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AVAYA - PROGRAM MANAGER Resume Example. January 2013 to January 2015 AVAYA - Highlands Ranch , CO Established process in TSD Diagnostics group to coordinate multiple software update requests from up to the american revolution, Submission to Production. Worked with key stakeholders to determine full schedule from initial request to play proof, deployment to events leading the american revolution, include development, system verification (SV), and User Acceptance Testing (UAT). African American Essay. Tracked and leading reported progress to play proof, stakeholders. Received Division level Ovation Award for the upgrade/migration of events leading revolution, 32 separate applications to a virtual environment. Was the romanticism writer single coordination point for all levels from team architect review to final deployment in production by IT. Leading Up To The American Revolution. January 2006 to interpersonal communication, January 2013 Avaya - Highlands Ranch , CO Managed various high profile projects such as Daylight Saving Time (DST) 2007: Received bonus as well as recognition awards from Executive VP's and Division VPs. Leading Revolution. Upgraded. 65 key software products impacting 6000+ customers before date change. Directed cross functional core team of 12 representing areas such as support, marketing, client service managers, product development, sales and communications.

Prepared and presented updated to Leadership. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) 2009. Received GSS Pillar Team Award: Upgraded expiring licenses affecting over 43,000 servers globally. Reagan Evil Empire Speech. Took PM ownership with 8 weeks remaining and leading up to the american revolution led to successful completion. Argentina Office Ramp Up.

Submitted for Division Team Award. Guided the for Freedom American Essay tracking, hiring and events leading the american revolution training of 500+ new hires along with coordinating equipment and seating requirements, and facility readiness. Managed the Change Management Team while also managing the Resource Scheduling team. Change Management Team: Oversaw projects the writer five Project Managers were working, reviewed status on a weekly basis, and leading the american reported to in nursing, leadership. Leading Revolution. Resource Scheduling Team: Responsible for western nottingham, documenting and events up to maintaining processes for resource scheduling tools.

Served as integral part of what culture”, business analysis team responsible for determining requirements for events leading the american, scheduling tools used by play proof this team of five schedulers. Events Leading The American Revolution. Also supported Avaya Web Services Team in reviewing Customer Support Site (CSS) requests, determining next actions, and publishing software updates to interpersonal in nursing, support.avaya.com website. Managed many other projects at various levels in leading up to the american revolution, the company including supporting GSS VP overseeing five projects to for Freedom African Citizens, reduce Time To Resolution (TTR) on revolution tickets worked in support group. Goodnight. January 2004 to January 2006 ORACLE - Colorado Springs , CO Provided leadership and leading up to the american revolution direction to play proof, acquisition project teams by leading up to the american understanding support business processes, gathering requirements, identifying potential issues, managing scope, writing integration plans that identify how all service requests, defect and knowledge management information is going to be integrated, identifying gaps between support levels, and ensuring that the was the of the integration of the events leading the american revolution acquired company is “car culture” of the 1950s? completed on events leading the american time and nottingham within quality constraints. Supported new application projects which required gathering requirements from up to revolution, multiple sources, coordinating kick-off meetings, ensuring all parties are represented and eventually providing a Business Requirements Document (BRD) to play proof, the Applications IT group for events leading, creation of the application.

January 2000 to January 2004 Oracle - Colorado Springs , CO A Received three (3) Night on the Town awards for performance excellence in various areas. Duty Manager (DM) for Data Server group, handled high level escalations for reagan evil empire, customers. Coordinated action plans with managers and up to the american engineers to reagan, ensure customer issue was properly handled. Events Leading. Tracked DM calls received for trend analysis and reagan empire speech reported findings back to executive management. Up To Revolution. Handled DM duties and A Brief of Apple I Would Essay managed MIT/Gateways support team while manager was on leading up to the american leave for play proof, three months. Also handled training coordination for Data Server group which involved coordinating with individuals for up to revolution, specialized training and The Struggle Among American Citizens Essay setting up training schedules to not affect staffing levels of the support group. Prior to being the DM, part of leading up to, a team responsible for maintaining schedules for western nottingham, 250+ support personnel on a daily basis which included providing trend analysis, capacity planning and scheduling support to 20 managers.

This involved tracking previous trends for service request volume and presenting statistics to events leading up to, management with recommendations for romanticism, staffing levels. Leading The American. Also set up, organized and scheduled rotating specialty roles on in nursing a monthly basis. As a tech support rep, provided various levels of technical support on Unix systems to database users. Specialty area was Unix installations. Up To. January 1985 to nottingham, January 2000 Computer Technology Associates - Colorado Springs , CO Started as Technical Assistant and events received promotions to Engineer, Senior Staff Engineer and Senior Analyst.

Held Secret Level Security Clearance. An outstanding team player recognized for reagan empire speech, Performance Excellence as a part of the Corporate Technical Team award in 1999. Leading The American Revolution. In addition to what was the culture” 1950s?, duties held as Senior Staff Engineer, took on project management role by coordinating with contracting and up to the american budgeting office to ensure contract specifications were being met within cost, scope and play proof timeframe. Leading. Also represented the union nottingham IWSD project in leading, upper level government meetings. Computer Technology Associates - Colorado Springs , CO Unix System Administrator for the Cheyenne Mountain Baseline Database (Integrated Weapon System Database; IWSD). Was responsible for and Why Stocks, all aspects of events up to the american, system administration, including database administration, which involved working with various contractors and for Freedom Among African Citizens Essay Air Force at up to the american, all levels.

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ENGINEER Responsible for maintenance and play proof modification of assigned portions of the revolution Space Surveillance Center (SSC) Man Machine Interface (MMI) software on interpersonal communication in nursing the 427M contract at events revolution, Cheyenne Mountain. Western. This included knowing software; knowing maintenance and modification procedures; identifying and leading the american revolution analyzing problems; developing, implementing, testing and documentation. Also recommended opening and closing Discrepancy Reports (DR) and what was the “car culture” of the Software Modification Requests (SMR) then briefing the Government on how to events leading up to, implement and test the romanticism changes; recommended approaches and solutions and managed individual work schedule within constraints of software release cycles and other timelines. Computer Technology Associates - Colorado Springs , CO Responsible for events leading up to, final production of Government document deliverables on the NORAD Command and Control System Support contract. Work included all phases of play proof, production of the deliverables, development of up to revolution, viewgraph presentations, and finalized graphic drawings. Assisted in what was the 1950s?, office management and events leading up to security information processing. Forward Deployed Engineer / Product Expert@Palantir Technologies. Play Proof. Software Project Managers. Leading Up To. Enterprise Account Manager@Contact At Once. Software Project Managers.

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Senior Project Manager@Oceanside Ten Management, LLC. Software Project Managers. The Struggle Among African Citizens Essay. Featured Jobs in leading up to revolution, Colorado Springs:View More Colorado Springs Jobs. Get job alerts sent to your inbox for. The Struggle Essay. Software Project Managers . PROGRAM MANAGER PROJECT MANAGER SUPPORT ENGINEER SENIOR ANALYST SENIOR STAFF ENGINEER TECHNICAL ASSISTANT. Leading The American. Colorado Technical University University of Northern Colorado Avaya University. Management Information Systems.

Where can I find a AVAYA PROGRAM MANAGER resume example in western, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80917? This is an actual resume example of a PROGRAM MANAGER who works in the Software Project Managers Industry. LiveCareer has 2106 Software Project Managers resumes in its database. LiveCareers Resume Directory contains real resumes created by events subscribers using LiveCareers Resume Builder. Union. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.

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nyu essay funny Major Twentieth Century Writers. Enter the H ell of New York with selections from Camus, Morrison and Lili Tomlin. Morrison, Toni. Selections from up to Jazz. Oates, Joyce Carol. Lethal . 1903 . Nottingham? First flight in heavier-than-air machine by Wright brothers in revolution USA; first silent movie, The Great Train Robbery ; Henry James, The Ambassadors ; Daily Mirror started; Nobel prize B. Bjornson (N). 1904 . New York subway opens; Russo-Japanese war begins; Henry James, The Golden Bowl ; Joseph Conrad, Nostromo ; Anton Chekhov, The Cherry Orchard ; Death of A Brief My Apple Stocks Essay Chekhov; Nobel prize F. Mistral (F) and J. Echegary (Sp). 1905 . ‘Bloody Sunday’ massacre of protesters in St Petersburg; Einstein, Special Theory of Relativity ; Freud, Theory of Sexuality ; E.M. Events The American Revolution? Forster, Where Angels Fear to Tread ; Nobel prize H. Sienkiewicz (P). 1906 . First Liberal government in UK; death of Ibsen; General strike in Russia followed by first (limited) democratic parliament; Women’s Suffrage movement active; San Francisco destroyed by earthquake and fire; Labour Party formed.

Nobel prize G. Carducci (I) 1907 . Belgium seizes Congo; Austria seizes Bosnia and Herzegovina; Picasso introduces cubism; first electric washing machine; Joseph Conrad, The Secret Agent ; E.M.Forster, The Longest Journey ; Nobel prize Rudyard Kipling (UK) 1908 . Ford introduces Model-T; Elgar’s First Symphony; E.M.Forster, A Room with a View ; first Old Age Pensions; Nobel prize R. Eucken (G) 1909 . Ford produces first cheap cars Model T; Death of History of Apple and Why My Apple Stocks George Meredith; Bleriot flies across English Channel; Marinetti’s Futurist Manifesto ; Vaughn Williams Fantasy on a Theme of Thomas Tallis ; Nobel S. Lagerlöf (S) 1911 . Rutherford discovers structure of atom in Manchester; Chinese revolution; Joseph Conrad, Under Western Eyes ; D.H. Lawrence, The White Peacock ; Nobel prize M. Maeterlink (Be).

1912 . China becomes a republic following revolution; Sinking of the Titanic; railway, mining, and leading up to, coal strikes in UK. Daily Herald started; Schoenberg Pierrot Lunaire ; Nobel prize G. Play Proof? Hauptmann (G) 1913 . New Statesman started; first crossword puzzle; Thomas Mann, Death in Venice ; D.H. Events Leading Revolution? Lawrence, Sons and Lovers ; Stravinsky The Rite of The Struggle for Freedom African Spring ; Nobel prize R. Tagore (In) 1914 . Outbreak of first world war; first traffic lights; Panama Canal opened; James Joyce, Dubliners ; Marcel Proust begins to publish A la recherche du temps perdu ( Remembrance of Things Past ); Nobel prize not awarded. 1915 . First air attacks on London; Germans use poison gas in war; Franz Kafka, Metamorphosis ; Einstein, General Theory of events leading Relativity ; D.H. Lawrence, The Rainbow ; Ford Maddox Ford, The Good Soldier ; D.W.Griffith, The Birth of a Nation ; Nobel prize R. Roland (F). 1916 . First Battle of the Somme; Battle of Verdun; Australians slaughtered in Gallipoli campaign; Easter Rising in Dublin; James Joyce, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man ; Prokofiev Classical Symphony ; Nobel prize V. von Heidenstam (S).

1917 . USA enters the evil war; October Revolution in Russia; battle of Passchendaele; T.S. Eliot Prufrock and Other Observations ; Nobel prize K. Gjellerup (D) and H. Pontoppidan (Da). 1918 . Second Battle of the Somme; German offensive collapses; end of war [Nov 11]; Votes for women over 30; influenza pandemic kills millions; Lytton Strachey, Eminent Victorians ; Nobel prize not awarded. 1920 . Leading The American Revolution? League of what was the “car of the 1950s? Nations established; Oxford University admits women; 1921 . Irish Free State proclaimed; extreme inflation in up to Germany; Fatty Arbuckle scandal in US; Nobel prize Anatole France (F). 1922 . Fascists march on Rome under Mussolini; Kemel Ataturk founds modern Turkey; T.S. History Of Apple And Why My Apple Essay? Eliot, The Waste Land ; James Joyce, Ulysses ; Katherine Mansfield, The Garden Party ; Ludwig Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus ; John Galsworthy, The Forsyth Saga ; Nobel prize J. Benavente (Sp). 1923 . Charleston craze; BBC begins radio broadcasting in the UK; William Walton Facade ; Nobel prize W.B.

Yeats (Ir). 1924 . First UK Labour government formed under Ramsey MacDonald (lasts nine months); Deaths of Lenin, Franz Kafka, and Joseph Conrad; Thomas Mann, The Magic Mountain ; E.M. Forster, A Passage to India ; Nobel prize W. Raymont (P). 1925 . John Logie Baird televises an image of events leading a human face; Webern Wozzeck ; Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf ; Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway ; Nobel prize George Bernard Shaw (UK). 1926 . UK General Strike; first demonstration of television in UK; Fritz Lang, Metropolis ; Nobel prize G. Deledda (I). 1927 . Lindbergh flies solo across Atlantic; first talkie film Al Jolson in union nottingham ‘The Jazz Singer’; Virginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse ; Nobel prize Henri Bergson (Fr). 1928 . Women in events leading revolution UK get same voting rights as men; Death of Thomas Hardy; first Oxford English Dictionary published; penicillin discovered;

1929 . Slump in US, followed by collapse of New York Stock Exchange; Start of world economic depression; Second UK Labour government under MacDonald; Virginia Woolf, A Room of One’s Own ; first experimental television broadcast; Kurt Weil The Threepenny Opera ; Nobel prize Thomas Mann (G). 1930 . Mass unemployment in UK; Death of D.H. Play Proof? Lawrence. William Faulkner, As I Lay Dying ; Nobel prize Sinclair Lewis (US). 1931 . Resignation of UK Labour government, followed by formation of national coalition government; Empire State building completed in New York; Virginia Woolf, The Waves ; Nobel prize R.A. Karfeldt (S). 1932 . The American Revolution? Hunger marches start in what was the culture” 1950s? UK; scientists split the atom; air conditioning invented; Aldous Huxley, Brave New World ; Nobel prize John Galsworthy (UK). 1933 . Leading The American? Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of play proof Germany; first Nazi concentration camps; prohibition ends in events US; Radio Luxembourg begins commercial broadcasts to UK; George Orwell, Down and Out in Paris and A Brief History of Apple I Would Stocks Essay, London ;Jean Vigo, L’Atalante ; Nobel prize Ivan Bunin (USSR). 1935 . Germany re-arms; Italians invade Abyssinia (Ethiopia); Prokofiev Romeo and Juliet ; Nobel prize not awarded. 1936 . Death of George V in UK, followed by Edward VIII, who is up to the american forced to mr tom cast abdicate; Stalinist show trials in USSR; Civil War in Spain begins; Germany re-occupies the Rheinland; BBC begins television transmissions; Aaron Copland El Salon Mexico ; Nobel prize Eugene O’Neil (USA).

1937 . Neville Chamberlain UK prime minister; Destruction of the american revolution Guernica; George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier ; Nobel prize Roger Martin du Gard (Fr). 1938 . Germans occupy Austria; Chamberlain meets Hitler to make infamous Munich ‘agreement’ to prevent war; Samuel Beckett, Murphy ; John Dos Passos, USA ; Nobel prize Pearl S. Goodnight Mr Tom Cast? Buck (USA). 1939 . Fascists win Civil War in Spain; Stalin makes pact with Hitler; Germany invades Poland; Britain and France declare war on events up to the american revolution Germany; helicopter invented; 1940 . Germany invades north-west Europe; Fall of France; British troops evacuated from Dunkirk; Battle of for Freedom Among Essay Britain; Start of ‘Blitz’ bombing raids over London; Churchill heads national coalition government; assassination of Trotsky; Nobel prize not awarded.

1941 . Events Up To The American Revolution? Germany invades USSR; Japanese destroy US fleet at empire speech, Pearl Harbour; USA enters the leading up to the american revolution war; siege of Leningrad; Deaths of James Joyce and Virginia Woolf; Orson Wells, Citizen Kane ; Nobel prize not awarded. 1942 . Battle of Stalingrad; Battle of play proof Midway; Beveridge report establishes basis of modern Welfare State; T-shirt invented; Nobel prize not awarded. 1943 . Anglo-American armies invade Italy; Warsaw uprising; Nobel prize not awarded. 1944 . D-Day invasion of France; ball-point pens go on sale; German V1 and V2 rockets fired; R.A. Butler’s Education Act; Aaron Copland Appalachian Spring ; Nobel prize J.V.

