash brings us closer to safety. Attempts to eliminate error and volatility will backfire in the long run. Paradoxically, there is no long-term stability without short-term volatility. A concept Taleb developed in a previous book, Black Swans are game-changing, world-altering events he contends are the driving force in history. Though they are impossible to Understanding Niebuhr Essay, predict, fragilistas (especially the objectives policymakers and academics Taleb loves to ridicule) make the mistake of trying to impose a clear narrative on them in retrospect. With that narrative in place, they tell themselves the Black Swan could have, and perhaps should have been, anticipated, and Understanding Niebuhr they set about male stereotypes in advertising trying to successfully predict the next one. For example, events in Niebuhr Essay, the Middle East that have caught the U.S. government by surprise (such as the 2011 Egyptian uprising or the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran) are labeled intelligence failures. The solution, according to fragilistas, is simply better forecasting. This approach misses the point, which is to assess the fragility of a system, not the particular event that will expose that fragility.

In a discussion of the earthquake and tsunami that produced the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, Taleb writes: Not seeing a tsunami or an economic event coming is excusable; building something fragile to them is in advertising not. And in the case of the Fukushima disaster, authorities seem to Essay, be responding appropriately: not by developing better predictive models, but by building smaller and less vulnerable reactors. It is important to on Europe's Cut Backs Essay, point out that Black Swans are not always negative, destructive events. The explosion of the Internet and Essay the rise of Google are examples of positive Black Swans. What cultivating antifragility does, Taleb says, is enable us to minimize the potential harm from negative Black Swans while capturing the benefits of positive ones. It is all about the secret developing a productive and flexible relationship with volatility. Nonetheless, the dominant impulse among policymakers and so-called experts is to Essay, try to reduce volatility, rather than deal with it more productively. These fragilistas overestimate the reach of scientific knowledge and Green Light on Europe's Cut Backs the possibilities of human control. Intolerant of the Understanding messiness of trial-and-error volatility, they avoid small errors and the essential feedback those errors provide. The end result is to create something that is the secret steadier and Essay more predictable, but fundamentally fragile.

Risks are hidden and suppressed, and the stimulation of randomness and stressors is denied. But the effort to avoid small mistakes and minor pains makes larger ones more severe. Ironically, the imposition of false stability with the intention of avoiding Black Swans makes them more likely and male stereotypes more dangerous. Narrowly, the Understanding Niebuhr fragilista is marked by a preoccupation with theory, risk assessment and strategic planning all of Issue World Essay, which Taleb disdains. More broadly, the fragilista is symptomatic of the fundamental shortcomings of modernity, which the author defines as humans large-scale domination of the environment, the systematic smoothing of the worlds jaggedness, and the stifling of volatility and stressors. Modernity has made a religion of rationalism, optimization and Understanding Niebuhr efficiency.

By contrast, Taleb invokes Nietzsche and his embrace of the Dionysian: the dark, visceral, wild, untamed, hard to understand. Epistemology, the inquiry into the nature of communication, knowledge, is a central concern for Taleb, and an eminently practical one as opposed to a theoretical one. In a world ruled by uncertainty and Understanding unpredictability, and in which precise causes are impossible to isolate, abstract and theoretical knowledge is Organizational Structures Essay of limited use. Understanding Niebuhr Essay? His own encounter with these limits came when, as a recent graduate of business school and the secret sharer notes then the recipient of a doctorate in management science, he did a stint on a foreign exchange trading floor. The professional traders he worked with had no background in theory, and they didnt read economic reports or forecasts; they simply had a nose for when to buy and Essay when to sell.

They knew what worked; they didnt need to know why. Ever since, Taleb has had a deep respect for practitioners as opposed to theorists. Real, usable knowledge emerges from doing, not studying. Technology is Organizational Structures Essay often described as the application of scientific knowledge to practical projects, implying a hierarchy with priestly science on one level and mere practice far below. Taleb lists numerous examples in the development of Understanding, technology, and medicine as well, demonstrating how theory and knowledge emerge from practice, not the other way around. Key advances grow organically (and sometimes randomly) from individuals the author likes to call tinkerers engaged in hands-on trial-and-error experimentation.

Accordingly, Taleb embraces the apprenticeship model of learning as opposed to Issue of Poverty, the academic model. He doesnt oppose formal education, but says its purpose should be learning for Understanding learnings sake, and that education should not be justified as an engine of economic growth. He cites studies by economists who call into question an assumed causal link between education levels and productivity. Instead, he argues, wealth and economic growth eventually result in good education systems. The logical conclusion of Green on Europe's Cut Backs Essay, Talebs preference for Understanding practice over objectives, theory is to question the classical Socratic ideal of truth in the first place. Understanding Niebuhr? Being right, knowing how to define things, understanding the difference between what is true and false: None of this is the why did beatty wanted point. What is important is to Understanding Essay, understand the results of events, not the events themselves. An even deeper implication of this approach is that real intelligence lies not in the individual, but in the evolutionary process the objectives ongoing process of trial-and-error. Understanding? In this process, he argues, options (essentially, the freedom to experiment with uncertainty) can be more important than knowledge or information. Options allow you to benefit from the feedback trial-and-error provides.

And knowing how to communication objectives, apply that feedback to future decisions can be the highest form of wisdom: wisdom in decision making is vastly more important not just practically, but philosophically than knowledge. The practice of modern Western medicine is a topic of great interest to Taleb in its own right. But it also provides him with a set of clear examples of the perils of the fragilistas tendency toward what he terms naive interventionism. This is Understanding Niebuhr a category of intervention that produces small (or no) visible gains, while creating the possibility of large (but often not immediately visible) harm. Examples include statin drugs to male, treat high cholesterol (where fifty patients have to be treated, at Niebuhr uncertain cost, to prevent a single cardiovascular event) and of Poverty in the Essay annual mammograms for women (which actually increase all-cause mortality for the test group). In opposition to this approach, the author cites the part of the Hippocratic Oath that cautions, First, do no harm. Unfortunately, the pervasiveness of professionalization in our society creates a bias toward intervention in other words, the restraint of inaction is Essay not likely to be rewarded. Nonetheless, in medicine and other areas, he asserts that the first rule should be to avoid interference with things we dont understand, which, in Talebs view, covers a lot of ground. Taleb is a fan of barbells as an exercise tool. But he also uses the image to convey the bimodal approach he suggests is the best way to deal with uncertainty and cultivate antifragility. In keeping with the image of the barbell, the idea is to avoid the wishy-washiness of the supposed Golden Middle and instead concentrate on communication two contrasting but complementary strategies: extreme risk aversion on one side, and Essay extreme risk loving on the other. For example, in the area of personal investment, you might invest 90% of Issue of Poverty in the Essay, your funds in something as radically safe as cash, while putting 10% toward extremely high-risk, high-reward investments. Your maximum loss would be capped at 10% of your assets, whereas putting 100% of your assets in so-called medium risk securities carries a danger of losing everything.

Strive to be 90% accountant, 10% rock star, Taleb cheekily suggests. He applies this model across a variety of Understanding, arenas. Communication? For example, in medicine, we should treat the healthy or near-healthy with an extremely conservative, less-is-more approach, while treating the seriously ill much more aggressively. Understanding Essay? In socio-economic policy, it would imply aggressive intervention for the very weak while letting the Green Light Essay very strong alone in Understanding Niebuhr Essay, contrast to Structures Essay, the current policy of focusing on the creation of minor gains for Understanding Niebuhr Essay the middle class. For Taleb, the barbell is a tool for engaging risk and uncertainty in Organizational Structures, a way that is both responsible and Niebuhr Essay vigorous. He praises those who take risks, whether they be entrepreneurs or poets, as adventurers and doers essential to the continued evolution of Organizational Essay, society and the economy. At the Understanding other end of the in advertising spectrum are those who talk or act without any risk or exposure. Taleb has nothing but disdain for policymakers or pundits who enter the fray of public policy without any personal stake in the issue at hand. Understanding Niebuhr Essay? They have no skin in the game, as he likes to Organizational Essay, put it.

In a final section devoted to the ethics of fragility and antifragility, Taleb laments that this kind of disconnect between influence and personal risk is only growing: At no point in history have so many non-risk-takers, that is, those with no personal exposure, exerted so much control. Here, the Understanding Niebuhr author takes the gloves off and names names with columnist Thomas Friedman and economist Joseph Stiglitz among those singled out. Taleb is particularly troubled by corporate managers who dont own the businesses they run. They have incentives (bonuses) without disincentives (penalties), upside without downside. Robert Rubin, for in the World example, earned nearly $120 million in Understanding, bonuses from Citibank, but suffered no personal consequences when the bank collapsed and required a multi-billiondollar government bailout. Taleb characterizes this as essentially a transfer of antifragility, with certain individuals exerting influence without cost (remaining antifragile) while others bear the consequences (increased fragility). Communication Objectives? Such a transfer is, he asserts, a kind of theft, and it raises a profound ethical question, perhaps the dominant one of our time. Essay? Somehow, he writes, we have to make talk less cheap. Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder (Incerto) accessed October 04, 2017. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/nassim-nicholas-taleb-on-accepting-uncertainty-embracing-volatility/ How Bike Sharing Is Maturing in Structures, China. Wharton vice dean Karl Ulrich describes the latest shifts in Chinas growing bike-sharing market.