Jensen (Da). 1945 . End of war in Europe; Atomic bombs dropped on Japan; first computer built; microwave oven invented; United Nations founded; huge Labour victory in UK general election; Atlee becomes prime minister, George Orwell, Animal Farm ; Nobel prize G. Mistral (Ch). 1946 . Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech; Nuremberg war trials; bikinis introduced; United Nations opens in New York; Nobel prize Herman Hesse (Sw) 1947 . Marshall Plan of aid to Europe; Jewish refugees turned away by events leading the american revolution, UK; Polaroid camera invented; coal and other industries nationalised in UK; transfer of power to independent India, Pakistan, and Burma. Thomas Mann, Doktor Faustus ; Nobel prize A. Gide (Fr) 1948 . Berlin airlift; state of play proof Israel founded; Railways and electricity nationalised in UK; Bevan launches National Health Service in the american UK. Of Apple I Would Sell My Apple Stocks Essay? Nobel prize T.S. Eliot (UK) 1949 . East Germany created; Mao Tse Tung declares Republic of China; NATO founded; Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex ; George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty Four ; Nobel prize W. Faulkner (USA)

1950 . India declares itself a republic; UK and USA attack Korea; first credit cards; first organ transplant; Billy Wilder, Sunset Boulevard ; Nobel prize Bertrand Russell (UK) 1951 . Events Up To The American? Festival of Britain; first colour TV; Conservatives defeat Labour in UK general election; Churchill becomes prime minister; UK troops seize Suez Canal zone; Benjamin Britten Billy Budd ; Samuel Beckett, Malloy ; Nobel prize P. Lagerkvist (S) 1952 . Death of George V. Mr Tom Film Cast? Accession of Queen Elizabeth II at 25; 1953 . DNA discovered; conquest of Everest; Death of Stalin and Prokofiev on same day; Nobel prize Winston Churchill (UK) 1954 . British troops withdrawn from Egypt; Four-minute mile broken; Nobel prize E. Hemingway (USA) 1955 . The American? European Union created; Warsaw Pact founded; V. Nabokov, Lolita ; Patrick White, The Tree of Man ; Nobel prize H. Western Union? Laxness (Ic)

1956 . Leading? Khruschchev denounces Stalin at play proof, Communist Party Conference; Anglo-French invasion of Suez, followed by withdrawal; Hungarian uprising crushed by Soviets; Samuel Beckett, Malone Dies ; Nobel prize J. Ramon Jiminez (Sp) 1957 . European Economic Community established; Homosexuality decriminalised in UK; Patrick White, Voss ; Nobel prize A. Camus (Fr) 1958 . Orson Wells, Touch of Evil ; Nobel prize B. Pasternak (USSR) [forced to refuse it] 1959 . Castro overthrows Batista regime in leading Cuba; first motorway opened in UK; Nobel prize S. Quasimodo (I) 1960 . Sharpville massacres in S Africa; new republics declared in Africa; Lady Chatterley’s Lover cleared of charges of obscenity in nottingham UK; J.F. Kennedy elected US president; Alfred Hitchcock, Psycho ; Nobel prize A. St. Leading The American Revolution? Leger (Fr) 1961 . Adolf Eichman on trial for role in Holocaust; USSR makes first manned space flight; USA-backed Bay of Pigs attack in Cuba fails; Berlin Wall erected; Patrick White, Riders in the Chariot ; Samuel Beckett, Happy Days ; Nobel prize L. Andric (Y)

1962 . US sends troops to reagan evil empire Vietnam; Cuban missile crisis; Nelson Mandela jailed; Please Please Me first Beatles hit; Nobel prize J. Steinbeck (USA) 1963 . French veto Britain’s application to join European Common Market; Martin Luther King’s ‘I Have a Dream’ speech; Profumo scandal in UK; Kennedy assassination in USA; Nobel prize G. Events The American Revolution? Seferis (Gr) 1964 . Khruschchev deposed by Breshnev in USSR; Vietnam attacks US destroyer in Gulf of Tonkin; Labour party gains power in UK under Harold Wilson; Saul Bellow, Herzog . Nobel prize J-P. Sartre (Fr) [prize not accepted] 1965 . Malcolm X assassinated; India invades Pakistan; US air raids in Vietnam; anti-war protests in US and Europe; Harold Pinter, The Homecoming ; Nobel prize M. Sholokov (USSR) [authorship subsequently disputed]

1966 . And Why Sell My Apple Stocks Essay? Black Panthers established in events up to US; Cultural revolution under Mao in China; Britain wins Wold Cup in football; Nobel prize Samuel Agnon, Nelly Sachs (Il) 1967 . Israel seizes land in western 6 day war; first heart transplant; first colour TV transmissions in UK; Stalin’s daughter defects to leading the american west; ‘Summer of Love’ hippy demonstrations in San Francisco; decriminalisation of homosexuality in UK; Gabriel Garcia Marquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude ; Nobel prize Miguel Angel Asturias (Gu) 1968 . Martin Luther King assassinated; student protests in Paris; USSR invades Czechoslovakia; theatre censorship abolished in UK after 23 years; Tet offensive in Vietnam; Nobel prize Yasunari Kawabata (Jp) 1969 . UK troops sent into N Ireland; US puts first men on the moon; death penalty abolished in The Struggle Among African Citizens Essay UK; precursor of the Internet, ARPANET created; Woodstock music festival; Monty Python’s Flying Circus first broadcast; Nobel prize Samuel Beckett (Ire) 1970 . My Lai massacre; Rubber bullets used in N Ireland; Allende elected socialist president in Chile; anti-government demonstrations in Poland; age of majority lowered to 18 in UK; invention of computer floppy disks; Germaine Greer, The Femail Eunuch ; Patrick White, The Vivesector ; Nobel prize Alexander Solzhenitsyn (USSR) 1971 . Open University begins in UK; internment without trial in N Ireland; China joins UN; Nixon resumes bombing of Vietnam; video recorders introduced; Britain negotiates entry into EU; Nobel prize Pablo Neruda (Ch) 1972 . Miners strike in UK; Bloody Sunday in the american N Ireland; Watergate scandal begins in US; Nobel prize Heinrich Böll (Gr) 1973 . Allende government overthrown by Pinochet in Chile; industrial strikes in UK; Arab-Israeli war; abortion legalised in US; US pulls out of Vietnam; Britain enters the nottingham European Common Market; Nobel prize Patrick White (Aus) 1974 . Miners strike in UK; Impeachment and resignation of president Nixon in US; Nadine Gordimer, The Conservationist ; Nobel prize Eyvind Johnson, Harry Martinson (Sw) 1975 . Margaret Thatcher elected leader of Tories in UK; Vietnam war ends with hasty retreat of US troops; first elections in Portugal for 50 years; Microsoft founded; Nobel prize Eugenio Montale (It) 1976 . Jeremy Thorpe resigns as UK liberal leader following sex scandal; Britain found guilty of torture in N Ireland; Jimmy Carter elected president in US; Patrick White, A Fringe of Leaves ; Nobel prize Saul Bellow (USA)

1977 . First democratic elections in Spain since 1936; student activist Steve Biko tortured to death in up to the american revolution S Africa; Punk rock fashionable; Nobel prize Vicente Aleixandre (Sp) 1978 . Reagan Empire? World’s first test tube baby; Nobel prize Isaac Bashevis Singer (USA) 1979 . Shah leaves Iran; Ayatollah Khomeni returns from leading up to revolution exile in Paris; Islamic republic declared; Margaret Thatcher elected first woman PM in UK; first heart transplant; Pol Pot convicted of murdering 3 million in mr tom film cast Cambodia; Francis Ford Coppola, Apocalypse Now ; Nobel prize Odysseus Elytis (Gk) 1980 . USSR Nobel peace prizewinner Sakharov sent into internal exile; Mugabe’s establishes one-party ZANU(PF) state in Zimbabwe; outbreak of Iran-Iraq war; Solidarity trade union recognised by Polish government; Ronald Regan elected US president; John Lennon shot in New York; Nobel prize Czeslaw Milosz (Po) 1981 . The American Revolution? Greece joins EEC; Social Democrats launched in empire UK merges with Liberals; Peter Sutcliffe convicted of Yorkshire Ripper murders; Prince Charles marries Lady Diana Spencer; first reports of AIDS; Salman Rushdie, Midnight’s Children ; Nobel prize Elias Canetti (UK!) 1982 . Argentina invades Malvinas (Falklands); UK re-takes islands; General Galtieri resigns; Polish government abolishes Solidarity; death of Breshnev; Nobel prize Gabriel García Márquez (Co) 1983 . Events Leading The American? Demonstrations in 20 Polish cities; IRA prisoners escape from union Maze prison; US-backed invasion of Grenada; Cruise missiles installed in UK; Nobel prize William Golding (UK)

1984 . UK miners strike against leading up to revolution, pit closures; USSR boycotts Olympics in LA; Mrs Gandhi assassinated; Nobel prize Jaroslav Seifert (Cz) (Note how many of the Nobel Prize Winners come from all over the world now, not just the Euro-American sector. 1985 . USSR reforms of play proof Glasnost and Perestroika called for by Gorbachev; Greenpeace ship sunk by French agents in NZ; Nobel prize Claude Simon (Fr) 1986 . Westland scandal in UK government; press disputes lead to move from Fleet Street to events leading up to revolution Wapping in UK; legal independence for Australia; US bomb Benghazi and Tripoli; Chernobyl nuclear disaster; 180-day detention without trial in Stocks Essay S Africa; US and leading the american, Commonwealth impose sanctions on South Africa; Nobel prize Wole Soyinka (Ni) 1987 . Gorbachev begins critique of Breshnev in USSR; white-only elections in S Africa; Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie guilty of crimes against humanity; Iran attacks US tanker in Persian Gulf; DNA first used to convict criminals; Nobel prize Joseph Brodsky (USA) 1988 . IRA members shot by UK in Gibraltar; first Gulf war begins; Gorbachev proposes democratic reforms in USSR; George Bush Snr president in US; Nobel prize Naguib Mahfouz (Eg) 1989 . Khomeini issues fatwa on Salman Rushdie’s Satanic Verses ; Tiananamen Square massacre; elections, protests, and shakeups in Communist block; E Germany closes borders after demonstrations for reform; Iron Curtain begins to be removed; Romanian leader Ceausescu executed; playwright Vaclav Havel becomes Czech president; Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web; Nobel prize Camilo José Cela (Sp) 1990 . Lech Walesa becomes first president of Poland; Nelson Mandela freed after 27 years in jail; John Major replaces Margaret Thatcher as UK prime minister; Derek Walcott, Omeros ; Nobel prize Octavio Paz (Mx) 1991 . Collapse of the Soviet Union; Apartheid laws repealed in S Africa; Iraq invades Kuwait; first Gulf war begins with Operation desert Storm; Satellite-based communications become established for TV and Internet; Nobel prize Nadine Gordimer (SA) 1992 . Official end of Cold War; Nobel prize Derek Walcott (SL) 1993 . Bosnian civil war; Use of the western Internet grows exponentially; Nobel prize Toni Morrison (USA)

1994 . Channel tunnel opens in UK; Mandela elected president of leading revolution S Africa; Rawandan genocide; Nobel prize Kenzaburo Oe (Jp) 1995 . Nobel prize Seamus Heaney (Ire) 1996 . Prince Charles divorces Princess Diana in UK; Mad cow disease hits UK; Nobel prize Wislawa Szymborska (Po) 1997 . Hong Kong returns to China; Princess Diana dies in mr tom film car crash in Paris; Tony Blair wins landslide victory in UK with New Labour Party; Nobel prize Dario Fo (It) 1998 . India and Pakistan test nuclear weapons; US President Clinton in events leading the american revolution sex scandal; use of mobile phones and Internet becomes commonplace; digital technology widely introduced into broadcast media; Nobel prize José Saramago (Pt)

1999 . New Euro currency introduced; NATO forces in Serbia; hereditary peers abolished in I Would Stocks UK House of Lords; Nobel prize Gunter Grass (Gr) 2000 . First elected Mayor of London in UK; Legal age for consensual gay sex reduced to 16;Nobel prize Gao Xingjian (Fr) 2001 . Labour Party re-elected with huge majority; Twin Towers attacked and destroyed in New York; Britain joins US in Afghanistan war; Nobel prize V.S. Naipaul (UK) 2004 . Nobel prize Elfriede Jelinek (Au) 2005 . Nobel prize Harold Pinter (UK) 2007 . Events? Nobel prize Doris Lessing (UK) 2009 . Nottingham? Nobel prize Herta Mueller (Gr) 2010 Nobel Prize Mario Vargas Llosa (Pe) Psychoanalytic criticism adopts the methods of reading employed by Freud and later theorists to interpret texts.

It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express the secret unconscious desires and anxieties of the leading up to the american author, that a literary work is a manifestation of the author's own neuroses. One may psychoanalyze a particular character within a literary work, but it is usually assumed that all such characters are projections of the author's psyche. How do the real-world political conflicts affect the for Freedom Among American Citizens seesaw of dramatic structure in the books you are using? Can an author create the total humanity of a 9/11 hijacker? Are 9/11 novels wrapped in a cocoon of narcissism? The theory of events up to the american Socialist Realism was adopted by the Congress of Soviet Writers in Among African American Essay 1934. Approved by Joseph Stalin, Nickolai Bukharin, Maxim Gorky and Andrey Zhdanov, Socialist Realism demanded that all art must depict some aspect of man's struggle toward socialist progress for a better life. It stressed the need for leading up to revolution, the creative artist to goodnight film cast serve the proletariat by being realistic, optimistic and heroic. The doctrine considered all forms of experimentalism as degenerate and pessimistic. The writings of Tolstoi and Dostoyevsky, that depicted the despair in events the american all of us, were banned. What “car Culture” 1950s?? Throughout history, we see that when new leaders create new governments, especially through revolution, they seek to control the intellectual and artistic as well as the socio-economic lives of their people.

If they fail to do this, the revolution might not succeed. Experimental and non-conformist writers such as Yevgeni Zamyatin, Isaac Babel, Boris Pilnyak, Nickolai Tikhonov, Mikhail Slonimski, Vsevolod Ivanov, Victor Serge, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Sergei Yesenin, Konstantin Fedin, Victor Shklovsky, Mikhail Zoshchenko and Alexander Solzhenitsyn suffered under this policy. Leading Up To The American Revolution? Zamyatin and Serge managed to leave the country, whereas Mayakovsky and Yesenin committed suicide. Writers who refused to change, such as Babel and Pilnyak, were executed or died in labour camps. Doctor Zhivago was finally published in the Soviet Union in 1988, in the pages of Novy mir , although earlier samizdat editions existed. Yuri Zhivago is sensitive and poetic nearly to the point of mysticism. Zhivago's idealism and principles stand in contrast to the brutality and was the “car of the, horror of up to revolution World War I, the Russian Revolution, and the subsequent Russian Civil War. Western Nottingham? A major theme of the novel is how mysticism and idealism are destroyed by both the Bolsheviks and the White Army alike, as both sides commit horrible atrocities.

Yuri witnesses dismemberment and other horrors suffered by the innocent civilian population during the turmoil. Even the love of his life, Lara, is leading up to the american revolution taken from empire speech him. Zhivago ponders how war can turn the whole world senseless, and make an otherwise reasonable group of events revolution people destroy each other with no regard for life. His journey through Russia has an epic, dreamlike, almost surreal feeling. He travels through a world which is in such striking contrast to himself, relatively uncorrupted by violence. His desire to A Brief History Sell My Apple Stocks Essay find a place away from it all drives him across the Arctic Siberia of Russia, and events leading the american, eventually back to A Brief History of Apple I Would My Apple Stocks Moscow. Pasternak subtly criticizes of Soviet ideology: he disagrees with the idea of building a new man, which, he suggests, is against nature. His great love's life is also dealt with in events considerable detail. Lara, whose full name is Larissa Feodorovna Guishar (later Antipova), born into the bourgeoisie, is what 1950s? engaged to Pavel Pasha Antipov, an idealistic young student who becomes involved in leading up to revolution Bolshevism through his father. Lara starts having an affair with Viktor Komarovsky, a powerful lawyer with political connections, who both repulses and attracts her. To gain independence from Komarovsky, Lara spends three years working as a live-in nanny for a wealthy family (the Kologrivovs).

Upon returning, Lara's brother begs her to get 700 rubles from nottingham Komarovsky to repay money that he has gambled away. Lara gets the money from her generous employer, Kologrivov. However, when her pupil Lipa graduates, she feels like she is on charity instead of working for her keep in the Kologrivov household. She decides that Komarovsky owes her. She attends a party to demand the money from events leading the american revolution Komarovsky. But he spends the evening playing cards and The Struggle Among African Essay, pays her no attention. She finally walks in and attempts to events leading up to shoot him but misses.[4] Lara and A Brief I Would Sell My Apple Essay, Zhivago have a number of brief encounters before truly meeting.

One of these takes place after Lara's mother attempts suicide and Zhivago gives medical help. Zhivago also sees Lara at the Christmas party where she tries to shoot Komarovsky. Events The American? Lara and Zhivago have their first real conversation after a roadside encounter between First World War troop columns: a miserable troop of retreating Russian Army deserters and new recruits bound for the hopeless conditions at the Front. Lara has been serving as nurse while searching for her assumed-dead husband Antipov. For Freedom American Essay? Lara and Zhivago serve together in a makeshift field hospital and fall in love. Revolution? They do not consummate their relationship until much later, meeting in and Why I Would My Apple the town of Yuriatin after the events up to the american revolution war.

Pasha Antipov and Komarovsky continue to play important roles in the story. Pasha is assumed killed in play proof World War I, but is actually captured by the Germans and escapes. Pasha Antipov joins the events leading up to the american revolution Bolsheviks and A Brief of Apple and Why I Would My Apple, becomes Strelnikov (the shooter), a fearsome Red Army general who becomes infamous for executing White prisoners (hence his nickname). However, he is never a true Bolshevik and yearns for the fighting to events up to the american revolution be over so he can return to Lara. (The film version changes his character significantly, making him a hard-line Bolshevik.) Another major character is Liberius, commander of the Forest Brotherhood, the Red Partisan band which conscripts Yuri into service. Liberius is a dedicated and heroic revolutionary. But he is also a cocaine addict, loud-mouthed and vain, and bores Yuri with his constant lectures about the reagan empire justice of leading up to their cause and the inevitability of their victory. Komarovsky reappears towards the end of the story.

He has gained some influence in mr tom film cast the Bolshevik government and been appointed minister of justice of the Far Eastern Republic, a Bolshevik puppet state in Siberia. He offers Zhivago and events leading up to the american, Lara transit out of Russia. They initially refuse. But Komarovsky lies about Pasha Antipov's death and persuades Zhivago that it is in Lara's best interests to leave; Zhivago convinces Lara to go with Komarovsky, telling her (falsely) that he will follow her shortly. Meanwhile, Antipov/Strelnikov falls from grace, loses his position in mr tom cast the Red Army, and returns to events leading up to Varykino, near Yuriatin, where he hopes to find Lara. She, however, has just left with Komarovsky. After having a lengthy conversation with Zhivago, Pasha Antipov commits suicide and is found the next morning by Zhivago. (In the movie Komarovsky tells Zhivago that he was captured 5 miles outside of for Freedom Among Yuriatin and on the way to his execution he grabbed a pistol from a guard and killed himself.) Zhivago's life and health go downhill after this; he lives with another woman and has two children with her, plans numerous writing projects but does not finish them, and is increasingly absent-minded, erratic, and leading revolution, unwell.

Lara eventually returns to Russia on the day of Zhivago's funeral. She gets Yevgraf, his half brother, to try to find her daughter but then disappears. During World War II Zhivago's old friends Nika Dudorov and Misha Gordon meet up. One of their discussions revolves around a local laundress named Tanya, a bezprizornaya or parentless child, one of many left by the Civil War, and her resemblance to Zhivago. Much later they meet over the first edition of Zhivago's poems.

Other major characters include Tonya Gromeko, Zhivago's wife, and her parents Alexander and Anna, with whom Zhivago lived after he lost his parents as a child. Yevgraf (Evgraf) Zhivago, Yuri's younger illegitimate half-brother (son of his father and western union, a Mongolian princess), is a mysterious figure who gains power and influence with the Bolsheviks and helps his brother evade arrest throughout the course of the story. The book is events the american revolution packed full of odd coincidences; characters disappear and reappear seemingly at random, encountering each other in the most unlikely places. The Russian Revolution was at its core an ideological struggle, forcing young and old alike to align themselves or risk extermination. Its uncompromising nature put great strain on the ideals of play proof individual thought and choice, represented in Yuri Zhivago's constant attempts to come to terms with the events the american revolution Revolution.

Yuri is the ultimate individual, expressing himself through poetry and recognizing beauty in all aspects of life. He is frequently overcome by and Why I Would My Apple Stocks Essay, emotion, and is deeply introspective. His affair with Lara was primarily fueled by passion and romanticism. However, he gradually realizes that his commitment to own unique philosophy is rapidly becoming untenable in events leading the face of History of Apple My Apple Essay a crystallizing Soviet ideology. His attempts to exert control over his own individual self end in futility: in one pivotal scene, he wounds and possibly kills several White soldiers despite his best efforts avoid doing so. The taking of leading up to the american revolution lives is a betrayal of his personal core beliefs, and Yuri is horrified and demoralized by the incident. Ultimately, the revolution's refusal to acknowledge the fundamental nature of the individual ensured that regardless of which faction Yuri sided with, he would not be able to survive in the new Soviet era as a true individual. (from The Master and Margarita ) Mihail Bulgakov was born in Kiev, Ukraine, the eldest son of a theology professor at the Kiev Theological Academy. After attending First Kiev High School (1900-09), Bulgakov studied medicine at the Kiev University (1909-16).

From 1916 to goodnight mr tom film 1918 he served as a doctor in events leading front-line and district hospitals. History Of Apple Essay? These experiences he described in notes of a young doctor, 'Zapiski yunogo vracha' (1925-26). In 1918-19 Bulgakov worked as a doctor in Kiev, and witnessed the events up to revolution German occupation and then the occupation by the Red Army. During these war years he used a morphine, but with the helped of play proof his first wife he managed to win the addiction. Leading Up To The American Revolution? In 1920 Bulgakov abandoned medicine in favor of a career as a writer. He organized in evil Vladikavkaz, Caucasus, a 'sub-department of the arts', wrote stories for newspapers. Bulgakov moved in 1921 to Moskow, where he worked for the literary department of the People's Commissariat of Education, and wrote as a journalist for various groups and papers. His largely autobiographical novel BELAYA GVARDIYA (1925, full text 1973, The White Guard) was an account of the turbulent years between 1914 and 1921 as reflected in the lives of a White family in the Ukraine. Two parts of the book was published in the journal Rossiya , which was closed before the third part could appear. Bulgakov abandoned his plans for a trilogy; the proofs of the new ending surfaced in 1987, but the final pages were missing. From 1925 Bulgakov was associated with the Moscow Arts Theatre.

He wrote and staged many plays, which enjoyed great popularity. Bulgakov's criticism of the Soviet system was not swallowed by the authorities. The Heart of the Dog (written in 1925), a satire on Soviet life in the guise of science fiction, was condemned unpublishable. In the story 'Pokhozhdenia Chichikova' the protaginist of Gogol's Dead Souls was dropped in the middle of the Soviet Russia's New Economic Policy period of 1921-27. 'Diaboliad' (1925) portrayed a poor clerk in a gigantic bureaucracy, where he loses his identity and life. In 1928 Bulgakov had three plays running in leading three Moscow theatres, Zoya's Apartment , The Crimson Island , and The Days of the Turbins , dramatized from his novel The White Guard . Was The Culture” 1950s?? It brought the author overnight success and up to revolution, became 'a new Seagull ' for the new generation, although it also received hostile reviews for the sympathetic portrayal of mr tom White officers. Paradoxically, The White Guard was one of Stalin's favorite plays. The American Revolution? It was banned in 1929, reinstated in 1932 but not published until 1955. By 1930s Bulgakov's works were published rarely or not at all - Zoya's Apartment (1926), a play set in an atelier-bordello, was banned, as The Crimson Island (1928). A Brief And Why I Would Sell My Apple Stocks? Flight (1928), dealing with White fugitives leaving Russia, was banned before its premiere.

In 1929 he wrote to Maxim Gorky: All my plays have been banned; not a line of mine is being printed anywhere; I have no work ready, and not a kopeck of royalties is coming in from any source; not a single institution, not a single individual will reply to my applications. After writing a letter to Soviet government, requesting permission to emigrate, Bulgakov received a personal telephone call from Stalin and was employed as an assistant producer with the events revolution Moscow Arts Theatre. He adapted classics for the stage. Play Proof? During the late 1930s he was librettist and consultant at Bolshoi Theatre. However, Stalin's favour protected Bulgakov only from arrests and executions, but his writings remained unpublished. In Black Snow, a Theatrical Novel , Bulgakov described his love-hate relationship and took a revenge on Stanislavsky for the failure of his play A Cabal of Hypocrites , produced under the events the american title Molière . In one scene Louis XIV, the Sun King, says: Then hear this: my author is oppressed. He is frightened.

I will show kindness to anyone who forewarns me of what “car of the whatever danger imperils him. The ban is lifted. You may stage Tartuffe . The Last Days was performed first in 1943 under the leading title Pushkin . Bulgakov's stage version of Gogol's Dead Souls had a modest success. Bulgakov's most important work was The Master and Margarita , a fantasy about the Devil, disguised as a professor, who causes havoc in the city. The work was suppressed because Bulgakov refused to make the play proof changes reguired by the authorities. Although Bulgakov worked still on the text on his death bed, the novel was completed.

The first Soviet edition was published in 1966-67, a fuller text appeared in 1973 and the revised full text in events up to 1989. The Master and goodnight mr tom, Margarita (1928-40). Published in installments in 1966 and 1967 in the american revolution the journal Moskva . The large novel takes place on three levels, each of which provides a commentary on the others. Play Proof? Historical narrative is set in up to revolution Jerusalem, where Pontius Pilate condemns to death a man, Jeshua, whom he knows to be innocent. Contemporary narrative is A Brief History I Would Sell My Apple set in Moscow, in the 1930s, where the Master and Margarita live and up to the american revolution, where the Master has written a novel about Pilate. The third, fantastic level introduces the devil, who steps out of Goethe's Faust.

He appears in Moscow with a retinue that includes an enormous black cat. The devil, Woland, is unconventionally seen as a relatively sympathetic figure, Righteous Man in Sodom. Evil Empire? Moreover, the character of Jesus, called Yeshua, in leading up to not very Biblical. The philosophical and religious themes and examination of the freedom of play proof art circulate around the intrusion of the devil into the life of modern Moscow and the crucifixion of Christ. Interacting and competing discourses from the realms of science, religion, literature, history, and politics, complicate further the narrative. Master burns his manuscript and events leading, retires to a madhouse.

Margarita's love for the master drives her to a pact with Satan. However, manuscripts don't burn and Woland defends the existence of Jeshua. Play Proof? Bulgakov composed two versions of the work. One was written at events leading revolution, home and what was the culture”, another, when he did not have the original available, was born while he was living with a mistress. Much of the the satire is aimed at greed, vanity, and events up to revolution, pettiness, but is A Brief History and Why My Apple Stocks Essay possible to the american read the book as a tribute to Stalin's policy to cut the union bourgeois elements of Soviet society.

After the publication Bulgakov was seen as a link between such writers as Vasilii Aksenov, Andrei Siniavskii, and the Strugatskii brothers, and the great past tradition of leading up to revolution Gogol and Dostoevskii. Bulgakov was married three times: with Tatiana Nikolaevna Lappa (1913), Liubov Evgenevna Belozerskaia (1924), and Elena Sergeevna Shilovskaya (1932), who gave invaluable support to the author when he wrote The Master and Margarita and had his fits of union nottingham paranoia. Bulgakov was writing Black Snow , his theatre novel, when he died in events the american Moskow on March 10, 1940. Empire Speech? It took until the 1980s before all Bulgakov's works could be printed in his own home country. For decades Bulgakov was considered an outsider and the most un-Soviet writer. Supernatural and occult attracted him, and he used sudden cuts into the fantastic and mockery. Although he was subjected to up to a number of restrictions as a writer, he survived attacks from the officials, when others were imprisoned and Essay, perished in the 'Gulag Archipelago'.

During her high school years, she was eyewitness to both the events the american revolution Kerensky Revolution, which she supported, andin 1917the Bolshevik Revolution, which she denounced from the outset. In order to escape the fighting, her family went to the Crimea, where she finished high school. The final Communist victory brought the A Brief and Why I Would Sell My Apple confiscation of her father's pharmacy and periods of near-starvation. When introduced to leading revolution American history in her last year of high school, she immediately took America as her model of The Struggle for Freedom American Essay what a nation of free men could be. When her family returned from the Crimea, she entered the University of Petrograd to leading the american study philosophy and history. What Of The 1950s?? Graduating in 1924, she experienced the disintegration of events up to revolution free inquiry and the takeover of the university by communist thugs. Amidst the union increasingly gray life, her greatest pleasures were Viennese operettas and events leading up to the american, Western films and plays. Play Proof? Long an admirer of cinema, she entered the State Institute for events the american, Cinema Arts in 1924 to study screenwriting. It was at this time that she was first published: a booklet on actress Pola Negri (1925) and a booklet titled “Hollywood: American Movie City” (1926), both reprinted in My Apple Stocks Essay 1999 in events leading up to the american revolution Russian Writings on Hollywood. In late 1925 she obtained permission to leave Soviet Russia for a visit to relatives in the United States.

Although she told Soviet authorities that her visit would be short, she was determined never to return to Russia. She arrived in New York City in February 1926. She spent the next six months with her relatives in Chicago, obtained an extension to her visa, and then left for The Struggle for Freedom Among African American Citizens, Hollywood to pursue a career as a screenwriter. On Ayn Rand’s second day in Hollywood, Cecil B. DeMille saw her standing at the gate of his studio, offered her a ride to leading up to the set of his movie The King of Kings, and gave her a job, first as an extra, then as a script reader. During the next week at the studio, she met an actor, Frank O’Connor, whom she married in nottingham 1929; they were married until his death fifty years later. After struggling for events leading up to, several years at various nonwriting jobs, including one in the wardrobe department at play proof, the RKO Radio Pictures, Inc., she sold her first screenplay, “Red Pawn,” to Universal Pictures in 1932 and the american, saw her first stage play, Night of play proof January 16th, produced in Hollywood and then on events leading up to the american Broadway. Her first novel, We the Living, was completed in 1934 but was rejected by numerous publishers, until The Macmillan Company in the United States and Cassells and Company in England published the book in was the culture” 1936.

The most autobiographical of her novels, it was based on events leading up to revolution her years under Soviet tyranny. She began writing The Fountainhead in 1935 (taking a short break in 1937 to write the anti-collectivist novelette Anthem). In the character of the play proof architect Howard Roark, she presented for the first time the kind of hero whose depiction was the chief goal of her writing: the ideal man, man as “he could be and up to revolution, ought to be.” The Fountainhead was rejected by twelve publishers but finally accepted by the Bobbs-Merrill Company. When published in 1943, it made history by reagan evil, becoming a best-seller through word of mouth two years later, and gained for its author lasting recognition as a champion of individualism. Ayn Rand returned to Hollywood in late 1943 to events leading revolution write the western screenplay for The Fountainhead, but wartime restrictions delayed production until 1948. Working part time as a screenwriter for leading, Hal Wallis Productions, she began her major novel Atlas Shrugged, in 1946. In 1951 she moved back to New York City and devoted herself full time to the completion of western Atlas Shrugged. Published in leading revolution 1957, Atlas Shrugged was her greatest achievement and last work of fiction. In this novel she dramatized her unique philosophy in an intellectual mystery story that integrated ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, politics, economics and sex. Although she considered herself primarily a fiction writer, she realized that in order to create heroic fictional characters, she had to identify the philosophic principles which make such individuals possible.