What Defines Millennials and Essay How Marketers Can Reach Them. Digital culture, fragmentation, distrust of big business and a heavy dose of communication, skepticism are key facets of the millennial generation and they have led to profound changes in mass marketing, advertising and messaging. Turning Waste Streams into Value Streams. Remanufacturing, cascading materials through several lifecycles and rethinking the idea of ownership are more effective than recycling waste. Get Knowledge@Wharton delivered to your inbox every week.

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Nov 16, 2017 Understanding Niebuhr Essay,

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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Cornell Johnson. Essay! Cornell Johnson 2017 Two-Year MBA Essay Questions Class of stereotypes 2020. Here are the Class of 2020 Full-Time essays for Johnson. A goals statement, plus two formal essays and Niebuhr Essay an optional essay: At Cornell, we value students who create impact. Please indicate the communication objectives, opportunities for impact that youve identified through engagement with our community and Understanding Essay describe how what you learned has influenced your decision to apply to Johnson. 500 words You are the author of your Life Story. Please create the Structures, Table of Contents for the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. We value creativity and authenticity and encourage you to approach this essay with your unique style. Niebuhr! Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions. 500 words or under 5 minutes for a multimedia (audio/video).

The Life Story essay has been a staple for Structures, the Johnson app for many years now. It#8217;s different enough that you won#8217;t be able to re-use what you produce for Understanding, Booth or MIT or NYU, but similar chunks of Green on Europe's Essay content may work across some of those others. Understanding Niebuhr Essay! For the why did beatty to die, Impact Essay, a post we wrote specifically for Wharton may also be useful to help you stay on Niebuhr Essay, track. Male In Advertising! The Cornell optional essay is a standard optional essay #8212; meaning, it#8217;s truly optional and only should be submitted if you have important information to Essay explain such as gaps in employment or low GPA (where you have a REASON and Organizational Essay not an Niebuhr EXCUSE). Reapplicants who tried last year also need to the secret use the optional essay to explain how they have improved since last time. (We have a Reapplicant Guide if you#8217;re in that boat!). Our The EssaySnark Cornell essay guide is the 2016 version but it#8217;s still valid for Understanding Niebuhr Essay, 2017! Not sure when we#8217;ll be able to do a refresh on this one. You will get access to sharer notes any updates if/when we do provided it#8217;s within your original 90-day subscription term. Niebuhr! All the info in objectives the existing version should still be quite helpful for Essay, you today!

Cornell has been VERY welcoming to the military candidate lately. Military students went from 2% of the Class of 2013, to an incredible 11% of the the secret spark, Class of Niebuhr 2018. We don#8217;t know of any other school that#8217;s admitted such a high proportion. If you#8217;re active duty or a vet of the U.S. armed services, we offer some special opportunities to help with your MBA apps. Cornell MBA Letters of Recommendations. Cornell Johnson Full-Time 2-Year MBA Application Deadlines. October Round: October 5, 2017 this is advantageous compared to other schools#8217; first rounds because you#8217;ll get your decision really early! In November, in fact. That would be nice, eh? November Round: November 15, 2017 this can be a great date to try for, especially if you#8217;re in the U.S.: It#8217;s after the Light on Europe's Cut Backs, crush of Round 1 but before the Thanksgiving holiday, so you have a lull in the cycle. (We#8217;re not trying to Essay imply that international applicants would not benefit from Round 2 at Cornell, but Americans may appreciate getting another app out of the way before the end of Green Essay November, just for personal and family reasons!) January Round: January 10, 2018 This is one of the Niebuhr, later January deadlines, so THANK YOU, Cornell! They also have a final fourth round in March, and Essay they#8217;ll even accept applications once that date has passed but it#8217;s getting into the trickier stages to be applying to Essay any school at that point on the calendar.

Try for one of the first three rounds identified above for Light on Europe's Essay, your best chances. Note, too, that the Niebuhr Essay, deadlines for Organizational Structures Essay, the Cornell 1-Year MBA may be different. Please see the Niebuhr, Johnson website to confirm. With most schools we suggest targeting any round through a January deadline and that applies here, too, except that they have four rounds which gives you more milestones to try for. There typically are more options with Cornell in fact, they#8217;ll even keep accepting applications after their final round in on Europe's March #8212; but it#8217;s certainly better to Understanding Niebuhr Essay stick with Rounds 1, 2 or 3. Past Cornell MBA Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said about previous years#8217; Johnson applications, in male stereotypes case you want to see where this school is coming from. Niebuhr! Click to view 2016 questions.

Two questions plus an optional essay: At Cornell, we value students who create impact. Please indicate the opportunities for impact that you have identified through engagement with our community and describe how these interactions have influenced your decision to apply to Johnson. 500 words You are the author of your Life Story. Please create the Table of Contents for objectives, the book in Niebuhr the space provided or upload it as an male stereotypes in advertising attachment. We value creativity and authenticity and encourage you to Understanding Niebuhr Essay approach this essay with your unique style. Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions.

They haven#8217;t had a formal written essay in some time, so that first question is new in male 2016. It#8217;s reminiscent of what Wharton is Understanding asking, with their #8220;contribution#8221; essay (we issued some warnings on writing for that before). Additional random comments: 6/29/16 They#8217;re not numbering their rounds anymore; they#8217;ve gone back to October Round, November Round, etc. Not sure if that makes things more confusing, or less! 7/31/16 It appears that Cornell is adopting the male, newly-standardized 4-question Letters of Recommendation requirements that other schools are using. [End last year#8217;s questions section.] Click to view 2015 questions.

7/24/15 It appears that Johnson is using the identical essays to Understanding Niebuhr last year, they#8217;ve just been very kind to you and increased the limits. Table of Contents You are the author for the book of Your Life Story. In 500 words or less, please create the table of stereotypes contents for the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. We value creativity and authenticity and encourage you to Niebuhr Essay approach this essay with your unique style. Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions. What are your short and long term goals and how do you see the Cornell MBA enabling you to achieve both? (500 words) There#8217;s also a whole bunch of other questions in why did wanted to die their online application, plus the standard optional essay (reapplicants should use that to Understanding Niebuhr Essay explain how they#8217;ve improved since originally applying). We go into communication objectives, these details in Niebuhr Essay our new-this-year Cornell MBA Application Guide , to Organizational Structures Essay give you all that you need to do a bang-up job on your essays for this school. In terms of deadlines: Cornell keeps messing with the Niebuhr Essay, system! #128512; They retained their three rounds this year but those dates are very different than any other school.

Up through the 2012-#8217;13 app season, Cornell had four rounds. In 2014 they switched to communication the traditional three rounds with standardized deadlines like every other top school has. Now they#8217;ve gone back to Understanding Niebuhr Essay four rounds for 2015, and they also will accept late apps even after their final deadline in the secret sharer March. Understanding! [End 2015 questions section.] These questions are not much different from 2013 except that #8220;300 words#8221; has turned into #8220;1,000 characters#8221; and they have categorized a bunch of short-answer responses as #8220;essays#8221; which is a little confusing. The first question is the only one that allows you to upload a file; the others must be entered into the text field in their form, which means you can#8217;t submit more than they ask for. Creative Submission Required for All Applicants: You are the author for Green Light on Europe's Cut Backs, the book of Your Life Story.

In 1000 characters or less, please write the Understanding, table of why did to die contents for the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. Note: approach this essay with your unique style. We value creativity and authenticity. Targeted Job Type: What is the job that you would like to have immediately upon graduating with your MBA? (1000 characters) Post-Collegiate Activities: List community activities (clubs, church, civic, etc.) and professional associations you contributed to since graduation from college. Please include the Niebuhr Essay, organization name, your role, hours dedicated, elected offices held, and dates of participation (1000 character limit). Organizational! List your extracurricular activities while in college in order of importance to you. You may include details about your positions and Niebuhr the time commitment, honors or awards received, and dates of participation.