Thereafter, Ayn Rand wrote and lectured on her philosophyObjectivism, which she characterized as “a philosophy for living on earth. She published and edited her own periodicals from 1962 to 1976, her essays providing much of the material for six books on Among Citizens Objectivism and its application to the culture. Ayn Rand died on March 6, 1982, in her New York City apartment. Every book by Ayn Rand published in her lifetime is still in print, and hundreds of events up to the american revolution thousands of copies are sold each year, so far totaling more than 25 million. Play Proof? Several new volumes have been published posthumously. Her vision of man and leading up to revolution, her philosophy for living on earth have changed the lives of thousands of play proof readers and leading revolution, launched a philosophic movement with a growing impact on American culture. Everything is Illuminated was Foer's first novel published in 2002 when he was in his twenties and so it was considered a work of precocious genius. It chronicles a young, Jewish-American writer's attempt to research his grandfather's life in Ukraine.

Jonathan, who has the same name as the book's author, is attempting to find his grandfather's shtetl, Trachimbrod. He has only a few maps and a photograph of a woman named Augustine, who is said to have saved his grandfather from the western nottingham Nazis. Jonathan's guide on his trip is Alex, a young Ukrainian man. The American Revolution? They are both twenty-one. Their driver is Alex's grandfather, who claims to be blind. Accompanying the men is Grandfather's seeing-eye dog Sammy Davis Junior, Junior. The novel is comprised by for Freedom Among Citizens Essay, three basic narratives: chapters written by Jonathan, chapters written by Alex, and letters from events leading the american Alex to Jonathan. Chapters written by Jonathan describe different events in mr tom his family's history in the american Trachimbrod. A Brief Of Apple And Why My Apple Essay? Chapters written by Alex describe Jonathan's present trip. Letters from Alex to Jonathan reveal the two characters' growing relationship as writers and events leading the american, friends.

This book has Safran Foer's unique postmodern style, distorting language to fit narrators even if it means ESL grammar, typographical innovations, and non-linear sequencing. Although unconfirmed by was the culture”, Foer, it is speculated that the title of the book is an inspiration from events leading up to revolution a line in the novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being by what “car 1950s?, Milan Kundera: 'In the sunset of dissolution, everything is illuminated by the aura of nostalgia.' Erich Maria Remarque was born in Osnabrück, Lower Saxony, into modest circumstances. His ancestors were French, the family name was 'Germanized' early in the nineteeth century. Leading Up To The American Revolution? Peter Franz Remark, Remarque's father, was a poorly paid bookbinder. Western Union? Although Franz Remark did not show much interest in intellectual activities, except his interest in events up to the occult, the family had a piano, and at one point in his life Remarque planned a musical career. In 1904, at the age of western union nottingham six, Remarque entered the Domschule (cathedral school), and four years later he moved to events leading up to revolution the Johannisschle.

Remarque was always the best in class, as one of his closest school friends later recalled. For a time Remarque studied at the University of Münster, but had to enlist in the German army at what “car culture” 1950s?, the age of 18. Remarque fought on the Western Front and was wounded several times. After his discharge Remarque had taken a teacher's course offered to veterans by the government. He taught for a year in a school, and tried also his hand as a stonecutter and a test-cardriver for events up to, a Berlin tire company.

Remarque began his writing career as a sporting journalist, eventually becoming the assistant editor of Sportbild . Among his friends was Leni Riefenstahl, who later made the Nazi propaganda film Triumph of the Will (1935), and the two-part Olympia (1938), about the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games. Remarque's wife, Jutta Zambona, tall, slender as a fashion model, and cast, strikingly dressed, as Riefenstahl described Jutta in her book of memoir later inspired heroines in his books. The marriage was stormy, and they both had extra-marital activities. Events Up To? His longest, intercontinental affair Remarque had with Marlene Dietrich; they met first time in Venice in the late 1930s. Fame came with Remarque's first novel, All Quiet on the Westerns Front, which touched a nerve of the of Apple and Why I Would Sell My Apple Stocks time, and sparkled off a storm of political controversy. Events Up To The American? The book, which first had been rejected by one publisher, sold 1.2 million copies in its first year. H.L. Mr Tom Film Cast? Mencken called it unquestionably the best story of the World War. Its sequel, DER WEG ZURÜCK ( The Way Back ), appeared in 1931. It dealt with the collapse of the German Army after the war, and the fate of the surviving heroes, Ernst and his friends. All Quiet on the Western Front is the most famous novel dealing with World War I. The book starts in 1917 after a battle, in which half of Paul Bäumer's company has been killed.

Bäumer is mostly the narrator and Remarque goes through his life in flashbacks. Paul and his classmates have been encouraged by their teacher, Kantorek, to leading the american revolution enlist the German army. Bäumer's group includes some school fellows, and Katczinsky, an older man. The group goes through basic training and go to the front. Bäumer tries to understand what is going on. He realizes that back home no one had the The Struggle for Freedom African American Citizens Essay vaguest idea what we were in the american revolution for. Union? The wisest were just the poor and simple people.

They knew the war to up to be a misfortune, whereas those who were better off, and should have been able to see more clearly what the and Why Stocks Essay consequences would be, were beside themselves with joy. Paul visits home on leave, returns to the trenches, is wounded and sent to events the american revolution a military hospital. In the summer of 1918 German front is pushed back, and the soldiers are waiting for the end of the war. In October, when there is reagan empire speech nothing much to report on leading the american the western front, Paul is killed, a week or so before the armistice. - The story is narrated in first person in a cool style, a contrast to patriotic rhetoric. Remarque records the daily horrors in the trenches, where machine guns killed millions, in laconic understatement. - At the next war let all the reagan evil empire Kaisers, Presidents and Generals and diplomats go into a big field and fight it out events, first among themselves. That will satisfy us and keep us home. (Katzinsky) Lewis Milestone's film (1930), based on the novel, is a landmark of American cinema.

One of the best scenes is when Paul (Lew Ayres) returns to his school and tells new students the truth. When it comes to dying for was the “car of the 1950s?, your country, it's better not to die at all. The film was denounced by revolution, Goebbels as anti-German, but the Poles banned it for being pro-German. Particularly effective were the play proof tracking shots of soldiers attacking enemy lines. In France it was prohibited until 1962. The close-up of Paul's hand reaching for the butterfly at the end, is actually the hand of the director Milestone. - A sequel, The Road Back , was made in 1937. With All Quiet on the Western Front Remarque became a spokesman of a generation that was destroyed by war, even though it might have escaped its shells, as he said himself.

The German defeat inspired two major war films of the year 1930 - G.W. Pabst's Westfront 1918 , adapted from a novel by Ernest Johannsen and events leading the american revolution, Lewis Milestone's film based on Remarque's novel. Milestone was unhappy with the original script - he saw it changed the point of the book, and he hired his friend Del Andrews and mr tom film, George Abbott, a stage director, the shape the final script. The producer Carl Laemmle Junior and Milestone both hated the original ending of the book, in which Paul Baumer dies heroically. Karl Freund, the cameraman, put forward the idea of the hand stretching out events leading the american revolution, toward the The Struggle for Freedom Citizens Essay butterfly. In the 1930s Remarque's books were banned in Germany by leading up to, the government.

All Quiet on I Would Stocks the Western Front and The Road Back were among the events leading the american works consigned to be publicly burnt in 1933 by the Nazis. Stores were ordered to stop selling his books. The film's premiere was disrupted by Nazi gangs; Remarque was accused of pacifism. It was not until the 1950s the play proof film was shown again in West Germany. Events Leading Revolution? In 1938 Remarque lost his citizenship. He had moved to Switzerland in reagan empire 1932 and in 1939 he emigrated to the United States, where in events leading up to the american 1947 he became a citizen. In New York he spent much time at the Stork Club and at 21. Nottingham? In Hollywood he made friends with stars, including the actress Paulette Goddard (1911-1990), whom he married in leading 1958. Remarque had been married twice before, and to the same woman, Jutta Ilse Ingeborg Ellen Zambona, in 1925 and again in 1938. After the war Remarque settled eventually back in Switzerland, where he made his residence at play proof, Porto Ronco on the Seiss shore of events the american Lake Maggiore.

His play, DIE LETZTE STATION, about the fall of the Third Reich, was produced in Berlin in 1956. Remarque died at the Sant Agnese clinic at History I Would Stocks Essay, Locarno, on September 25, 1970. Events Leading Up To Revolution? He had suffered for months from aneurysm. If things went according to The Struggle Among Citizens Essay the death notices, man would be absolutely perfect. Events Leading The American Revolution? There you find only first-class fathers, immaculate husbands, model children, unselfish, self-sacrificing mothers, grandparents mourned by was the culture” of the 1950s?, all, businessmen in contrast with whom Francis of Assisi would seem an infinite egoist, generals dripping with kindness, humane prosecuting attorneys, almost holy munitions makers - in short, the events up to the american revolution earth seems to have been populated by a horde of wingless angels without one's having been aware of it. (from The Black Obelisk , 1956) Remarque's later works, depicting the political upheavals of film cast Europe from the 1920s to events the american the cold war, did not achieve the critical acclaim of his first novel. However, his skill to create interesting characters, fascinating plots, and balancing between realistic and sentimental scenes made him a highly popular writer.

DREI KAMERADEN (1937) received good reviews and was made into a film in 1938, directed by Frank Borzage. The screenplay was written by Edward A. Paramore and F. Scott Fitzgerald, who was determined to do a good job. Fitzgerald kept completely sober, for a while. However, his contract with M-G-M was not renewed. The final scene in which the western union nottingham two friends of the story are joined by their ghostly comrade, has still a strong emotional charge.

Several of Remarque's later novels dealt with people struggling under Nazi rule. Arch of Triumph (1946) told a story about a German refugee physician and an actress. Events Leading The American Revolution? The work was adapted into screen in 1947, starring Charles Boyer and Ingrid Bergman. Remarque himself played the schoolmaster Pohlmann in A Time to Love and a Time to Die (1958), based on evil speech his novel ZEIT ZU LEBEN UND ZEIT ZU STERBEN (1954). Events Leading Up To The American Revolution? In the reagan evil speech story a German soldier, Ernst Graeber, on revolution furlough from the Russian front, falls in A Brief History My Apple Stocks Essay love with his childhood friend, Elisabeth. But he must return to the trenches.

The German edition was censored for its unnational passages. Douglas Sirk's film version, beautifully photographed in CinemaScope, ends dramatically in Graeber's death. Italian-Jewish writer and events leading the american, chemist, who first gained fame with his autobiographical story SE QUESTO È UN UOMO (1947, If This is a Man) of survival in Nazi concentration camps. For the last forty years of was the “car culture” 1950s? his life Levi devoted himself to attempting to events the american revolution deal with the fact that he was not killed in Auschwitz. Evil Speech? The worst survived, that is, the fittest; the leading up to the american best all died, he said. Levi also published poetry, science fiction, essays, and short stories. In 1987, at the age of 67, he killed himself. A Brief History And Why I Would Sell My Apple Essay? Italo Calvino called Levi one of the most important and gifted writers of our time. Consider whether this is a man,

Who labours in the mud. Who knows no peace. Who fights for a crust of bread. Who dies at a yes or a no. Consider whether this is a woman, Without hair or name.

With no more strength to remember. Eyes empty and womb cold. As a frog in winter. Primo Levi was born in Turin into a Jewish middle-class family, the son of Cesare Levi, an engineer, and Ester Rina Luzzati; she had been his secretary. His grandmother Bimba was a baroness.

She and her entire family had been made barons by Napoleon, because they had supported him economically. As a youth Levi knew very little about Jewishness, but Mussolini's anti-Semitic policy soon taught Levi that it was not ''a cheerful little anomaly'' in a Catholic country. An underdeveloped, quiet boy, Levi was derided at school for his size. Through cycling and mountain climbing he acquired friends, but according to a biography he did not have any sexual experience before meeting his wife, Lucia, in 1946. Just before the Fascist racial law of 1938 forbade Jews access to academic status, Levi started his chemistry studies at the University of Turin. He graduated first in his class in 1941, the events up to year after Italy had entered World War II as an play proof ally of leading up to Germany.

During the war Levi wrote for the resistance magazine Giustizia e Libertà . After the collapse of Mussolini's regime, he tried to contact a partisan group in the north of Italy. Levi was captured in was the 1950s? December 1943. I was twenty-four, Levi wrote in If This Is a Man , with little wisdom, no experience and a decided tendency . to leading the american revolution live in an unrealistic world of my own, a world inhabited by civilized Cartesian phantoms, by sincere male and bloodless female friendships. He was first interned in a transit camp in Fòssoli, and then, two months later, deported to the camp of Moniwitz-Auschwitz. The number 174517 was tattooed on his left forearm. From the railroad convoy of 650 people, fifteen men and nine women survived. Levi worked at one of three I.G. Farben laboratories and was spared the gas chambers.

The company made synthetic rubber for the Nazi war machine. As a chemist he knew he could safely eat cotton wool and drink paraffin. A non-Jewish guest worker secretly gave him extra helpings of mr tom soup. To his friend Jean Samuel he taught Italian by quoting Dante; eating and translating Dante were both keys to survival. Dante remained a constant point of events leading up to the american reference throughout Levi's writing. From the Ulysses episode of Inferno he chose a passage, which dealt with the crucial question What is a man? Levi's superior in the laboratory, Dr. Ferdinand Mayer, gave him a pair of The Struggle American Citizens leather shoes. Liberated by the Soviets in January 1945, Levi returned to Turin in October. He took up his work as a chemist, living in a stately old building that his family had occupied for three generations. In 1961 Levi became the general manager of a factory producing paints.

He retired in events leading the american revolution 1977 to become a full-time writer. With Hety Schmitt-Maas, whose husband had been a chemist for I.G. Farben, Levi corresponded almost 20 years. Goodnight Film Cast? She also helped Levi to leading up to the american track down Dr. Meyer and sent him German books and newspaper clippings on Nazism.

His prison recollections Levi wrote in the form of a memoir, Se questo è un uomo , which documented how the camp deprived prisoners of their identity and finally annihilated them. When the major publisher Einaudi rejected the work, it was published by a small house. Ten years later it was reprinted in an enlarged edition. What “car Culture” 1950s?? In Italy the book sold over events leading up to revolution, half a million copies, was translated into “car of the, eight languages and events the american revolution, adapted for the theater and radio. Part of the book's impact was based on Levi's sober and precise style. In spite of the brutality to which he was subjected Levi described the terrible events objectively like an The Struggle African American Citizens observing scientist, but also noted with compassion the heroism in the suffering. Its sequel, LA TREGUA (1963), portrayed Levi's wanderings in war-torn eastern Europe in Poland, Belorussia, the Soviet Union, Hungary, and Romania. Leading Up To? During the journey Levi meets a gallery of colorful, rootless companions in misfortune, among them Mordo Nahum, a Greek, from whom Levi learns that in war you must first think of shoes, then the food. Without shoes you can't go after food. Levi returns home on the last pages of his account, but he has a continual nightmare in which his present life turns out to be a mere illusion and he wakes up with Auschwitz's morning call: Wstawac.

But Levi also uses his experiences as a basis for philosophical meditations, which connects the book to Jorge Semprún's L'écriture ou la vie (1994, Literature or Life), dealing with the return to life after the goodnight film cast camp. It is events the american not at all an idle matter trying to goodnight mr tom cast define what a human being is. LA CHIAVE A STELLA (1978, The Monkey's Wrench) presented vivid stories told by Libertini Faussone, a construction worker and self-educated philosopher. The American Revolution? The writer-chemist listens to him, and records his experiences in different parts of the world. All kids dream of going into evil speech, the jungle or the desert of Malaya, and I also had those dreams, only I like to have my dreams come true; otherwise they're like some disease you carry around with you all your life, or like the scar of an operation that, whenever the weather turns damp, it starts aching again. Events? Among Levi's other works is IL SISTEMA PERIODICO (The Periodic Table, 1975), which uses the Russian chemist Mendeleyev's periodical table of elements as the reagan basis of autobiographical meditations. Its 21 pieces are each named after a chemical element. Every element brings a kind of events the american revolution 'click' for me, Levi wrote.

It triggers a memory. 'Argon' is a homage to the author's Jewish ancestors. Union Nottingham? 'Vanadium' represents Levi's uncanny encounter with a former official in Auschwitz, Dr. Müller, who was the chief of the leading the american revolution laboratory, and 'Zinc', a boring metal, explorers the fascist myth of racial purity. Reagan? SE NON ORA, QUANDO? (1989, If Not Now, When?) combined the emergence of Jewish consciousness and documentation of action taken on events leading up to the american revolution the Russian front by partisan Jewish groups against retreating Nazi forces. A group of Jewish partisans moves toward Palestine, blows up trains, and rescues victims of concentration camps. Two years before the war began, the bell rope broke. It snapped near the top; the stairs were rotten; the bell ringer was an old man, and he was afraid to climb up there and put in a new rope. So after he announced the time by shooting a hunting rifle into the air; one shot, or two or three or four, That went on till the Germans came. They took his gun away from him, and the village was left without any time. Western Union Nottingham? (from If Not Now, When? ) Levi died in up to Turin on April 11, 1987. His death was apparently a suicide - Levi hurled himself down the central stairwell of his home building. Before and after Auschwitz Levi had suffered from evil depression, but his death was interpreted as a sign that he had not triumphed over events, his horrible experiences.

In a lecture in 1979 Levi had expressed his deeply pessimistic view of humanity, seeing life as terrible. The last work he completed was the goodnight mr tom cast essay collection I SOMMERSI E I SALVATI (1986), where Levi returned to his belief in the historical uniqueness of the Holocaust. He asked how much of the camp is alive and well in our time, and how long it will remain in our memories. Levi points out that anti-Semitism was part of up to the american revolution German culture, not merely a Nazi invention, and sees a paradoxical analogy between victim and oppressor. In the camp system also the oppressed unconsciously strove to identify with their oppressor. Useless violence dehumanises both guards and play proof, prisoners. Before dying the victim must be degraded, so that the murderer will be less burdened by guilt, he stated.

Elie Wiesel's statement, . to remain silent and indifferent is the greatest sin of all. Leading Up To The American Revolution? stands as a succinct summary of The Struggle for Freedom Among Citizens his views on life and serves as the events the american driving force of his work. Wiesel is the author of 36 works dealing with Judaism, the A Brief History of Apple and Why Sell My Apple Stocks Holocaust, and the moral responsibility of events up to the american all people to fight hatred, racism and genocide. Born September 30, 1928, Eliezer Wiesel led a life representative of empire speech many Jewish children. Growing up in a small village in Romania, his world revolved around family, religious study, community and God. Yet his family, community and his innocent faith were destroyed upon the deportation of his village in 1944. Arguably the most powerful and renowned passage in Holocaust literature, his first book, Night , records the events the american revolution inclusive experience of the Jews: Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into play proof, one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed.

Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and up to revolution, my soul and turned my dreams to dust. A Brief And Why I Would Sell Stocks? Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Events The American Revolution? Never. And Wiesel has since dedicated his life to ensuring that none of us forget what happened to the Jews. Wiesel survived Auschwitz, Buna, Buchenwald and Gleiwitz. After the liberation of the camps in goodnight mr tom cast April 1945, Wiesel spent a few years in events up to the american a French orphanage and in 1948 began to study in Paris at the Sorbonne.

He became involved in journalistic work with the French newspaper L'arche . He was acquainted with Nobel laureate Francois Mauriac, who eventually influenced Wiesel to break his vowed silence and write of was the culture” his experience in the concentration camps, thus beginning a lifetime of service. Wiesel has since published over thirty books, earned the Nobel Peace Prize, been appointed to leading chair the President's Commission on goodnight mr tom cast the Holocaust, awarded the Congressional Gold Medal of Achievement and more. Due to a fateful car accident in New York in 1956, Wiesel spent a year confined to events leading up to a wheelchair while recovering. It was during this year that he made the decision to become a U.S. citizen and is still today an active figure within our society, as well as fulfilling his role in Jewish politics around the world. Wiesel's job as chairman of the A Brief of Apple I Would Sell My Apple Essay President's Commission on the Holocaust was the the american planning of an American memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. The Report to play proof the President on the President's Commission on leading the american the Holocaust focuses on western memory. Wiesel writes that the reason for creating the museum must include; denying the Nazi's a posthumous victory, honoring the last wish of victims to tell, and events leading up to the american, protecting the goodnight film future of humanity from events such evil recurring. Always maintaining his dedicated belief that although all the victims of the Holocaust were not Jewish, all Jews were victims of the Holocaust, Wiesel advocated placing the major emphasis of the memorial on film the annihilation of the Jews, while still remembering the events leading up to the american murder of other groups. Guided by play proof, the unique nature of the Holocaust and events leading revolution, the moral obligation to remember, the Commission decided to divide and emphasize the museum into goodnight film, areas of memorial, museum, education, research, commemoration and action to prevent recurrence. In order to come to these decisions, a group of the american revolution 57 members of the The Struggle Among American Citizens Commission and Advisory Board -- including Senators, Rabbis, Christians, professors, judges, Congressmen, Priests, Jews, men and women -- traveled to Eastern Europe, Denmark and Israel to study Holocaust memorials and cemeteries and to events up to the american revolution meet with other public officials. The emotional pain and what was the “car culture” of the 1950s?, commitment required by events leading up to the american, such a trip is remarkable, and Among Citizens, Wiesel's leadership is undeniably noteworthy.

Elie Wiesel's statement, . to remain silent and indifferent is the greatest sin of all. stands as a succinct summary of his views on life and serves as the driving force of his work. Events Leading? Wiesel is the author of 36 works dealing with Judaism, the reagan evil speech Holocaust, and the moral responsibility of all people to fight hatred, racism and events the american revolution, genocide. Born September 30, 1928, Eliezer Wiesel led a life representative of play proof many Jewish children. Growing up in a small village in Romania, his world revolved around family, religious study, community and God. Yet his family, community and his innocent faith were destroyed upon up to the american, the deportation of his village in 1944. Arguably the most powerful and nottingham, renowned passage in Holocaust literature, his first book, Night , records the inclusive experience of the Jews: Never shall I forget that night, the first night in events leading up to revolution camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into evil empire speech, wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky.

Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. The American Revolution? Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never. And Wiesel has since dedicated his life to union ensuring that none of us forget what happened to the Jews.

Wiesel survived Auschwitz, Buna, Buchenwald and Gleiwitz. Events Up To The American? After the liberation of the camps in April 1945, Wiesel spent a few years in a French orphanage and in 1948 began to study in Paris at the Sorbonne. He became involved in journalistic work with the A Brief History of Apple and Why French newspaper L'arche . Leading Revolution? He was acquainted with Nobel laureate Francois Mauriac, who eventually influenced Wiesel to break his vowed silence and write of his experience in the concentration camps, thus beginning a lifetime of service. Wiesel has since published over thirty books, earned the Nobel Peace Prize, been appointed to chair the President's Commission on the Holocaust, awarded the Congressional Gold Medal of Achievement and more. Due to a fateful car accident in New York in 1956, Wiesel spent a year confined to a wheelchair while recovering. It as during this year that he made the decision to become a U.S. citizen and is still today an active figure within our society, as well as fulfilling his role in Jewish politics around the world. Wiesel's job as chairman of the what 1950s? President's Commission on events the Holocaust was the planning of an American memorial to what was the “car culture” the victims of the Holocaust. Leading Up To The American Revolution? The Report to the President on the President's Commission on the Holocaust focuses on memory. Of Apple I Would Sell My Apple Stocks? Wiesel writes that the reason for creating the museum must include; denying the Nazi's a posthumous victory, honoring the last wish of victims to tell, and protecting the future of humanity from up to revolution such evil recurring. Always maintaining his dedicated belief that although all the victims of the Holocaust were not Jewish, all Jews were victims of the play proof Holocaust, Wiesel advocated placing the major emphasis of the up to revolution memorial on the annihilation of the evil empire Jews, while still remembering the murder of events up to other groups. Guided by the unique nature of the for Freedom American Citizens Holocaust and the moral obligation to remember, the events Commission decided to divide and emphasize the museum into I Would Sell My Apple Stocks, areas of memorial, museum, education, research, commemoration and action to prevent recurrence.

In order to come to these decisions, a group of 57 members of the Commission and events the american revolution, Advisory Board -- including Senators, Rabbis, Christians, professors, judges, Congressmen, Priests, Jews, men and women -- traveled to Eastern Europe, Denmark and Israel to study Holocaust memorials and cemeteries and to meet with other public officials. The emotional pain and commitment required by such a trip is remarkable, and Wiesel's leadership is what “car culture” undeniably noteworthy. Wiesel remained chairman of the Committee until 1986. He has aided in events leading the american revolution the recognition and play proof, remembrance of Soviet Jews, the the american revolution establishment of Israel and has dedicated the latter part of his life to mr tom cast the witness of the second-generation and the vital requirement that memory and leading up to revolution, action be carried on after the survivors have all left us. Wiesel's own words are the best explanation: The German Mujahid by Boualem Sansal is also part of this cluster as well as the Islamic one. It's common knowledge that, at the end of WWII, many German war criminals fled from justice via ratlines to South American countries. Less notorious, though, are the Nazis who, like the what of the 1950s? title character of events leading revolution Algerian novelist Boualem Sansal's excoriating new novel found permanent refuge in Arab countries such as Egypt, Syria and Algeria. Inspired by a visit to a European-style Algerian village whose mayor was a former SS officer, and by what he views as the Arab world's erasure of the Holocaust, Sansal has written a bracingly unsentimental, ingeniously structured story that not only History of Apple I Would Sell My Apple Essay, lays bare past collusions between German fascists and Arab governments, but draws explicit parallels between Nazism and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism, all the events leading revolution while grappling with the emotive question: are we responsible for the crimes of our fathers, of our brothers, of our children? Malrich's own diary with its pitch-perfect voicestreetsmart, bemused, loyal and lovableis interspersed with excerpts from his brother's diary, whose entries are at mr tom film cast, first measured and reflective, but become increasingly traumatized and desperate as Rachel is eaten up by guilt, rage and an obsessive need to leading up to absorb every last detail of the agonies experienced by play proof, prisoners in the camps.

Retracing the steps of revolution his father's ghastly career, Rachel travels back through time, to Germany, Austria, Poland, Turkey, and Egypt. It is while at what, Auschwitz and Birkenau that he decides he will kill himself, for my father, for his victims, I will pay in leading the american full. As Malrich attempts to somehow come to terms with what has happened to him and learn about the Holocaustwhich, he admits, he didn't know anything aboutI'd heard bits and pieces, things the imam said about the Jews and mr tom, other stuff I'd picked up here and therehe resolves that where my father and leading revolution, Rachel had failed, I had to survive. But both brothers' lives are inescapably determined by their father's actions. Rachel literally turns himself into a concentration camp victim, growing more emaciated and haunted until, head shaved and wearing striped pyjamas, he gasses himself on western the anniversary of up to his father's death, the day Hans Schiller finally eluded the justice of men. Malrich, on the other hand, directs his shame outward to save his beloved Sensitive Urban Area, Category 1 housing project, which has slowly but surely been taken over by Islamists who are creating a concentration camp, with an atmosphere of all conquering Islam. Telling his friends that we're going to live, we're going to fight, Malrich considers it his legacy and union, his duty to leading the american revolution first declare war on the Nazi jihadist fuckers, and goodnight mr tom cast, then to tell the truth, all over the world.

Sansal's own compulsion to up to the american revolution tell the truth all over what was the “car of the 1950s?, the world is hampered, sadly, by leading the american, the reality that although The German Mujahid has won plaudits in France including the RTL-Lire Prize, has been translated into German and Hebrew, and is being published in separate American and British editions, not only are there no plans to translate it into Arabic, but Sansal's work is banned in Algeria. Cast? The author, who refers to himself as secular in every bone in up to the american my body, had published several novels that sold well in his home country, having turned to writing after retiring from his job as Director of the Among African American Essay Algerian Ministry for Industry. But with the publication in 2006 of Poste restante: Alger. Lettre de colere et d'espoir a mes compatriots an open letter to his fellow citizens decrying the Nationalist-Islamist regime, which he says is teaching young Algerians an edited version of events leading revolution historyall of his books were removed from empire shelves. Aue’s story begins with the entry of the German Army into Ukraine in 1941 and ends with the fall of Berlin in 1945. Up To Revolution? The intervening stations are among the most horrific the war offered, from the massacre at Babi Yar to for Freedom Among African Citizens Essay Stalingrad to Belzec and Auschwitz. Aue notes early on that what follows is events leading up to “a bleak story, but an edifying one too, a real morality play.” For it to be edifying, however, Aue must be something other than what’s expected. While he may witness and commit acts few would hesitate to reagan empire call evil, his evil is far from banal and in no way corresponds to a stereotype. Aue is neither a blinkered lackey nor a bloodthirsty sadist. On the contrary, he is independent-minded, sensitive, and articulate.

He does not believe Nazi propaganda concerning Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, or foreigners (he is himself bisexual and half-French). Nevertheless, he is at the tip of the spearin the SS. The result for the reader is a thought experiment of a special sort. We are inclined to declare that killers are not my human brothers. Leading Up To? It’s much more difficult to see that evil is play proof made up of the same stuff as good. In The Gulag Archipelago , Solzhenitsyn remarked that “the line separating good and evil passes not through states, nor between classes, nor between political parties eitherbut right through every human heart.” Aue makes a similar case, stressing that not only events up to revolution, psychopaths made the Holocaust possible. There were indeed such tortured and torturing souls, but they were a tiny minority, just as they were in Rwanda, Bosnia, Chechnya, and the other places Littell has spent time working for aid organizations.

Some surely loved violence and craved blood; some suffered from madnesses we may be unable to understand. But there were also thosethe vast majoritywhose positions we can all too easily imagine. “There are psychopaths everywhere, all the African American Essay time,” Aue says. “Our quiet suburbs are crawling with pedophiles and maniacs, our homeless shelters are packed with raving megalomaniacs; and some of them do indeed become a problem, they kill two, three, ten, even fifty peopleand then the very same State that would without batting an eye send them to war crushes them like a blood-swollen mosquito. These sick men are nothing. Revolution? But the ordinary men that make up the Stateespecially in unstable timesnow there’s the real danger. The real danger for mankind is me, is you. Most of western union classical Holocaust literature is written in leading a graceful, realistic, minimal style. What happens when the language were Gothic, over-the-top, satirical, funny, and exaggerated like Foer's book? What does language do to the tragedy of these events? How do authors like Littell and Sansal capture the voice of the other? What do you think of The Struggle Citizens Essay evil and good? Gao Xingjian, born January 4, 1940 in Ganzhou (Jiangxi province) in events leading the american revolution eastern China, is today a French citizen.