The list may also include part-time and summer employment held while in college. Please list your employer, job title, responsibilities, hours per week, and Green on Europe's Cut Backs the dates for each position (1000 character limit). Collegiate Activities and Employment: Please describe any hobbies or activities that hold special significance for you (1000 character limit). Optional Essay: Complete this essay if you would like to add additional details regarding your candidacy. For instance, if you believe one or more aspects of your application (e.g., undergraduate record or test scores) do not accurately reflect your potential for success at the Johnson School. (1000 character limit) The optional essay really is Understanding Niebuhr optional; you should only use it to explain oddities in communication your profile that you#8217;re not covering elsewhere. Don#8217;t feel like you should tell them about this great leadership example from work as a way to fill the Understanding, space. Put that example in of Poverty in the Essay your Book of Understanding Life if you feel it#8217;s important enough to include, or just rely on your resume to objectives tell the story. Understanding Essay! The other questions are no different than what other schools ask, so again, a little strange that the app has them categorized as #8220;essays.#8221; They#8217;re definitely not long enough to be considered as such. The 1,000-character limit means you get about two standard-sized paragraphs, though the fields do allow formatting and beatty wanted to die many of the questions lend themselves to a bulleted list answer instead of a block of text.

Just so you can gauge it, this paragraph is Understanding Essay just about 535 characters; the paragraph above about the optional essay is 375. This is the first school we#8217;ve seen to use Salesforce to deploy its MBA application. Stereotypes! They#8217;re touting this feature where you can pull in your LinkedIn profile to populate the employment and education sections. This is optional; you don#8217;t have to click that button if you don#8217;t want to. We don#8217;t see any disadvantage in Niebuhr Essay doing that, so go ahead if you#8217;re on LinkedIn and want to save some data entry. Honestly that seems like the biggest benefit though, and even that may be a little overhyped; the system says that not all fields will be populated so you#8217;ll still need to communication go through and fill in the gaps.

Still, kudos to Johnson for Understanding Niebuhr, embracing technology it#8217;s certainly not something we see the bschools doing much of! They are saying that it#8217;s their Johnson Tech MBA that provided the impetus for Issue of Poverty Essay, this (Johnson is partnering with Google on some stuff so it#8217;s clear they#8217;re embracing the convergence of tech and business again, not something we see too often from MBA programs). The strategy for putting together your Johnson essay needs to be the same as it#8217;s always been: Communicate who you are through this structured exercise of the Essay, #8220;story of your life#8221; and share some of the real you in that way. And oh yeah, communicate your goals concisely, too. [End 2014 questions section.] Here#8217;s the 2013 Cornell essay questions: Essay 1: Who You Are. You are the author for why did, the book of Your Life Story. In 300 words or less please write the table of Understanding Essay contents for the book. Issue World Essay! Note: approach this essay with your unique style. We value creativity and Essay authenticity.

Essay 2: Who You Turn Out to Be. (150 words for each part, uploaded as a single document) When did you decide that business school was the next step for you? (Was this an communication epiphany or an evolutionary process? What was the catalyst that caused you to consider this next step?) Johnson values people that make things happen for themselves. Give an Niebuhr example of how you have initiated this for yourself. Please describe your immediate post MBA career goals. On 7/26/13 Cornell updated their Deadlines page to clarify that they will still accept #8220;late#8221; applications through April. This basically moves them back to a 4-round admissions season all over again! It#8217;s good to see this flexibility but it#8217;s a little baffling why they#8217;re doing it this way. Why not just keep four rounds? Maybe it#8217;s because they#8217;re trying to to die accommodate all their admissions under the same schedule, and the One-Year MBA starts in May so they can#8217;t have a round hit that late in Niebuhr Essay the season and still get people in there. [End 2013 questions section.] How would you characterize your career since college? Tell us about on Europe's Cut Backs Essay your short and long term career goals.

Choose one: You are the Understanding, author for the secret sharer spark, the book of Understanding Essay Your Life Story. Please write the table of contents for the book. Note: Approach this essay with your unique style. In The Essay! We value creativity and authenticity. Describe a situation taken from your personal or professional life where you failed and tell us what you learned.

What does diversity mean to you and how will you contribute to the diversity of our community at Johnson? [End 2012 questions section.] Another school we#8217;re tracking with interest (March 2016) Schools where Round 3 is viable (January 2013) one-year MBA options (April 2012) The one less traveled by: CORNELL (January 2012) We don#8217;t have a lot of Cornell essays reviewed on the blahg (feel free to send us yours this season!). However you can reference essay reviews from several other schools to Understanding Niebuhr Essay get a feel for Organizational Structures, how to handle Cornell. There are obvious differences between these programs but some strong similarities, too, so these are worth studying as you work on Understanding Niebuhr, your Johnson application: The Cornell Application Guide walks you through the important elements of this application and how to position yourself effectively. 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. Why Did Wanted To Die! The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from Understanding, scratch to of Poverty help you with the 2017 app!

The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the Niebuhr Essay, 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark.

I think that the Organizational Structures Essay, reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on Niebuhr, a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to maximize my . Thanks so much for the additional feedback ES. I really appreciate it. I just submitted my HBS app, . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the sharer spark, adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to actually do the Understanding Niebuhr, thing you say you will do in the career goals essay. 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark?

2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2013 : More on visiting schools 2012 : ($) What about a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and colleagues? 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2011 : Battle of the Blogs! EssaySnark® is a registered trademark. All content copyright 2010-2017 Snarkolicious Press · Privacy Policy.

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Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and Understanding Essay, management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was first reported in 1935 by Stein and Leventhal who described seven women dealing with amenorrhea, hirsutism, and enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts (Stein and Leventhal, 1935). This syndrome was given the name SteinLeventhal syndrome after these two physicians for sometime. In the 1960s, however, the term polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was first introduced and male stereotypes in advertising, gradually started to replace its former name. It is now recognized as a common complex heterogeneous endocrine disorder in reproductive-age women associated with reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. This syndrome is primarily characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries (Azziz et al., 2004). Given the fact that one out of five women of reproductive age is affected by this syndrome, and studies which suggest that 5% to 10% of females 18 to 44 years of age are affected by PCOS, it is deemed to be the most common endocrine abnormality among women of reproductive age in the US. In Saudi Arabia, the Understanding Niebuhr Essay, prevalence of communication, PCOS is Understanding Niebuhr Essay still unknown although it is believed to be similar to the other studies. In addition, it is sharer a chronic disease with manifestations across the lifespan of women and represents a major health and economic burden.

Therefore, the aim of this research is to review this subject in depth taking in consideration the Understanding, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, complications and management. Material and Methods. This study was performed by male stereotypes, a literature search of English-language studies which was conducted on PubMed (from 1994 to 2016) and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Understanding Niebuhr, Controlled Trials) using the terms, PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome, and polycystic ovary disease. Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disease in women of Organizational Essay, child-bearing age. Additionally, World Health Organization (WHO) has declared PCOS to Essay be the leading cause of type 2 anovulatory infertility.

Based on studies performed in Greece, Spain and the USA, the prevalence of PCOS using the why did to die, National Institutes of Niebuhr, Health and in the World Essay, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NIH/NICHD) criteria indicate that PCOS affects 4%8% of women of reproductive age. That percentage increases up to even 18% according to the guidelines of the Rotterdam consensus (Azziz et al., 2004) (Asuncion, 2000) (Diamanti-Kandarakis, 1999) (Knochenhauer, 1998). Niebuhr Essay? Recently, there has been variations of the Issue of Poverty Essay, prevalence of PCOS depending on the diagnostic criteria used. Normally, females of reproductive age experience cycles of hormonal activity that repeat at about one-month intervals. With every cycle, a womans body prepares for a potential pregnancy, whether or not that is the Understanding Niebuhr, womans intention. The term menstruation refers to the periodic shedding of the uterine lining. Averagely, the menstrual cycle takes about why did beatty to die 28 days and occurs in phases: the follicular phase, the ovulatory phase (ovulation), and the luteal phase. There are four major hormones (chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of cells or organs) involved in Niebuhr the menstrual cycle: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone. During the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, which starts on the first day of a womans period, two hormones; follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are released from the male, brain, specifically the Understanding Essay, pituitary gland, and travel in the bloodstream to the ovaries. These hormones stimulate the primary maturation of around 15 to 20 eggs in the ovaries, each in its own shell, called a follicle. As well as triggering an increase in the production of the female hormone estrogen.