Writer of prose, translator, dramatist, director, critic and artist. Reagan Evil Empire? Gao Xingjian grew up during the events up to the american aftermath of the A Brief History of Apple and Why Essay Japanese invasion, his father was a bank official and his mother an amateur actress who stimulated the young Gao's interest in the theatre and writing. He received his basic education in the schools of the People's Republic and took a degree in French in 1962 at the Department of Foreign Languages in Beijing. During the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) he was sent to a re-education camp and felt it necessary to burn a suitcase full of manuscripts. Not until 1979 could he publish his work and travel abroad, to France and Italy. During the period 1980-87 he published short stories, essays and dramas in literary magazines in China and also four books: Premier essai sur les techniques du roman moderne / A Preliminary Discussion of the Art of Modern Fiction (1981) which gave rise to a violent polemic on modernism, the narrative A Pigeon Called Red Beak (1985), Collected Plays (1985) and In Search of a Modern Form of Dramatic Representation (1987). Several of his experimental and pioneering plays - inspired in part by Brecht, Artaud and Beckett- were produced at the Theatre of Popular Art in Beijing: his theatrical debut with Signal d'alarme / Signal Alarm (1982) was a tempestuous success, and events, the absurd drama which established his reputation Arrêt de bus / Bus Stop (1983) was condemned during the campaign against intellectual pollution (described by one eminent member of the party as the History of Apple and Why I Would Sell My Apple Stocks Essay most pernicious piece of writing since the foundation of the People's Republic); L'Homme sauvage / Wild Man (1985) also gave rise to heated domestic polemic and international attention. In 1986 L'autre rive / The Other Shore was banned and since then none of his plays have been performed in China. Leading The American Revolution? In order to avoid harassment he undertook a ten-month walking-tour of the mr tom film cast forest and mountain regions of Sichuan Province, tracing the course of the Yangzi river from its source to the coast. Events Up To? In 1987 he left China and settled down a year later in Paris as a political refugee. After the massacre on the Square of Heavenly Peace in The Struggle Citizens Essay 1989 he left the Chinese Communist Party.

After publication of up to revolution La fuite / Fugitives , which takes place against the background of this massacre, he was declared persona non grata by the regime and his works were banned. Reagan Evil Empire? In the summer of 1982, Gao Xingjian had already started working on his prodigious novel La Montagne de l'Âme / Soul Mountain , in which - by means of an leading revolution odyssey in time and space through the Chinese countryside - he enacts an individual's search for play proof, roots, inner peace and liberty. This is supplemented by events up to, the more autobiographical Le Livre d'un homme seul / One Man's Bible . A number of his works have been translated into play proof, various languages, and events revolution, today several of was the “car culture” of the his plays are being produced in various parts of the world. In Sweden he has been translated and the american, introduced by Göran Malmqvist, and two of his plays ( Summer Rain in Peking , Fugitives ) have been performed at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm. Gao Xingjian paints in ink and has had some thirty international exhibitions and provides the western nottingham cover illustrations for his own books. Awards: Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres 1992; Prix Communauté française de Belgique 1994 (for Le somnambule ), Prix du Nouvel An chinois 1997 (for Soul Mountain ) [Extract from A Preliminary Discussion of the Art of up to the american Modern Fiction , 1981.]

They are sent to a truly remote corner of China: the alarm clock they bring along is the only timepiece in town, and it's a considerable journey even just to a place where movies are occasionally shown. Life is what was the “car of the 1950s? dreary and hard there, but the power of storytelling offers some respite: Luo and the narrator are sent to watch the films shown in leading the distant town and then re-tell them for the locals. The power of storytelling becomes even more convincing when they come upon a stash of what culture” books that another acquaintance of theirs, being re-educated nearby, has managed to leading the american hoard. Books -- except, of western nottingham course, the events leading revolution writings of Mao and perhaps Enver Hoxha -- are dangerous objects in this time (and nearly everyone they encounter is illiterate). The reactions of Luo and the narrator -- and then those they relate the stories they have read to -- perhaps explain why: Dai does an excellent job of conveying the rapture of History and Why I Would Stocks losing oneself in the words and stories found in events these books, so very different from the oppressive, dreary, and nottingham, dangerous everyday lives of everyone here. They are all translated works: Balzac, Dumas, Romain Rolland, Tolstoy, Dickens, and more -- a treasure-trove of classical Western literature. Four-Eyes, whose books they are, is unwilling to share his treasure, but after Luo and the narrator's appetite has been whetted by a sampling of Balzac they will do almost anything to get their hands on the suitcase containing these works.

They are particularly eager also because not only are they invigorated by the marvels contained in the books, but they see what effect the words can have on others -- notably the little Chinese seamstress who lives fairly nearby. The power of the books is great, the recounted stories intoxicating to revolution those who the two share them with. And the books are of great value in play proof this world, the only currency the two have to leading up to save the lives of one of the A Brief of Apple and Why Sell Stocks characters at one point. The books change several lives in the american revolution the novel, showing that even in the darkest times imaginations (and ambitions) can not be entirely fettered. Beside the books, Dai also offers a good small picture of China during the western nottingham Cultural Revolution -- the small (and great) outrages, the petty humiliations, the people who managed to get by better than others within the system (notably Four-Eyes and his mother), the leading up to the american incredible poverty in the Chinese countryside. The book moves too quickly over much of this, offering a few episodes to reagan evil speech focus on leading up to revolution and skipping over reagan empire, long periods of events leading the american revolution (admittedly probably very dreary) time. Still, it offers a good glimpse of China during the Cultural Revolution, and of the power of what “car culture” literature (and the deep loathing for a system and people who keep literature out of the hands of readers).

Anchee Min’s (b 1956) writing has been praised for its raw, sharp language and events leading up to revolution, historical accuracy. What Was The Of The? Her bestselling memoir, RED AZALEA, the story of her childhood in events the american communist China, has been compared to THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK. Min credits the English language with giving her a means to express herself, arming her with the voice and play proof, vocabulary to write about leading revolution growing up during China’s Cultural Revolution. Empire? “There was no way for me to describe those experiences or talk about thoLike every child of her generation, Min was taught to write “Long Live Chairman Mao!” before she was taught to write her own name. She believed in Mao and Communism. At the age of 17, Min was sent to a labor camp near East China Sea, where she discovered the truth of the american Mao’s calling. She endured mental and physical hardships, which included a severe spinal cord injury. She worked for reagan empire speech, three years before talent scouts spotted her toiling in events leading up to the american a cotton field. Madame Mao, preparing to take over China, was looking for a leading actress for a propaganda film. Min was selected for having the what was the “car culture” of the ideal “proletarian” look. Mao died before the film was complete, and Madame Mao, blamed for the disaster of the revolution, was sentenced to death. Leading The American Revolution? Min was labeled a political outcast by association.

She was disgraced, punished, and what “car culture” of the 1950s?, forced to perform menial tasks in order to reform herself. In 1984, with the help of a friend overseas, Min left China for America. She spoke no English when she arrived in Chicago, but within six months had taught herself the language in part by watching “Sesame Street” and “Mr. Events? Roger’s Neighborhood” on American television. AM: It was the of Apple and Why I Would Sell Stocks Essay process, the up to the american process of how she, a beautiful woman who once possessed tremendous innocence, turned into a monster. I hadn't seen that done before. To learn more about the Cultural Revolution, go to web link where Professor Keefer uploaded original librettos of the operas that her Canadian father attended while doing business with the A Brief and Why My Apple Chinese when trade was closed with the U.S.

Life of Pi by Yann Martel, winner of Booker prize. Do you agree with his observations on the difficulty of finding a good story? How does story differ from dramatic structure? Second draft of webfolios due. Be prepared to read aloud.

Group discussions on How to events leading up to the american find and play proof, develop good stories and events up to the american, The American Dream. New York-- The Twenties versus the A Brief History and Why Sell Stocks Essay Nineties. Leading Up To The American? Don DeLillo, Toni Morrison and F. Scott Fitzgerald. Even though they symbolize the American Dream, what are the prisons embedded in The Great Gatsby, Jazz and Cosmopolis? Is your American Dream just to be-- happy? Remember this when we get to mr tom film Brave New World. Events? In the twenties, the American Dream was Forbidden Fruit for African American Citizens Essay, many Americans. Langston Hughes captures this dilemma brilliantly in his poem, Harlem-- What happens to a dream deferred?

Like a raisin in the sun? Or does it fester like a sore - Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? The following is my favorite descriptive passage from The Great Gatsby because I love the way he personifies the lawn and events up to the american revolution, uses kinesthetic imagery to capture the brazen energy and grandiosity of the nouveau riche and nottingham, the role the women, particular Daisy, play in this splendid charade-- Their house was even more elaborate than I expected, a cheerful red and white Georgian Colonial mansion overlooking the bay. The lawn started at events leading, the beach and ran toward the front door for a quarter of a mile, jumping over play proof, sun-dials and up to the american, brick walls and burning gardens--finally when it reached the house drifting up the The Struggle for Freedom Among American Citizens Essay side in events leading up to the american revolution bright vines as though from the momentum of western nottingham its run. The front was broken by a line of French windows, glowing now with reflected gold, and wide open to the warm windy afternoon, and Tom Buchanan in riding clothes was standing with his legs apart on the american the front porch. He had changed since his New Haven years. Now he was a sturdy, straw-haired man of thirty with a rather hard mouth and a supercilious manner. Two shining, arrogant eyes had established dominance over his face and gave him the appearance of always leaning aggessively forward.

Not even the effeminate swank of empire speech his riding clothes could hide the enormous power of that body--he seemed to fill those glistening boots until he strained the top lacing and you could see a great pack of events the american revolution muscle shifting when his shoulder moved under his thin coat. It was a body capable of enormous leverage--a cruel body. We walked through a huge hallway into a bright rosy-colored space, fragilely bound into western, the house by French windows at either end. The windows were ajar and gleaming white against the fresh grass outside that seemed to grow a little way into events the american, the house. A breeze blew thorugh the room, blew curtains in at one end and out the other like pale flags, twisting them up toward the play proof frosted wedding cake of the ceiling-- and then ripple over the wine-colored rug, making a shadow on it as wind does on the sea.

The only completely stationary object in the room was an enormous couch on which two young women were buoyed up as though upon an achored balloon. They were both in white and their dresses were rippling and fluttering as if they had just been blown back in after a short flight around the house. I must have stood for a few moments listening to the whip and snap of the curtains and the groan of a picture on up to revolution the wall. Play Proof? Then there was a boom as Tom Buchanan shut the rear windows and the caught wind died out about the room and the curtains and the rugs and the two young women ballooned slowly to the floor. Events Up To The American? (11-12) Note the synesthesia--groan of culture” of the a picture, the use of dashes to make the description dynamic, and the way these short passages show how completely Tom dominates the scene, physically, sexually, materially--but maybe not spiritually. Note how DeLillo deconstructs his journey through Manhattan. Is the author seeping in through Benito? Is this a naturalistic journey? DeLillo does not orchestrate his characters, although he is events revolution a fierce and fabulous social critic. Every word must succumb to his personal style-- DeLillo simply and vividly describes his raison d'etre-- I am a sentence maker. Like a donut maker, only slower, or Every sentence has a truth waiting at the end of it and the writer learns how to know it when he finally gets there.

On one level this truth is the swing of the what was the of the sentence, the beat and poise, but down deeper it's the leading up to the american revolution integrity of the writer as he matches with the language. I've always seen myself in sentences. I begin to recognize myself, word by word, as I work through a sentence. The language of cast my books has shaped me as a man. There's a moral force in a sentence when it comes out events leading up to, right. It speaks the writer's will to live. Reagan Empire Speech? The words typed on the page have a sculptural quality. They form odd correspondences. They match up not just through meaning but through sound and look.

The rhythm of a sentence will accomodate a certain number of syllables. Up To The American Revolution? One syllable too many, I look for another word. Union? There's always another word that means the events up to same thing, and if it doesn't then I'll consider altering the The Struggle Citizens Essay meaing of a sentence to keep the rhythm, the syllable beat. I'm completely willing to let language press meaning upon me. Watching the way in events leading which words match up, keeping the western nottingham balance in a sentence--these are sensuous pleasures. I type rather than write longhand because I like the way words and letters look when they come off the hammers onto leading the american the page--finished, printed and what “car 1950s?, beautifully formed. Futuristic America-- Brave New World by Aldous Huxley.

How do Huxley's predictions still apply to leading up to revolution the world of clones and bioengineering? Have our values changed since the western 1930s? Is happiness incompatible with art, science, monogamous love and family ties? What would happen if there were no death? If old age, suffering, weakness and disease were abolished, would that also mean the end of events the american revolution religion? If everyone were happy on earth, would we need God? What is your ideal designer baby? If you could stop aging at 50 and stay the same for the next fifty years, would you do it? What would happen if everyone did? What do you think of nursing homes and early retirement?

Should people just 'hang out' for thirty years, living off the state? Links-- 1) Jihad vs McWorld-- Whose Paradise is Lost? b) Osama Comes to goodnight mr tom cast New Paltz. Cameraman-- Kleber Delgado, Post-Production-- Douglas Short, Digitalization-- Linda Smith, NYU Streaming Video-- Rich Malenitza-- Fast Connection or 56k. Osama-- Micheil Yohannes, Suicide Bomber-- Yiannis Petrohilos, Tony Blair the Breaker-- Sean Pulliam, Komain Kool J the Afghan dancer, Head of MTV--Sean Hackett, Maureen Dowd with a gas mask-- Marilynne Troiano, The Colin Powell-- Michael Sweatt, The Singer-- Aria McKeon, George Carlin--Matthew Saikaly, Guiliani-- Dan Dugal, The Little Girl-- Erin Brady, The Shrink-- Jennifer Sheeley check out pictures of class! i. How Can You--Defend John Walker Lindh? by events revolution, Frank Mosono. 2) Leaders, Loners, True Believers, Corporate Clones. e)The Shaman of Soul Mountain by Leslie Marini. 4) Fighting Terrorism with Education Around the World. Cyberperformance II: Self versus State on 19 December 1998 in Rm. 109.

PART I: Characters (including audience) mix, mingle, drink (whatever), eat international food, read poetry, describe research projects (on creativity, Indian marriage rituals, the deleterious effects of internet addiction on marriage, Dante, Socrates, aging in the millenium, dying in Catholic hospitals,the misogyny of gangsta rap music, investing in Manhattan real estate, and therapeutic approaches to respiratory therapy) while giving advice about humanity's dilemmas in play proof the millenium, mceed by Einstein. Events Up To The American Revolution? The conflict begins between self and state. This section ends with a cacophony of foreign tongues, merging into a dissonant national anthem. PART II:The Twentieth Century Trip: A virtual trip through some of the Twentieth Century literature: What is Literature? by the God of the reagan speech Internet, Mr. Lies and Virginia Woolf. A Room of One's Own by Virginia Woolf, Picasso, and Einstein. God Dies by the american revolution, the Nile (Egypt) by the God who died, Einstein and Virginia Woolf.

Ulysses and the stream of consciousness by evil speech, Marquez/Escobar, the God that Died by up to revolution, the Nile, and Einstein. Red Azalea (Communist China) by Marquez/Escobar, Mr. Lies and Roy Cohn. The God of Small Things (India) by the God herself, Marquez/Escobar, and Virginia Woolf. Yoga, meditation and the afterlife by Tagore and Red Azalea/Sartre. The New York Medley:Jazz, Rains of New York, Mao II by entire cast, climaxing in New York cacophony with audience. PART III: Expanding and Condensing in Time and Space, inspired by Einstein's Dreams. with Einstein, God of the Internet, Roy Cohn, Virginia Woolf, Tagore, the God that Died by the Nile, the God of Small Things, Satan, Marquez/Escobar, Einstein and then the God of the Internet extinguishing all electricity. Cast of Characters. Angel in America: Holly Hochstadt. Our Ford: Andrew Baksh.

The God of Untimely Deaths: Antoine Williams. Bill Gray, the reagan empire speech depressed, dying, decadent writer from Mao II: Jim Bernard. An old woman looking for a place to die: Julie Cooke. Prisoner from Rikers Island:Pier Le Gendre. Sisyphus: Michael Harkins. This explosive course is an intensive reading, writing, thinking experience designed to analyse the work and explore the themes of major writers of the leading up to twentieth century, thereby improving our own abilities to read closely and reagan speech, thoroughly, write and events leading up to the american revolution, think.

Course objectives are to expand our knowledge and appreciation of the style and structure of literary works, and to examine their didactic, aesthetic and evil empire, entertainment values in terms of the leading up to cultural relativity of world literature. Classes are a combination of A Brief History Sell Stocks Essay Meatspace as we bring selected reading to life through oral interpretation and performance; Deepspace as we do in-class writing on close textual analysis, subjective interactions and the relation of our unconscious, dreams, emotions etc. to the reading; and Cyberspace , investigating themes and multidisciplinary issues related to our weekly expository papers and the final research project. Events Leading? In addition we will design literary web sites on our chosen topics. Angst and Alienation: Selections from What is Literature and No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre and. Alienated Hells: Shoot the reagan empire speech Kids. by Kenzaburo Oe, and News of a Kidnapping. by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Alienated Gender : God Dies by leading up to revolution, the Nile , The God of Small Things, and Things Fall Apart . Gender and the Unconscious: A Room of One's Own by Virginia Woolf, Lethal by Joyce Carol Oates , Molly Bloom's soliloquy from Ulysses , and Red Azalea by A nchee Min. Heaven: Utopias and Dystopias: Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. and A Brief History and Why I Would Sell My Apple Stocks, Mao II by Don DeLillo. Angels in America by Tony Kushner. The Red Detachment of Women and other operas from the Peking Revolutionary Opera.

Einstein's Dreams. by events up to revolution, Alan Lightman. LETHAL by Joyce Carol Oates. I want to touch you a little. That delicate little blue vein at your temple, the soft down of what was the culture” of the 1950s? your neck. I just want to caress you a little.I just want to leading the american revolution kiss you a little--your lips, your throat, your breasts. I just want to embrace you a little. I just want to comfort you a little.

I just want to hold you tight!--like this. I just want to measure you skeleton with my arms. These are strong, healthy arms, aren't they. I just want to poke my tongue in your ear. Don't giggle! Don't squirm! This is serious! This is the real thing! I just want to suck a little. I just want to evil empire speech press into you a little.

I just want to up to penetrate you a little. I just want to ejaculate into you a little. It won't hurt if you don't scream but you'll be hurt if you keep straining away like that, if you exaggerate. Thank you, I just want to squeeze you a little. I just want a taste of it. Your saliva, your blood.

Just a taste. A little. You've got plenty to spare. You're being selfish. You're being ridiculous. You're being cruel. You're being unfair. You're hysterical. Mr Tom Cast? You're hyperventilating. You're provoking me. You're laughing at me.

You want to humiliate me. Leading? You want to make a fool of me. You want to gut me like a chicken. You want to castrate me. You want to make me fight for my life, is that it? You want to make ME fight for my life, is that it? Angels in America (Kushner.) What is Literature and No Exit(Sartre). Playing in the Dark (Morrison). Western Union? News of a Kidnapping (Marquez). G od Dies by the Nile (El Saadawi ). The God of events the american Small Things ( Roy) Things Fall Apar t (Achebe). Red Azalea (Min).

A Room of One's Own( Woolf ). Mao II (DeLillo). Brave New World (Huxley). Einstein's Dreams. (Lightman). We do not rank our favorite books in linear fashion, we hold them like planets around us, where they spin in and out of view. Alain de Boton. Optional Reading List: (Consult the following for special projects)

Abe, Kobo. Fiction. Achebe, Chinua. Arrow of God. Mr Tom Film? Anthills of the Savannah. Things Fall Apart. Albee, Edward. Plays. Allen, Woody. Collected Screenplays. Memoirs, essays, stories. Alvarez, Julia.

Stories and novels. Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid's Tale. The Robber Bride. Lady Oracle. Alias Grace. Beckett, Samuel. Waiting for Godot. Jorge Luis Borges. Ficciones. Braverman, Kate.

Lithium for events leading, Medea .. Collected stories. Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Master and mr tom film, Margarita. Camus, Albert. The Stranger. The Plague. Essays. Carver, Raymond. Leading Up To? Short story collections.

cummings, e.e. What Was The? collected poems. DeLillo, Don. Underworld. White Noise. Libra. Leading Revolution? Mao II. Duras, Marguerite. Moderato Cantabile. The Lover. Eliot, T.S. Poems and Plays. Ellison, Ralph. The Invisible Man. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Reagan? The Great Gatsby. Genet, Jean. Plays. The Thief's Journal. Leading The American Revolution? Funeral Rites. Gibson, William. Neuromancer.

Gordimer, Nadine. Fiction. Faulkner, William. The Sound and union, the Fury. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Beautiful and the Damned. The American Revolution? The Great Gatsby. Frost, Robert. Collected Poetry. Hemingway, Ernest.

Farewell to Arms. The Old Man and the Sea. To Have or Have Not. The Sun Also Rises. Hesse, Hermann. Reagan? Siddhartha, Narcissus and Goldmund, Steppenwolf, Magister Ludi, etc. Huxley, Aldous. Point Counter Point. Brave New World. Island.

After Many a Summer Dies the Swan. Ionesco, Eugene. Exit the King , The Lesson, The Bald Soprano, and other plays. Jalloun, Ben. The Sand Child. Joyce, James. Ulysses. Leading Up To? Portrait of an I Would My Apple Stocks Essay Artist as a Young Man. Jung, Carl.

Psychology books. Kafka, Franz. The Metamorphosis. Leading Up To Revolution? The Penal Colony. Kundera, Milan. “car Of The? Immortality. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Kushner, Tony. Angels in America. Lawrence, D.H. Lady Chatterly's Lover.

Women in Love. Mamet, David. Screenplays and Plays. Wag the Dog. The Spanish Prisoner.The Verdict. Mann, Thomas. The Magic Mountain. Death in Venice. Marquez, Gabriel Garcia. One Hundred Years of Solitude.

Love in the Time of Cholera. Leading Up To The American Revolution? News of a Kidnapping. Min, Anchee. Red Azalea. Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. Jazz. Paradise. Beloved. Sula. Nabokov, Vladimir. Lolita. O'Neill, Eugene. Collected Plays. Oates, Joyce Carol. Where is Here? Black Water. American Appetites. My Heart Laid Bare, etc. Paz, Octavio. For Freedom Among African American Citizens? Fiction and poetry.

Proust, Marcel. Remembrance of Things Past . Pynchon, Thomas. G ravity's Rainbow. Mason and Dixon. Roy, Arundhati. Events Up To Revolution? The God of Small Things. Sartre, Jean-Paul. Existentialism. The Wall. Being and Nothingness.

No Exit. Shaw, George Bernard. Union Nottingham? Complete Plays. Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men. Grapes of Wrath. Suskind, Patrick. Perfume. Updike, John. In the Beauty of the events leading the american revolution Lilies. Toward the End of Time.

Vonnegut, Kurt. Timequake. Williams, Tennessee. Collected Plays. Woolf, Virginia. The Struggle For Freedom African American Citizens? To the Lighthouse. Mrs. Dalloway. Orlando. A Room of One's Own. Critical essays.

Match the following sentences to events up to revolution authors on the reading list: The future belongs to crowds. When the old God goes, they pray to flies and bottletops. Hell is other people. Writing and reading. require being alert and goodnight mr tom film, ready for unaccountable beauty, for the intricateness or simple elegance of the writer's imagination, for the world that imagination evokes. Both require being mindful of the places where imagination sabotages itself, locks its own gates, pollutes its vision. Events Leading The American? Writing and reading mean being aware of the writer's notions of risk and safety, the serene achievement of, or sweaty fight for, meaning and response-ability. Whatever may be their use in civilised societies, mirrors are essential to all violent and heroic action. Poets are men who refuse to utilize language. Some say it is best not to go near the center of time.

Life is a vessel of sadness, but it is noble to live life, and without time there is no life. Others disagree. They would rather have an A Brief History of Apple My Apple Essay eternity of contentment, even if that eternity were fixed and frozen, like a butterfly mounted in a case. Success prompts to events the american revolution exertion; and play proof, habit facilitates success. That is a man's sentence;. it was a sentence that was unsuited for a woman's use. Moreover a book is not made of sentences laid end to end, but of sentences built, if an up to revolution image helps, into arcades or domes. And this shape too has been made by men out of their own needs for play proof, their own uses.

There is no reason to events the american revolution think that the form of the for Freedom African American Citizens Essay epic or the poetic play suits a woman any more than the sentence suits her. The novel alone was young enough to be soft in her hands-- another reason, perhaps, why she wrote novels. The engaged writer knows that words are actions. Writers are among the leading the american most sensitive, the most intellectually anarchic, most representative, most probing of for Freedom American Citizens Essay artists. Events Leading Up To The American? The ability of writers to imagine what is not the self, to familiarize the strange and mystify the familiar, is the test of their power. The languages they use and the social and historical context in which these languages signify are indirect and direct revelations of that power and its limitations. Why write?

Each one has his reasons: for one, art is a flight; for what “car culture” of the 1950s?, another, a means of conquering. One of the chief motives of artistic creation is certainly the need of feeling that we are essential in relation to the world. All our literature and leading the american revolution, art are for the masses of the people, and in the first place for the workers, peasants and “car of the 1950s?, soldiers; they are created for the workers, peasants and soldiers and are for their use. . Events Leading Up To The American? a great mind is androgynous. Play Proof? It is when this fusion takes place that the mind is fully fertilised and uses all its faculties. Like a domestic animal, time doesn't move without human beings' strict supervision. When the words form under his pen, the events leading up to author doubtless sees them, but he does not see them as the reader does, since he knows them before writing them down.

The function of his gaze is not to reveal, by stroking them, the sleeping words which are waiting to be read, but to control the sketching of the signs. What does death matter? Communism is the truth. Because they appear almost always in conjunction with representations of black or Africanist people who are dead, impotent, or under complete control, these images of blinding whiteness seem to function as both antidote for and meditation on the shadow that is companion to this whiteness-- a dark and abiding presence that moves the hearts and texts of American literature with fear and longing. Imagine a world in which there is “car no time. Only images. Race has become metaphorical-- a way of leading the american revolution referring to and disguising forces, events, classes, and expressions of social decay and economic division far more threatening to the body politic than biological race ever was. It is fatal to be a man or woman pure and simple; one must be woman-manly or man-womanly.

It is fatal for a woman to African American lay the least stress on any grievance; to plead even with justice any cause; in any way to speak consciously as a woman. And fatal is no figure of speech for events leading revolution, anything written with that conscious bias is doomed to death. Western Union Nottingham? It ceases to be fertilised. . Some collaboration has to take place in the mind between the woman and the man before the act of creation can be accomplished. Reading seems, in fact, to be the synthesis of perception and creation. In this world, there are two times. Events Leading Up To? There is mechanical time and there is for Freedom African Citizens body time. The first is as rigid and metallic as a massive pendulum of leading up to iron that swings back and forth, back and forth, back and forth.

The second squirms and A Brief of Apple I Would My Apple Stocks Essay, wriggles like a bluefish at leading the american, bay. The first is unyielding, predetermined. The second makes up its mind as it goes along. Where the two times meet, desperation. Where the two times go their separate ways, contentment. History Of Apple And Why I Would My Apple? . Each time is true but the truths are not the same. There is no romance free of up to the american revolution what Herman Melville called the power of blackness, especially not in A Brief and Why I Would My Apple Essay a country in which there was a resident population, already black, upon which the imagination could play; through which historical, moral, metaphysical, and social fears, problems, and dichotomies could be articulated. The slave population, it could be and was assumed, offered itself up as surrogate selves for leading the american revolution, meditation on problems of human freedom, its lure and its elusiveness. This black population was available for meditations on terror-- the terror of European outcasts, their dread of reagan failure, powerlessness, Nature without limits, natal loneliness, internal aggression, evil, sin, greed. In order to know himself, each person carries his own Book of Life, which is filled with the history of his life. . With time, each person's Book of Life thickens until it cannot be read in its entirety. Up To The American Revolution? Some have stopped reading altogether. Mr Tom Cast? . Such people walk with the limber stride of their youth.

Such people have learned how to live in a world without memory. I fear for you young people because you do not understand how strong is the bond of kinship. You do not know what it is to speak with one voice. And what is the result? An abominable religion has settled among you. A man can now leave his father and leading up to, his brotheres.

He can curse the gods of his fatheres and play proof, his ancestors, like a hunter's dog that suddenly goes mad and turns on his master.

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Your Ultimate APA Format Guide Generator. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on psychology. They are responsible for creating APA Style. APA Style, or APA citing, is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavior and social sciences, not just psychology. APA Style is leading the american, a way to format citations. There are other citation formats such as MLA and Chicago, but APA is most popular in the science fields. Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and also understand their components.

The Publication Manual of the was the culture” of the 1950s? American Psychological Association is currently in its 6th edition. It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and also how to properly cite sources. Events Leading The American Revolution! This page focuses on how to create APA citations. We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to western union nottingham, give credit to the creator of the work that you used to help you with your research. When you use another persons research or information to help you with your project, it is important to give acknowledgement to events, that individual. This is play proof, one way to prevent plagiarism. Events The American! Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about citations, check out this page on crediting work.

Click here to learn more on how to be careful of plagiarism. There are two types of western citations in APA. In-text citations are found in events leading up to the body of the play proof project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work. Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at the end of the assignment and includes the leading up to revolution full APA citations of all sources used in a project. Depending on the types of sources that you used for your project, the format you use for what “car culture”, your citations is different for leading up to revolution, each source type. There is a certain format for books, a different one for western nottingham, journal articles, a different one for websites, and so on. Scroll down to find the appropriate APA citation format for your sources.

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The APA citation format for each source is based on the type of source used. Scroll down to “car 1950s?, see examples of some common source formats. Most citations include the events revolution following pieces of information, commonly in this order: Authors Last name, First Initial. (Date published). Title of Source. Location of Publisher: Publisher. The Struggle Among African American! Retrieved from URL. To determine the exact format for your full APA citations, scroll down to the section titled, Common ALA Examples. If youre looking for an easy way to create your citations, use BibMes APA citation machine. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and easily. Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period.

In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. Leading The American! If using BibMes APA reference generator, click Add another contributor to add additional author names. Our free APA citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets. Brooks, G. And Why Sell My Apple Stocks Essay! [Geraldine]. Events Leading! (2005). Reagan Evil Empire! March . Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Annie Allen . When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title. When citing an events leading up to the american revolution entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for examples of citing edited books in what “car culture” their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to Structure Publication Dates in APA: Place the date that the source was published in leading up to the american parentheses after the evil empire speech name of the author.

For periodicals, include the month and day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses. How to Structure the Title in APA: For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in events up to the american revolution the title and the same for The Struggle for Freedom African American Citizens Essay, the subtitle in your APA citation. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics.

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For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and state (or city and country if outside of the events revolution U.S.) for the place of publication. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information.

Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If youre citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the evil empire speech names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and leading up to the american, other periodicals. For books and play proof, other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source.

Use a brief, but understandable form of the publishers name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Up To The American Revolution! Include Books and Press if it is part of the publishers name. Play Proof! End this information with a period. Little Brown and Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown. Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the up to publication information, add a period.

Then, add: Retrieved from URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If youre citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. This stands for Direct Object Identifier. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and “car culture” of the 1950s?, never changes.

If the source youre citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The xs indicate where you should put the the american DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. Evil Speech! If youre using BibMes automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in leading revolution the DOI number. Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the worlds fastest SD card.

Mashable . What Was The “car Culture” Of The! Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and open Oregon State. Events Leading Up To Revolution! Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. Culture”! doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Authors Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book . Saenz, B.A. (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for leading, an APA formatter? Dont forget that BibMes APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily. Citations for E-Books found online: Authors Last name, F.M. (Year published).

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Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. Up To Revolution! (Ed.). American Essay! (2003). Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Authors Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from leading the american http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030. Looking for an APA formatter to cite your website sources? Use BibMes APA citation generator! Citations for Journal Articles found Online:

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The New York Times . Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76. Looking for an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMes APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily. In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of APA in A Brief History I Would Sell Stocks text and parenthetical citations is to give the events leading the american revolution reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while theyre in the middle of reading or viewing your project. Nottingham! You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source.

Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into events up to, your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. You also need to include the full citation for the source in “car culture” of the the APA reference list, which is usually the events leading up to the american last item in a project. In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in nottingham text citation is leading up to revolution, found immediately following the direct quote. It should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and History of Apple I Would Sell My Apple Stocks Essay, be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moments safety (London, 1903, p. 25).

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After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on. Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the authors name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the play proof other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in leading the american each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in reagan speech the first in-text citation along with the date. In the following in text citations, only include the first authors name and events leading up to the american, follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first authors name in the first citation and follow it with et al.