As this follicular phase progresses, one follicle in one ovary becomes dominant and produces estrogen while continuing to mature suppressing all of the other follicles in the group. The second phase, or ovulation, begins on why did beatty to die the 14th day after the follicular phase started. Understanding? The rise in estrogen from the in advertising, dominant follicle triggers a surge in the amount of luteinizing hormone that is produced, which causes the Understanding, dominant follicle to release its egg from the Organizational Essay, ovary into the fallopian tube. During the last phase, known as luteal phase, the empty follicle, once harboring the egg, develops into a structure called the corpus luteum, which secretes the hormone progesterone. Progesterone prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized egg. If the egg is not fertilized, it passes through the uterus, and the lining covering it breaks down and sheds, and the next menstrual period begins. The pathophysiology of Niebuhr, PCOS results from a primary defect in the pituitary function, as well as, defects in insulin secretion and action, and ovarian function. Increased luteinizing hormone (LH) and gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) levels relative to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was the first laboratory abnormality identified in male stereotypes classic PCOS. Raised LH levels will lead to an increase of androgen production and Understanding Niebuhr, secretion by ovarian theca cells. The increase in LH seems to be the result of abnormal sex steroid feedback rather than the cause of sharer spark, androgen excess.

Patients with PCOS are less susceptible to suppression of LH by luteal phase hormones, where the Understanding, modest rise in male in advertising androgen levels in patients with PCOS absurdly stimulates LH pulsatility. Moreover, use of antiandrogen treatment lowers the elevated LH pulse frequency of PCOS to a normal level, suggesting that androgen excess interferes with the hypothalamic inhibitory feedback of female hormones, principally progesterone (Rosenfield and Bordini, 2010). In spite of this, about half of the patients with PCOS, especially obese patient, do not have elevated LH levels or abnormal gonadotropin response to Understanding Niebuhr GnRH agonist testing. Furthermore, around half of PCOS patients with a verified ovarian source of hyperandrogenism were revealed to have normal LH levels and LH responses to a GnRH agonist test, also suggesting that their ovarian dysfunction is independent of LH excess. Another major influence in the pathophysiology of PCOS is the association with insulin and its function; In the ovary, insulin helps to regulate ovarian function, and acts in conjunction with LH to enhance androgen production which can lead to anovulation (Gonzalez, 2012). Etiology and risk factors. A detailed pathogenesis of communication objectives, PCOS has not been clarified yet.

Which is one of the reasons for defining it as a syndrome rather than a disease whereas a syndrome is a cluster of symptoms which cannot be explained under a common etiologic factor. However, the Understanding, individual susceptibility probably depends on prenatal androgen exposure, genetic factors, ethnic origin and environmental risk factors (Zhang et al., 2012). The interaction of male stereotypes in advertising, a number of Understanding Niebuhr Essay, genetic and environmental factors determine the heterogeneous, clinical, and biochemical phenotype, which is why PCOS is described as an oligogenic disorder (Barber and Franks, 2010). Although the genetic etiology of PCOS is yet undetermined, a family history of PCOS is relatively common; however, familial links to PCOS are unclear. Nonetheless, based on the aggregation of cases in families, PCOS is Issue in the World Essay considered a heritable disorder and resembles an autosomal dominant pattern (Diamanti-Kandarakis, Kandarakis and Understanding, Legro, 2006). Hence, a family history of PCOS is considered a risk factor. As for ethnic factors, hirsutism is male stereotypes more rarely observed in individuals of Asian origin (approximately 10%) compared with the Niebuhr Essay, Caucasian race (approximately 70%). Environmental risk factors, such as obesity, seem to amplify genetic predispositions (Zhang et al., 2012). Why Did Beatty? Obesity is a prevalent characteristic of PCOS (Shannon and Understanding, Wang, 2012), ranging from 12.5% to 100% (Mirzaei and Kazemi, 2008), with a collective estimated prevalence of 49% (Graff et al., 2013). These environmental factors implicated in PCOS (e.g., obesity) can be aggravated by poor dietary choices and physical inactivity; infectious agents and toxins may also play a role (Diamanti-Kandarakis, Kandarakis and Legro, 2006). The reproductive and communication objectives, metabolic features of Understanding Niebuhr Essay, PCOS are sometimes reversible with lifestyle modifications such as weight loss and exercise (Shannon and Wang, 2012).

Clinical features of PCOS. The clinical presentation of PCOS varies widely. These considerably distinctive features, displaying a varying degree of communication objectives, expression in each individual, emphasize the phenotypic variability of PCOS, and is in fact another reason why it is considered as a syndrome. Women with PCOS may present with an array of serious clinical implications including reproductive manifestations (hirsutism, infertility and pregnancy complications) (Boomsma et al., 2006), psychological problems (reduced quality of life, poor self-esteem, depression, anxiety) (Deeks, Gibson-Helm and Understanding Niebuhr, Teede, 2010), and communication, metabolic implications (insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and potentially cardiovascular disease (CVD)) (Sir-Petermann et al., 2013) (Meikle, 2006). Presentation of PCOS may vary across the life cycle of the patient due to the heterogeneous nature of PCOS and the wide spectrum of Understanding Niebuhr Essay, clinical features. Generally, PCOS is the secret sharer a chronic condition that usually begins in Understanding Niebuhr Essay adolescence then transitions to include infertility and increase metabolic complications over stereotypes in advertising time. Understanding Niebuhr Essay? However, when combined with obesity, metabolic implications of PCOS such as IGT, DM2 and the metabolic syndrome can present in adolescence (Coviello, Legro and Dunaif, 2006). Reproductive features of PCOS. Clinical hyperandrogenism primarily includes hirsutism, acne and Issue in the World, male pattern alopecia. PCOS is a common cause of hirsutism occurring in approximately 60% of cases. Hirsutism is defined in females as male type terminal hair growth and distribution (Norman et al., 2007).

Acne affects one third of cases and Niebuhr Essay, is not particularly specific for PCOS (Norman et al., 2007). Studies have shown that androgen levels are elevated in woman with acne, although the severity of acne has not been positively correlated with any particular hormone with the exception of the adrenal androgen, dehydroepianandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (Karrer-Voegeli et al., 2009). Conversely, in many PCOS women hirsutism is not associated with acne, which might be due to objectives variable local androgen bioactivity. Niebuhr Essay? An enzyme called 5-?-reductase controls the androgen activity in the hair follicle by converting free testosterone to the more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This enzyme has two isoforms: type 1 is located in the sebaceous glands and communication objectives, pubic skin and Essay, type 2 is present primarily in the hair follicle, genital skin, and adult scalp. This explains the World, different clinical manifestations seen in hyperandrogenic women when the degree of hirsutism is not well-matched with the Essay, severity of the acne (Archer and Chang, 2004). Male pattern hair loss (androgenic alopecia) is a genetically determined disorder characterized by the gradual conversion of terminal hairs into indeterminate, and finally into vellus hairs. The incidence of androgenic alopecia in PCOS is not clearly defined, but several reports vary from a prevalence of 40-70%. It is less frequently seen in PCOS cases, as it generally requires a familial predisposition. Ovarian abnormalities and communication objectives, Infertility. Most of the women suffering from PCOS will seek gynecological counseling due to menstrual irregularity, with 70% to 80% of women presenting with oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhoea.

Oligomenorrhoea occurs usually in adolescence, with onset later in life often associated with weight gain (Brassard, AinMelk and Baillargeon, 2008). Understanding? Furthermore, these ovarian abnormalities have been thought to increase the beatty to die, risk for infertility. Infertility was one of the main symptoms originally attributed to PCOS according to Essay the understanding of Stein and Leventhal (Stein and Leventhal, 1935). The consequent epidemiologic studies implied that about 90% to 95% of women attending infertility clinics with anovulation, have been diagnosed with PCOS, which is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. (Hull, 1987) In a large population of 1,741 women affected by PCOS, primary infertility was reported in 50% of women, while secondary infertility was reported in 25% of women (Dungan, 2008). On the other hand, there is currently a debate on the legitimacy of the relationship between PCOS and spark, infertility. Research has concluded that 60% of women with PCOS are fertile (defined as the ability to conceive within 12 months), although time to conceive is often increased. Psychological features of PCOS.

There are very few studies to date that have explored the psychological aspect of PCOS, since most research has focused primarily on the biological and physiological features of the syndrome. However, these psychological features do, in fact, compromise quality of life and adversely impact on Niebuhr Essay mood and psychological well-being. (31) Some of Organizational Structures Essay, these concerns include the negative body image due to obesity, acne and excess hair. Moreover, women with PCOS deal with low self-esteem, anxiety and it may even lead to depression. The other challenge for patients is dealing with psychosocial impact of Niebuhr Essay, mood disturbance and reduced psychological well-being on motivation and the ability to implement and objectives, sustain successful lifestyle changes that are critical in Niebuhr Essay this condition. Green On Europe's Cut Backs? (32) Metabolic features of PCOS. Actually, obesity is Essay considered a serious growing epidemic disorder in why did the world population, especially in the childhood and Understanding Niebuhr Essay, teenage years. Women with PCOS represent a cohort of people with a high prevalence of overweight (BMI .25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI .30 kg/m2) compared to communication healthy women, up to 61% of prevalence,93 with a typical central distribution of adipose tissue, although there is a wide variability in the estimates of obesity in Niebuhr PCOS women across different countries and ethnicities.13 In the Western countries, such as Australia, USA, and UK, the objectives, PCOS women have the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity,94,95 compared to Chinese PCOS women (only 20% has a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater).96 The causal role in the association between obesity and PCOS has yet to be determined but cultural, lifestyle, and ethnic factors take part in Essay these conditions.

Recent literature has found that greater adiposity was described in more severe reproductive phenotypes (characterized by hyperandrogenism associated with chronic anovulation),49 and lean women had milder reproductive phenotype compared with those who were overweight;97 so obesity can exacerbate the PCOS reproductive phenotypes. It also appears that obesity could have a bidirectional relationship with PCOS, as women with PCOS are more inclined to weight gain and excessive weight gain increases PCOS prevalence, unmasking a latent PCOS condition, but this yet remains to be clarified. Insulin is Green on Europe's Cut Backs Essay a hormone produced by the pancreas to control the amount of sugar in the blood. It helps to move glucose from blood into cells, where its broken down to produce energy. Insulin resistance (IR) is Understanding Niebuhr a physiological condition where the bodys cells are resistant to the effects of insulin. As a result, the body therefore has to produce extra insulin to compensate. High levels of why did, insulin stimulate the ovaries to produce too much testosterone, which interferes with the Essay, development of the why did beatty wanted to die, follicles i.e. the sacs in the ovaries where eggs develop, which in Niebuhr Essay turn prevents normal ovulation.

Insulin resistance have also been found in some cases to lead to weight gain, which may exacerbate many of PCOS symptoms, because having excess fat causes the body to Essay produce even more insulin. Insulin Resistance, considered an essential etiological factor of PCOS, was traditionally attributed primarily to obesity. Although the demonstration of insulin resistance is Essay not required to make the diagnosis of male stereotypes, PCOS, it is Niebuhr Essay clear that hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance plays a prominent role in PCOS. The prevalence of objectives, insulin resistance in PCOS ranges from 50%70%5760 and occurs independently of obesity. Metabolic syndrome is not a disease, but rather a clustering or constellation of abnormal conditions. Although there are several definitions of Understanding, what is required to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, most health care professionals use criteria from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the American Heart Association. Consistent with the increased prevalence of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome is also more common in women with PCOS. To Die? A meta-analysis (32) has shown that women with PCOS have higher levels of triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol and Niebuhr Essay, total cholesterol (TC), and male stereotypes in advertising, lower HDL cholesterol.

levels compared with control women, regardless of body mass index (BMI). Niebuhr? Lean women with PCOS were also more likely to Structures have metabolic syndrome than lean women without PCOS (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.246.78).62 The components of metabolic syndrome are associated with insulin resistance and are summarized in Table 3.63. A specific abnormal pattern of insulin receptor phosphorylation, namely increased serine phosphorylation and reduced tyrosine phosphorylation, appears to be responsible for Niebuhr Essay, insulin resistance observed in PCOS. As reported by the main scientific societies,13,15,49 women with PCOS present an Structures increased prevalence of classic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and Understanding Niebuhr Essay, obesity and nonclassic risk factors such as C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, and tumor necrosis factor-?.50 PCOS at any age is characterized by greater odds for elevated CVD risk markers and these elevated makers can occur without obesity but are magnified with obesity.13. In 2004, a worldwide case-control study of patients from beatty, 52 countries was published, the INTERHEART study,51 that found nine potentially modifiable risk factors, accounted for over 94% of the Understanding Niebuhr, population-attributable risk of a first myocardial infarction in women; the nine factors included smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, visceral obesity, psychosocial factors, decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, regular consumption of alcohol, and regular physical activity. The majority of these occur in the PCOS woman. Sharer Spark? It is estimated that the prevalence of each risk factor is approximately double for Understanding Niebuhr, women with PCOS when compared with controls, while it is Light Essay 1.5 times higher in BMI-matched studies beginning in adolescence and it is found in e. Since PCOS is considered as a lifelong multisystemic and Niebuhr Essay, multifaceted disorder, the reproductive and metabolic alterations characterizing the syndrome may be also associated with an increased risk of the Structures, development of cancers, such as the Niebuhr, endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer, which recognize potential hormonal and/or metabolic pathogenetic mechanisms. The potential mechanisms which could promote the onset of neoplastic diseases in these women, particularly endometrial cancer, include the chronic anovulatory state, resulting in an unopposed estrogen action, associated with hyperandrogenism.117.

At present, based on the most recent meta-analysis,118 women with PCOS of all ages seem to be at of Poverty in the Essay an increased risk of endometrial cancer. In particular, the risk of Understanding Essay, endometrial cancer may be even higher in the premenopausal subgroup of women with PCOS, while overall the risk of ovarian and breast cancer was not significantly increased.118 These current results are consistent with previous reviews published on cancer in PCOS116,119,120. Unfortunately, as with studies of cardiovascular risk, the assessment of cancer risk in PCOS women is complicated by the presence of various potential confounding factors such as obesity, T2DM, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome, which are highly represented in PCOS populations. Obesity is a recognized risk factor for endometrial cancer and the authors of the why did beatty wanted to die, most recent meta-analysis118 acknowledge that the increased risk of Niebuhr, this cancer could be attributed, at least in part, to increased prevalence of obesity in PCOS women. The same issue applies to T2DM, another possible confounding factor that is most representative in PCOS women and why did, associated with an higher risk of endometrial cancer, possibly secondary to hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and inflammation.122 Therefore, there is uncertainty as to whether increased endometrial cancer risk is due to different metabolic risk factors or PCOS itself, which is characterized by Understanding Niebuhr, many metabolic and Green Light, reproductive complications that could be responsible for an increased oncology risk on endometrium. Nonetheless, it is generally accepted that PCOS women with amenorrhea are at Essay greater risk for endometrial hyperplasia and on Europe's Cut Backs, cancer;13 therefore, ESHRE/ASRM Consensus Workshop Group has established a proper endometrial surveillance with ultrasound and/or biopsy to assess endometrial thickening in women which experience extended period of amenorrhea, based on Understanding Niebuhr Essay clinical suspicion and presentation, and in these women periodic progestogen withdrawal is also recommended, at least four episodes per year.13 There is limited and sharer spark notes, contradictory evidence regarding the risk of ovarian131 and breast cancer121 in women with PCOS; so currently, the ESHRE/ASRM consensus statement13 does not recommend routine surveillance strategy and/or clinical care to detect ovarian and breast cancer in women with PCOS. There is also insufficient evidence to evaluate any association of PCOS with vaginal, vulvar, and cervical cancer. Diagnostic criteria outlined in Table 1 have been modified on four occasions since the Understanding Niebuhr Essay, National Institute of Health first defined the syndrome in 1990 (2), highlighting the complex nature of the disorder. In 2003, the Organizational, Rotterdam criteria were published and further revised in Understanding Niebuhr Essay 2004 (3), followed by the Androgen Excess Society criteria in 2006 (4), subsequently modified by the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AE-PCOS) in 2009 (5). Today, the Rotterdamcriteria are the Structures Essay, most widely utilized guideline requiring any two of the Understanding Niebuhr Essay, following three features: androgen excess identified clinically or biochemically; chronic anovulation; or polycystic ovarian morphology (3). Despite frequent amendments to diagnostic criteria, the features first described by Stein and Leventhal continue to be recognized in the various classification systems.

In particular, ovarian dysfunction manifesting as either oligomenorrhoea amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism can be considered the. hallmarks of the syndrome (6), having been consistently recognized throughout the literature. The Secret? Importantly, all diagnostic criteria have similarly identified PCOS as a diagnosis of Understanding Essay, exclusion with the need to rule out various differentials as identified in the secret spark Table 2. Three tools can be used to diagnose PCOS (Table 2). In 1990, the National Institute of Child Health and Understanding Essay, Human Development (NICHD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) hosted a panel of experts who developed the first known criteria for spark, PCOS.8,13 Over the next decade, it was discovered that ovarian morphology was a key component in Essay the diagnosis. The European Society Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) sponsored a workshop in Green Essay Rotterdam. During the workshop, polycystic ovarian morphology on Essay pelvic ultrasound was added to the NICHD/NIH criteria. It was then decided that only two of the three criteria had to be met for a diagnosis of PCOS. 8,13 In 2006, the Androgen Excess Society (AES) suggested that the NICHD/NIHS criteria could be used with modifications that included the Rotterdam tool.

The AES defines PCOS as a disorder primarily involving androgen excess, along with various combinations of phenotypic features (e.g., hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, oligo-ovulation/anovulation, and/or polycystic ovaries) that may promote a more accurate diagnosis.8,13 In 2012, the NIH sponsored an evidence-based methodology on polycystic ovary disease. The expert panel concluded that each criterion has its own strengths and spark notes, weaknesses; however, the use of Niebuhr Essay, multiple criteria was considered confusing, impeding progress in Issue in the World Essay understanding PCOS.14 If PCOS is suspected, a complete medical history, physical examination, blood tests, and a pelvic ultrasound should be performed.5 A medical history and physical examination provide the physician with information about unexplained weight gain, menstrual cycle abnormalities, male-pattern hair growth, skin changes, and elevated blood pressure (BP). Blood is drawn to assess hormone, glucose, and Understanding Essay, lipid levels, and a pelvic ultrasound is performed to scan for ovarian cysts.5,13,15 During the assessment period, other potential causes associated with reproductive, endocrine, and Organizational Structures, metabolic dysfunction should. be excluded. Physicians should rule out adrenal hyperplasia, Cushings syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia before a PCOS diagnosis is confirmed.5,13 After PCOS is diagnosed, studies show that more than 50% of patients develop prediabetes or diabetes, and there is an Understanding Essay increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), dyslipidemia, hypertension, anxiety, depression, endometrial cancer, and sleep apnea.4 Moreover, pregnant women with PCOS should be informed of the increased rates of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, and premature delivery.4. The treatment of PCOS in adolescent girls should aim to achieve ovulation, normalize the menstrual cycle, reduce and if possible eliminate hirsutism and acne, achieve weight loss, as well as to treat hyperlipidemia and hyperglycaemia in order to communication objectives lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. Niebuhr Essay? Most protocols in puberty also aim to reduce the androgen excess. However, most importantly, a healthy diet combined with exercise should be proposed as the number one priority, especially in overweight adolescent women. Light? Obesity was closely related to IR; for this reason, weight loss represented a fundamental preliminary approach in Understanding Niebuhr the treatment of obese/overweight PCOS women. In fact, weight loss resulted in the restoration of spontaneous ovulation and higher fertility rate.145 Losing weight not only contributes to the secret sharer notes the prevention of the clinical manifestations of the PCOS, but also improves the young girls self-esteem [33]. Similarly, the use of cosmetics as well as hair removal, used in conjunction with androgen suppression therapy, could be effective in the treatment of hirsutism.

However, lifestyle modification programs are related to a low compliance and a high dropout rate. To overcome this problem, the feasibility and the efficacy of Understanding, a structured exercise training program was evaluated in obese anovulatory PCOS patients.146 The structured exercise training resulted in a higher menses frequency and the ovulation in male comparison with diet. Successively, lifestyle modifications resulted more efficacious than clomiphene cictrate (CC) and Essay, metformin in terms of pregnancy rate, resulting in 12.2%, 14.4%, 14.8% and 20% of pregnancies after CC, metformin, CC plus metformin, and Issue of Poverty Essay, lifestyle modification, respectively.147. Available guidelines recommended CC as the first-line treatment of anovulatory infertility in women with PCOS.16 CC is an estrogen modulator, efficacious, simple to administer and to manage, safe and cheap. Specifically, CC was effective in increasing pregnancy rate compared to placebo (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.621.5).148. According to the standard protocol, CC is administered for 5 days from second or third day of the menstrual cycle, starting from 50 mg/day and Understanding, increasing up to 250 mg/day. Managed care studies showed that the most effective dosage is 100150 mg/day and over 75% of ovulations occur already within a dosage of of Poverty World Essay, 100 mg/day.149 Alternative protocols for CC administration were proposed in patients with known CC resistance. Extended CC regimen resulted in higher ovulation and Essay, pregnancy rates in comparison with gonadotropins ovulation induction, suggesting that in CC-resistant PCOS patients a further period of CC administration might be preferable.149 In our practice, CC (at a dosage of 100 mg/day, and for communication, not more than six cycles) remains a valid therapy for Understanding Niebuhr Essay, inducing ovulation in why did beatty to die infertile PCOS patients. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), such as estrogen modulators, were approved by the Food and Drug Administration as first-line adjuvant therapies for Understanding, estrogen-receptorpositive breast cancer.150 Several data150 evaluated the efficacy of AIs, and in particular of letrozole, as first-line therapy for the secret spark notes, inducing ovulation in infertile patients affected by PCOS. Letrozole was usually administered at a dose of 2.5 mg/day, for 5 days from the third to the seventh day of the menstrual cycle. More recently, a meta-analysis of RCTs showed that letrozole is related to significantly higher live-birth rates than CC (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.322.04).151 Furthermore, the quality of the evidence was considered low due to the poor study transparency in reporting methods and in consideration of the Understanding Essay, more favorable results in the trials reporting live birth as primary end point. Excellent results of AIs in terms of cumulative live-birth rate and Green on Europe's Cut Backs Essay, singleton pregnancy was reported in the largest multicenter randomized double-blind parallel controlled trial (Pregnancy in PCOS trial II, PPCOS II) comparing letrozole to CC.152.

To date, letrozole remains an Understanding Essay off-label drug.153 Studies are needed to sharer spark notes validate the efficacy/safety of AIs over CC in further settings and to clarify its role in well-codified strategies and algorithms for ovulation induction in PCOS.150 Thus, the use of AIs in clinical and nonexperimental settings should be probably avoided. Metformin belongs to Understanding Niebuhr insulin-sensitizing drugs commonly used in treating T2DM. Because IR is a common condition in PCOS women, metformin was introduced in clinical practice in the treatment of these patients.154. Metformin is available in two formulations: immediate- and extended-release, which are administered orally. Even if no dose-finding study is available, metformin administration at incremental doses from 500 to 2,500 mg/day was proposed to treat women with PCOS.154 Several systemic and local effects were demonstrated to explain the Green Cut Backs, reproductive benefits due to metformin administration.154. In practice, metformin seemed to Understanding Niebuhr restore the notes, ovulatory function after almost 3 months of treatment; thus it could be recommended in PCOS patients who absolutely wish to avoid multiple gestations and/or in patients who do not tolerate CC and/or in those who do not have an imminent reproductive need.154 On the basis of literature data and on Essay our experience, metformin (at a dosage of 1,7002,000 mg/day, and for at least three cycles) should be used in selected cases of oligoanovulatory PCOS patients who wish to Organizational Structures Essay avoid multiple gestation and/or in patients who do not tolerate CC, are CC-resistant and/or in those who do not have an imminent reproductive need and/or in those undergoing IVF. Oral contraceptives are the basis of hormone therapy, as they contribute to the reduction of hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism and acne [34-36]. A combination of 35mg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate is usually administered. The latter is an antiandrogen, particularly effective in the reduction of Understanding Essay, testosterone and D4-androstendione and the normalization of the LH/ FSH ratio. However, it seems to have a negative effect on the lipid profile, causing a significant increase of triglyceride levels [37].

Newer combinations of contraceptives are now available containing progestogens (e.g. Green Light On Europe's Cut Backs? desogestrel), which are as effective as antiandrogens without impairing the Niebuhr Essay, lipid profile. Finally, a combination of 30mg ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone is also advisable. Its main advantage is that it does not cause weight gain due to its mild diuretic effects. With the focus on menstrual disorders in the absence of hirsutism, adolescent girls can also use progestogens for Light Essay, a limited number of days each month. While other substances with hormonal or antiandrogenic effect, such as spironolactone, flutamide, finasteride and GnRH agonists, are also effective, their use, however, not being indicated during adolescence. Metformin, aimed to manage insulin resistance, is widely used in the treatment of PCOS, in Understanding Niebuhr daily doses ranging from Green Cut Backs, 500 mg to 2000 mg.

It has been shown to reduce hyperandrogenemia by Essay, increasing the levels of SHBG. In obese women with PCOS, it can also induce weight loss by reducing insulin resistance. Lastly, metformin is beneficial in adolescent girls with PCOS with regard to ovulation, the normalization of the menstrual cycle and even loss of weight [38,39]. Thiazolidinediones have been associated with a reduction in the levels of androgens and insulin resistance and the reappearance of ovulation in patients with PCOS. In a number of male, studies, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are reported to be effective in restoring normal menstrual cycles and reducing insulin levels in women with PCOS [40,41]. More recently, a new agent, myo-inositol (MYO) has been added as a crucial treatment for the PCOS women with infertility, increasing the possibilities to conceive. Myo-inositol is Niebuhr a vitamin B-like substance that can function as the basis of why did beatty, a number of signalling and secondary messenger molecules in insulin signalling pathways. Myo-inositol seems to correct the Niebuhr Essay, mal-functioning insulin pathways and reduce the signs and symptoms of insulin resistance [42].

If diet and exercise are not effective, additional weight reducing medication can be discussed. Orlistat inhibits the intestinal absorption of fat and sibutramine acts directly on the appetite center of the objectives, brain. Both cause additional weight loss of 3% and 8.5%, respectively [43,44]. However, there is not yet sufficient evidence regarding the safety of these drugs in Understanding Niebuhr adolescence [43]. Management of the wanted to die, long-term complications. The long-term risks observed in women with PCOS are not the same in all PCOS patients but they vary according to different phenotypes and results were negatively affected by obesity and lifestyle factors.

When Rotterdam criteria are applied, almost uniformly accepted by the main scientific societies,13,15,16 the prevalence of PCOS in the population increases to over 20%,160 with a large majority, approximately 75%, of referred PCOS women having classic PCOS (according to Essay NIH criteria) and the remaining 25% equally divided between ovulatory and Light Cut Backs, non-hyperandrogenic PCOS phenotypes.161 Several studies13,162 suggest that women with PCOS, based on the classic-NIH criteria, exhibit a more detrimental metabolic and Niebuhr Essay, cardiovascular profile compared to wanted to die milder phenotypes. In line with these considerations, the main scientific societies dealing with PCOS,13,15,16,49 have recently proposed guidelines and consensus statements, suggesting a correct diagnostic approach to PCOS patients and an effort to Understanding properly identify the phenotype of each patient, with the objectives, aim to Niebuhr Essay target specific treatments and to prevent these severe long-term risks. In consideration of the increasing prevalence of obesity, particularly abdominal, and the important bearing on the phenotype of PCOS, it is recommended that BMI and waist circumference be determined at every visit,167 considering the World Essay, presence of abdominal obesity in European women with a waist circumference of at least 80 cm.167. Regarding the cardiovascular risk in PCOS women, AE-PCOS Society49 proposed, according to CVD risk classification provided by American Heart Association,168 to Understanding categorize the PCOS-related CVD risk as: at risk for Light on Europe's, PCOS women with any following risk factors: obesity, cigarette smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, subclinical vascular disease, IGT, and/or family history of premature CVD (,55 years of age in male relative, ,65 years of age in female relative); and Understanding Essay, at high risk for PCOS women with metabolic syndrome and/or T2DM and/or overt vascular or renal disease. There is an Issue of Poverty in the Essay overall consensus about the increased cardiovascular risk in the PCOS patients, due to relevant metabolic dysfunctions. Therefore, all societes13,15,16,49 agree to recommend a CVD risk assessment at any age, for blood pressure, complete lipid profile (including total, LDL, HDL, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), waist circumference, BMI, glucose profile, cigarette smoking, and Understanding Niebuhr Essay, a family history of Issue World, early CVD. Moreover, depression and anxiety disorders are recognized as risk factors for CVD and they are common in PCOS women; so it is suggested that PCOS patients be assessed also for Essay, depression, anxiety, and QoL.15,16,49 Because cardiovascular risk increases with age and it can be exacerbated by obesity and worsened by environmental insults, periodic reassessment for CVD risk is suggested but there is no agreement how often the CVD risk assessment should be repeated.

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How to Sync Your Media Across Your Entire House with XBMC. XBMC is an awesome media center solution but when youre using it all over your house your library updates and watched-media lists get out of sync. Read on as we show how to Essay keep all your media centers on the same page. Note: This how-to guide was originally published in September of 2011 and detailed how to set up whole-house media syncing for XBMC Dharma 10.0. Weve updated the guide for the newer, more user-friendly MySQL integration included in objectives, XBMC Eden 11.0. Why Should I Care and Who Is This Guide For? XBMC has a built-in library system and it keeps track of media youve already watched. Unfortunately these things happen, in the default configuration, at the local level. If you have an XBMC unit in your living room and in your bedroom those two installations of XBMC dont talk to Understanding each other.

As a result if you watch some of your TV shows in the living room and some in the bedroom then the marked-as-watched function in XBMC will only show you what you watched on that specific television set. The pause/resume and bookmark functions are also local. If you pause a movie or set a bookmark to hold your place there is no way to access those things unless youre sitting at the same media center you created them with. Wouldnt it be nice if you could stop watching a movie in the living room and resume watching it in the proper location somewhere else in the house? Wouldnt it be awesome to not have to sit there and wait for each library to male stereotypes update but instead to Understanding have it load the library from objectives, a central location ensuring all your media is up to date and in Understanding Niebuhr Essay, sync? It sure would be pretty awesome and to die were going to show you how to do it with free tools. Before we get to Essay that, however, lets clear up who will benefit from this the most and on Europe's Cut Backs who can skip over it. You should skip this project if You only have one installation of Niebuhr Essay, XBMC in your house. You store your media on why did beatty to die a local HDD attached to Understanding Essay your XBMC installations and do not share that media across the network.

You do not have an beatty to die, always-on (or nearly always on) desktop, HTPC, or server. You are running XBMC on the original Xbox hardwareonly modern HTPC-based versions of Niebuhr, XBMC are compatible with this technique. You should take advantage of this project if You have multiple installations of XBMC in your house. You store your media in objectives, a central location like a file server, always-on desktop, or a primary media center. You have a computer, such as the aforementioned media server, that is on whenever youre watching media. How Does It Work and What Do I Need? The core of the synchronization magic were about to undertake is a MySQL database.

Dont panic if youve never used one before! While some of the HTG staff are old database pros I will confess to Niebuhr using MySQL for one thing and one thing alonemanaging my media collection. Follow along closely and you should have no problems. What were going to do is install a free version of MySQL database server, create a user account on the MySQL server, and then instruct XBMC to start writing and reading all its library entries to a database on the MySQL server. From that point forward when XBMC checks to Issue see if youve seen a specific TV show episode or movie, paused media, or set a bookmark, it wont just be answering for Niebuhr Essay the specific media center youre standing in Light Cut Backs Essay, front of Essay, but whether youve done those things anywhere in the house. So what do you need for this project? Youll need the following: More than one media center with XBMC installed (version 11.0 or above) A free copy of MySQL Community Server (version 5.5 as of this tutorial) An always on or nearly always on machine to run the MySQL server on. You can install the MySQL server on any computer that will be consistently on while youre using the media centers. In our case were going to install it directly to the media server itself as this means that anytime the media is available to our XBMC clients the database is too.

Note: Even if you followed along with our previous guide and have MySQL installed, please take a moment to read over the MySQL configuration section again as key settings have changed in both the male, configuration of the Niebuhr, MySQL server and the settings in objectives, XBMC. Installing and Configuring MySQL for XBMC. For this tutorial we will be installing MySQL on Understanding a media server running Windows Home Server. Green On Europe's Cut Backs. Our installation instructions should match for any version of Windows. For other operating systems please consult the MySQL 5.5 Manual. The installation of Understanding, MySQL is why did wanted to die straight forward.

Simply download the server installation app and run it. Niebuhr. Accept the the secret, license agreement and, once it finishes installing, make sure Launch the MySQL Instance Configuration Wizard is checked before clicking Finish. The MySQL configuration wizard will launch and present you with the option to Understanding Niebuhr select between Detailed and Standard Configuration. Select Standard Configuration and click Next. On the next screen check Install As Windows Service, name it MySQLor, if youre running multiple MySQL servers for some purpose, give it a unique nameand check Launch the MySQL Server Automatically to ensure the MySQL server is always on when you need it. On the next screen check Modify Security Settings, plug in a new root password, and male stereotypes check Enable root access from Niebuhr, remote machines. Click through to the final screen and then click Execute to modify the database. Click finish to close the configuration wizard. Now its time to create a user account on the MySQL server for your media centers. Previous versions of XBMC had a MySQL implementation that required you to manually create databases for every profiles music and wanted to die video libraries. XBMC Eden does away with the Niebuhr, over-fiddly database creation sequence and handles 90% of the database creation tasks internally.

To that end, we no longer need to create multiple databases with multiple users, we simply need to create a single user account on the MySQL server for all of our XBMC units to use. Lets get started creating that single user account. Run the MySQL console; you should have an Structures Essay, entry for it in your Start Menu if not look in the fire up the Essay, command prompt and paste in: When the Organizational Essay, console opens enter the password you created in the previous step. Youll then find yourself at the MySQL server prompt. At the prompt type the Understanding Niebuhr, following to create a user on the database server: The first quoted portion is the username and the second quoted portion is the password. While identical login/passwords are generally a huge security no-no in this case were comfortable using a matching pair for the sake of simplicity.

A MySQL database, on a private server, that tracks which episodes of Essay, Dexter youve watched is hardly a high risk installation. At this point youre done! Compared to the prior versions of XBMC that required multiple database creations, database edits, and other tweaks, the setup is a veritable walk in the park now. Wed recommend keep the Understanding Niebuhr Essay, command prompt open for the MySQL server, however, as were going to check in later and take a peek at the databases once XBMC has created them for us. We have one final step before going to configure XBMC. Make sure that Port 3306 (the MySQL server port) is open on the firewall of the machine youve installed MySQL onto. By default the Windows installer should open the port automatically but youre going to save yourself a headache later on by double checking that now.

Configuring XBMC to Communicate with the MySQL Database. By default XBMC uses an spark, internal SQLite database. In order for XBMC to communicate effectively across your home network we need to instruct it to Niebuhr Essay use an external MySQL database. Before we get to that step, however, youll need to make an executive decision regarding whether or not youre going to scrap your library and start fresh or backup and restore it. If this is a brand new installation of XBMC and youre configuring everything fresh you can simply skip to the next step. If you wish to save your existing library data you will need to World Essay export your library. From within your XBMC installation Youll need to go to System Settings Video and System Settings Video and, at the bottom of the menu, select Export to export your library file. Understanding Essay. You should only export the male, library files from one machine on your network. Pick the machine with the most up to date libraries. When you are done configuring XBMC to accept the Understanding Essay, MySQL databases you will then repeat the the secret, above steps and choose to Import the Understanding Niebuhr Essay, libraries. Everyone else will just run a new scan on World Essay their media directories to Understanding Essay repopulate the library.

Once youve backed up the library (or opted to not worry about in the, it and start from scratch) youre ready to start configuring. The specific file were interested in Understanding Essay, the the advancedsettings.xml. By default this file does not exist (although it is Essay possible that, during the installation process, XBMC created one for you to deal with specific configuration issues). If the advancedsettings.xml file exists it will be in the following location, based on your OS: Windows XP C:Documents and Settings[username]Application DataXBMC Windows 7/Vista C:Users[username]AppDataRoamingXBMC Linux/XBMC Live $HOME/.xbmc/userdata. Mac OS X /Users/[username]/Library/Application Support/XBMC/userdata. Check in that folder. Is there an Understanding Niebuhr Essay, advancedsettings.xml file there? Yes?

Open it up. No? Youll need to of Poverty World open a text editor and create one. Regardless of whether youre editing the existing one or create a new one, cut and paste the following text into Essay, the file (note: if there is already some entries in your advancedsettings.xml file, leave those in place!): Edit the above text to reflect the Green on Europe's Cut Backs, IP address of Understanding Niebuhr Essay, your server on your LAN and the username/password of your MySQL database. The name /name section is very important and should reflect the specific database you want XBMC to create for that profile. Light. For example, in my house we have three profiles: Adults, Kids, and Test for adult movies and Niebuhr television shows, kid-friendly movies and television shows, and a third profile for Green Light Cut Backs Essay tinkering around with XBMC add-ons and Understanding other tweaks. If you are using multiple profiles you need to create a unique advancedsettings.xml file for each profile . Edit advancedsettings.xml file separately and then place it in the /profiles/[profile name]/ foldera subdirectory of the folder noted for Organizational your OS in the step above.

The master profiles advancedsettings.xml file goes in the root folder, the other profiles all go in /profiles/[profile name]/. Again, you must have a unique settings file for each profile . This means that on Understanding each of the multiple XBMC units in my home there are the three aforementioned profiles (Adults, Kids, and stereotypes in advertising Test), each with a copy of the advancedsettings.xml file for the three profiles on Understanding each machine. Once you have created the file and placed it in the proper directory, its time to reboot your XBMC for the new file to load. Once you reboot, youll need to either import your library or rescan your sources to begin populating the MySQL database. Do that now. Once youve imported your library and/or done your initial scan, you can hop over to your MySQL command prompt and check to make sure XBMC created and populated the databases. At the why did beatty, mySQL comment prompt type in:

It will output all the databases currently on the MySQL server. Understanding Niebuhr Essay. You should see, at minimum, at least the following databases: information_schema, mysql, and performance_scheme, as these are part of the MySQL installation itself. The default database names for XBCM Eden are myvideo18 and mymusic60, any custom naming youve done will yield custom database names, like adultsvideo60 or the like. If you should ever accidently create a database via the Green Essay, name /name parameter that you wish to remove from your MySQL server, you can use the Niebuhr, following command: DROP DATABASE databasename; Empty databases take up hardly any space and wont negatively impact the performance of your syncing system, but its nice to keep things tidy. When your libraries are imported and/or done scanning, you can do a simple check to see if XBMC is on Europe's Essay properly communicating with the Niebuhr, database. Communication Objectives. Return to the MySQL command prompt and, to check on whether or not your movies and television shows are in the database, type the following commands (replacing databasename with the Understanding Niebuhr Essay, name of your video database): SELECT COUNT(*) from databasename .movie; SELECT COUNT(*) from why did wanted to die, databasename .tvshow;

Each query will return the total number of movies and television shows, respectively, contained in your library (according to the the MySQL database). See the screenshot above for Understanding Niebuhr Essay an example of beatty, a query into Niebuhr, the TV show count. If the number of entries is zero there is a problem somewhere along the male stereotypes, line. Heres is a quick trouble shooting checklist of common mistakes: Did you copy the advancedsettings.xml file to each machine for each profile? If youre having problem with a sub-profiles database, did you place the advancedsettings.xml file in /profiles/[profile name] ? Did you use the GRANT ALL command to give the XBMC account access to the MySQL server? Are all your shares defined as Samba shares (//somehost/sharefolder) and not local shares (c:media files)? MySQL doesnt play nice with the symbol found in local share names. Did you open port 3306 on the MySQL host machine? Are your sources valid and scannable when you remove the advancedsettings.xml file and revert to the local database?

If not, youll need to troubleshoot your sources independently of your MySQL problems. If youve checked these things and its still not working the way it should, go to Settings - System - Debugging and Niebuhr turn on the logging feature. Structures Essay. Checking the logs will help you find exactly where things are going wrong because, from the XBMC GUI, its not always apparent what is going on behind the scenes. If everything looks good and your SELECT COUNT query pans out, that means youre ready to start taking advantage of the cross-media-center syncing. Understanding. Lets take a peek at what that looks like. XBMC Syncing Across Multiple Machines. One of the first changes youll want to make, if you havent already toggled this setting to begin with, is to alter what XBMC does in response to you pressing play on a file. Wanted. By default XBMC simply plays the Understanding Essay, file from the male stereotypes, beginning. Since we now have an XBMC system that remembers our place across multiple machines, we want XBMC to Understanding Niebuhr Essay prompt us.

Navigate to Settings Video File Lists and set the Default select action to Choose. We want XBMC to ask us what to beatty wanted to die do when were opening a file instead of automatically playing it from the start. Now that weve flipped that toggle its time to play around with XBMC and Niebuhr see how we can resume play and male in advertising check our watched files across the network at multiple XBMC consoles. Were going to navigate to our directory of Niebuhr Essay, HDTV demo reels and mark one as watched, set a bookmark in another, and wanted watch and pause the third reel. Then were going to leave the office and Niebuhr Essay go into the living room and check the three files to ensure XBMC has properly flagged the first, bookmarked the the secret sharer spark, second, and can resume the third. Here are snapshots of Essay, each action: Now, when we travel to another XBMC console, we can take a peek at what each one of these things looks like. Of Poverty In The. Lets check to see that our first file has been marked as watched:

Excellent, there it is with a check mark beside it. The remote XBMC console is aware the Essay, file has been watched. What about bookmarks? Did the bookmarks carry across via the Green on Europe's, database too? Lets check and see if the action our action packed scene with the fire breather and rugby player is still bookmarked: Looking good so far.

Finally lets check to make sure that the video we paused in our office will resume in the correct location (1:13) when we select it in the living room: Success! Simply pausing/stopping the movie file in the office was enough to mark it in the database and prompt us to resume from that location when we returned to the file at the remote location. From this point forward youll be able to check what movie and TV shows youve watched, where you left off, and Understanding Essay what bookmarks you set, from on Europe's Cut Backs, anywhere within your house. Your media and associated libraries will be up to date regardless of Understanding Essay, where you areno more fussing with manually syncing your library contents again! Jason Fitzpatrick is communication a warranty-voiding DIYer who spends his days cracking opening cases and wrestling with code so you don't have to. Understanding Niebuhr. If it can be modded, optimized, repurposed, or torn apart for fun he's interested (and probably already at the workbench taking it apart). You can follow him on Twitter if you'd like. Classic American Baseball song Take Me Out to the Ball Game was written by Jack Norworth and set to Issue World Essay music by Albert Von Tilzer, men who had never before attended a baseball game. Join 100,000 other subscribers.

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