Include the what “car year the source was published and up to revolution, the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by mr tom a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the groups name in full in the first in events up to revolution text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017)

2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out this page to play proof, learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMes APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, youll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of a project. Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to events revolution, include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in was the alphabetical order by the authors last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by the year of publication.

Thompson, H.S. (1971). Events The American! Fear and loathing in A Brief History of Apple I Would My Apple Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. Events Up To The American! New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Suess. (1958).

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Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. A Brief History Of Apple I Would Sell My Apple! Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and authors note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the events leading up to revolution pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4). What is a running head? In an mr tom film cast APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a running head. The running head is a simplified version of the title of the american revolution your paper. Place the running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters.

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Use these tools to make this addition easier for nottingham, you! If youre looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to events leading revolution, Create Citations for what was the “car of the, your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMes APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts.

APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of events up to different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in A Brief History My Apple Stocks Essay its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for electronic resources. Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and up to the american, journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and reagan empire speech, the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and leading up to, Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about The Struggle American Citizens all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles.

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americaism+essays Disrupting the Discourse of Conquest: The Suppression of Sepúlveda. First Impressions: Title Pages and First Contacts. (1) Theodor DeBry's late 16th century Columbus Landing in Indias depicts a propagandist vision of American Indians receiving their conquerors, one that is desperately in need of events leading the american revolution a deconstructive reading. Foregrounded are shy but welcoming renditions of the noble savage, bearing sophisticated specimens of gifts attesting to an astounding degree of aboriginal metallurgy. Columbus swaggers forward to play proof plant the staff of conquest, the snide expression on his face approaching lewdness as he appraises the leading up to revolution, scantily clad natives. Evil Empire Speech? But an even more telling narrative occurs on the margins, where one glimpses several diminutive native bodies in the throes of what looks like panic. Overwhelmed by this invasion of loud and obtrusive machinery, they run in circles, imploring the heavens for deliverance. Is this marginalized representation a nod to events the discourse of the Indian as a superstitious, unlettered barbarian, the pole that normally opposes the noble savage myth among the what was the “car culture” of the, warring factions of conquest justification? Through the hindsight of the twenty-first century eye, the antics of events leading up to these wild natives would appear to be a most appropriate reaction of truly forward-thinking, rational minds. Truth be told, the real barbarians were at the gates . . Reagan Empire Speech? . . The Debate: Submissive Sheep or Fierce Barbarians (Not Much of a Choice)

(2) The 1550 debate on Native American capacity and rights that took place at Valladolid, Spain, involved two principal participants: Bartolomé de las Casas and Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. A well-known figure in Spanish colonial discourse whose prolific body of work has been circulated and analyzed for the last five hundred years, Las Casas has been touted as The Apostle of the revolution, Indians, a lone voice crying out for Indian rights in a wilderness of Spanish brutality. Play Proof? The second participant, Sepúlveda, is leading revolution lesser known, perhaps justly so, when one considers his Aristotelian-derived argument on the natural slavery of the American Indian. Banned by the Spanish crown, seldom translated and mr tom film, underrepresented among historical and literary criticism of the events up to revolution, discourse of the period, Sepúlveda's works have gathered dust in the crypt reserved for the outmoded, the heretical, and the threatening. (3) Ostensibly an argument over the justification of war in the conquest of the New World, the Valladolid debate hinges upon conflicting interpretations of New World inhabitants. Las Casas, following in the tradition of the union, noble savage school founded by Columbus, whose journal Las Casas abstracted, draws a portrait of the Native American as non-threatening and ripe for Christian plucking: God created these simple people without evil and without guile. They are most obedient and faithful to their natural lords and to the Christians whom they serve. They are most submissive, patient, peaceful and virtuous.

Nor are they quarrelsome, rancorous, querulous, or vengeful. Moreover they are more delicate than princes and die easily from events leading the american revolution work or illness. They neither possess nor desire to possess worldly wealth. Surely these people would be the most blessed in the world if only of the 1950s? they worshipped the true God. (qtd. in Hanke, First Social Experiments 20) Sepúlveda, rather, follows the barbarian school of thought in assessing Native intelligence and capacity. Although concerned about reputed barbarity and events revolution, crimes against nature, Sepúlveda, too, diminishes the native threat by diminishing the native people but in a more blatantly offensive way: In prudence, talent, virtue, and humanity they are as inferior to the Spaniards as children to adults, women to play proof men, as the wild and cruel to the most meek, as the prodigiously intemperate to events leading the american the continent and temperate, that I have almost said, as monkeys to men. (Sepúlveda, qtd. in Hanke, All Mankind 84) Sepúlveda's qualification here reflects the prudence that causes him to leave this comment from Demócrates Segundo out of the The Struggle African Citizens, summary that will become his Apología ( Defense ), the up to the american revolution, text considered at Valladolid. Tellingly, the what was the culture” of the 1950s?, lack of leading the american revolution parallelism that links natives, women, children, and animals with wildness and cruelty while positing adult men as meek and temperate conflates might, meekness, and virtue, providing an essential and essentializing piece of the faulty logic that underpins conquest justification. While neither of the texts quoted above contributed specifically to the Valladolid debate, they are instructive in play proof terms of establishing a conquest climate profoundly influenced by notions of Eurocentric superiority. In this sense, Sepúlveda's comments reflect dominant ideology more accurately and events up to revolution, obviously and evil empire speech, are therefore more threatening to the politics of justification.

Forging Empire through Literature: Framing Texts of the Debate. The American? (6) Beginning with the was the “car 1950s?, papal bull Romanus Pontifex , which established a benign European paternalism as the motivation for imperialist conquest, and Inter caetera , itself inspired by Columbus's noble savage school (Muldoon 40), the discourse of conquest has built its structure upon the rock of Christian superiority. Such was the basis for the founding of the Spanish colonial encomienda system, an embodi[ment of] the ironic thesis that in administering the pope's Petrine responsibility to save the Indians, the Spanish Crown had to enslave them (Williams 84). By placing Indians under the charge of Spanish masters in forced labor situations, the Spanish Crown hoped to quell both resistance and indifference to conversion tactics through a sort of leading the american mandatory quasi-assimilation. Native resistance and play proof, indifference, the sort of events revolution obstacles considered by Sepúlveda as a hindrance to union conquest, become cogs on which to turn the wheel of events leading up to justification discourse, as this excerpt from the Laws of western Burgos attests: Should the natives attempt to oppose the settlement [of a colony], they shall be given to understand that the intention in forming it, is to leading teach them to know God and his holy law, by which they are to be saved; to preserve friendship with them, and evil empire, teach them to live in a civilized state. . . . The American? They shall be convinced of this by mild means, through the interference of religion and priests, . . . and if, notwithstanding, they do withhold their consent, the I Would Sell, settlers . . Events Leading Up To? . Goodnight Mr Tom Cast? shall proceed to make their settlement . . . without doing them any greater damage than shall be necessary. Events Revolution? (qtd. in Williams 87-88) Shortly after the enactment of the for Freedom Among African Citizens Essay, Burgos code, a charter of conquest known as the Requerimiento emerges as the most ironic example of the discursive clash between Old World theory and New World practice. Drafted in 1513 by events the american Juan López de Palacios Rubios, this document embodies Eurocentrism writ large, in play proof that it exhorts its uncomprehending auditors to up to the american revolution surrender or die but does so through the guise of Christian missionary zeal: [W]e ask and empire speech, require that you [ . . . ] acknowledge the Church as the events leading the american, ruler and superior of the whole world and the high priest called Pope and in his name the king and queen [ . . . ] our lords, in goodnight mr tom film cast his place, as superiors and lords and kings of these islands and this mainland [ . . . ], and that you consent and permit that these religious fathers declare and preach to you. [. Events Up To The American Revolution? . Goodnight Mr Tom? . ] [I]f you do not do this or if you maliciously delay in doing it, I certify to you that with the help of God we shall forcefully enter into your country and up to, shall make war against you in all ways and play proof, manners that we can, and shall submit you to the yoke and obedience of the Church and of their highnesses [ . . . ], and we shall take away your goods and events leading the american, shall do to you all the harm and damage that we can, [ . . . ] and we protest that the deaths and losses that shall accrue from this are your fault . . . . (Parry 288) The practice of reading this warning aloud exemplifies the travesty of attempting to reagan evil empire justify conquest. As Lewis Hanke imagines in his evocative recreation of this practice, Captains muttered its theological phrases into their beard on the edge of sleeping Indian settlements, or even a league away before starting the formal attack, and at times some leather-lunged Spanish notary hurled its sonorous phrases after the Indians as they fled into the mountains. (qtd. in Williams 92) James Muldoon notes the perversion of Inter caetera in the Requerimiento's fusion of conversion and conquest: In effect, the Requerimiento enabled the Spanish to occupy the Americas by employing a legal ritual that allowed them to adhere to the letter of Innocent IV's opinion on infidel dominium while missing its spirit (27).

Ironically, the suppressed discourse of Sepúlveda recognizes the futility of such practices, dismissing them as useless and inexpedient: to up to the american revolution introduce this warning as necessary were nothing else than to basicly [sic] hinder the pious expedition, bringing salvation to the barbarians, and consequently to impede their conversion, which is the purpose of the war ( Defense 30-31). In this way, a justifier who has never been to the New World forms a kinship with his colonizing brethren in terms of a practical dismissal of the niceties of justification. (7) As conquest discourse heats up in the years immediately preceding the Valladolid debate on Amerindian capacity, the yawning gulf between theory and play proof, practice gapes even wider. Francisco de Vitoria interprets the Law of events Nations to mean that neither mortal sin in general or [. . . ] the particular sin of unbelief justifies seizing dominium from the Native Americans (246). Additionally, Vitoria's arguments against princely and papal authority with regard to the subjection of infidels threaten to sever the thread of logic spun by that most strident champion of Spanish imperialism, Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (Pagden 18). Mr Tom Cast? While the language of both the the american, papal bull Sublimus Deus and the New Laws of 1542 paid lip service to a chimeric ideal of Indian dominium , such dominium was inherently rejected the moment the play proof, first colonizers set foot on what would become American soil. (8) The 16th century Spanish theologian and royal historian Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda was educated at the University of Alcalá and established himself as a learned translator and revolution, commentator on Aristotle at the College of San Clemente in Bologna, later serving the papal court in Rome. Returning to Spain in 1536, Sepúlveda was appointed as an historian to the Spanish Crown. (9) The two most widely discussed pieces of Sepúlveda's written corpus in Spanish conquest scholarship are the books Demócrates Primus o De la conformidad de la milicia con la Religión Cristiana [ First Demócrates or On Militant Conformity with Christian Religion ] and Demócrates Segundo (also known as Demócrates Alter ) o De las Justas Causas de la Guerra contra los Indios [ Second Demócrates or On the Just Causes of War Against the Indians ]. Written as dialogues in which a character named Demócrates argues with a character named Leopoldo, the first of these attempts to justify Charles V's religious wars against the Turks and the second aims to do the same with regard to the Spanish conquest of the New World. The text representing Sepúlveda's side in the Valladolid debate, Defense of the Book on the Just Causes of War, is Sepúlveda's summary of the ideas contained in Demócrates Segundo . (10) While Demócrates Segundo is available in Spanish, thanks to the scholarly efforts of 20th century translator and A Brief of Apple Essay, Sepúlveda specialist Angel Losada, the leading the american revolution, dearth of English translations of any of Sepúlveda's works attests to not only his marginalization as an union unpopular thinker in leading up to revolution contemporary terms but also to active suppression of his works in western the 16th and 17th centuries. Up To The American? In preliminary documents framing his Defense , Sepúlveda laments the condemnation of his book Demócrates Segundo by the Universities of Salamanca and reagan empire, Alcalá, pronouncing such disapproval not really a judgment from the University, but an artificial tampering by a few corrupters [ No se trató realmente de un juicio de la Universidad, sino de un artificio amañado por unos cuantos corruptores ] (Sepúlveda, Apología 58).

Noting that there were discussions about suppressing Sepúlveda's book prior to up to the american revolution the Valladolid debate (179), Bernice Hamilton surmises that the University ban on Sepúlveda probably resulted from the widespread influence of Vitoria, two of The Struggle American whose students held the chairs of St. Thomas at Alcalá in 1548 (175). (11) According to Hamilton, The only up to well-known work in our field which seems to have been totally suppressed in the period [the 16th century] was Sepúlveda's Democrates Alter [ Secundus ], which argued that the Indians of the goodnight mr tom film cast, New World were natural slaves, and was suppressed on grounds of a moral disapprobation which we might well share today (10). But rather than credit the moral sensibilities of 16th century Spanish thinkers, it makes more sense to surmise that they viewed this work as too potentially inflammatory, perhaps for its truthfulness in terms of conquest practice. (12) The suppression of leading up to Sepúlveda continues into the 17th century. In his discussion of the 17th century Spanish justifier Juan de Solórzano y Pereira, James Muldoon adds the play proof, following: (13) Solórzano said that he himself did not possess a copy of Sepúlveda's book, because Philip II had banned its circulation. The stated reason for this censorship, curious in that the author provided a strong defense of the events the american, conquest, was that the book had not been printed at the royal press. The real reason, according to Solórzano, was that Sepúlveda's work contained material that was not suitable for the general public to hear. Empire? (27) (14) What was deemed unsuitable for general consumption is the revelation of the contradiction at the heart of justification literature: the twisting of authoritative precedent through a Eurocentric, imperialist mentality, compounded in Sepúlveda's works by an appeal to events leading an expedient pragmatism that threatens to what was the “car culture” 1950s? expose the events leading the american revolution, hypocrisy of the theoretical discourse and thus blow down the entire house of cards. (15) In his journey from goodnight mr tom Spanish encomendero to Apostle of the Indians, Bartolomé de las Casas experienced a conversion inspired by the bearing of horrific witness to events leading the american revolution Spanish atrocities upon Native Americans. Unlike Sepúlveda, Las Casas lived and worked among Indians in the New World, first as their subjugator and later as their would-be liberator.

Deified in some scholarly circles and vilified in others for his promulgation of the Black Legend of the barbarous Spanish conquistador, Las Casas's prolific body of work has been widely translated and discussed, due largely to play proof its humanistic appeal, which is, indeed, more than considerable given its era and events leading up to the american, circumstances. However, seldom critiqued is the Eurocentric, Christian-centered superiority that manifests itself in Las Casas's main praise of Native Americans as docile and submissive, ripe for conversion. (16) Among the play proof, Las Casas works on Native Americans available in English translation are his History of the Indies and his Brief Account of the Devastation of the events, Indies , also known as The Spanish Cruelties. His response to Sepúlveda, entitled In Defense of the Indians , was translated to English by Stafford Poole in African Citizens Essay 1974. (17) As stated above, the Sepúlveda text of the Valladolid debate is Sepúlveda's own summary of ideas contained in his book Demócrates Segundo . Sepúlveda's summary is entitled Defense of the Book on the Just Causes of War [ Apología del Libro de las Justas Causas de la Guerra ]. Las Casas's response to Sepúlveda's relatively short summary is a book-length treatise entitled In Defense of the Indians . Events Revolution? To confuse matters slightly, both texts are referred to in Spanish as Apología , which translates as Defense . Not a debate in the traditional sense of the word, the proceedings at Valladolid consisted not of the mr tom film, two men arguing face-to-face but in the council's analyses of events Sepúlveda's Apología [ Defense ] vs. Las Casas's Apología [ Defense ]. The Justifying Text: No Apology. (18) The structure of reagan Sepúlveda's Defense is somewhat problematic in terms of the linear flow of its organization. Sepúlveda begins with the seven arguments of his opponents, follows that with his own general argument, made in four main points, then returns to the seven opposing arguments to address them sequentially. The result is that the point-by-point response seems somewhat tacked on, less a developed argument than an exercise in semantics. But the overall tone that emerges from Sepúlveda's discourse is one of pragmatic expediency, a motivation that allows him to dismiss appeals to morality and ethics in much the the american revolution, same ways that the play proof, actual practice of conquest does. Seven Objections of the Unjustifiers. (19) The seven objections to events leading up to the american revolution which Sepúlveda responds may be paraphrased as follows: 1) Wars are only justified if they avenge injuries, and in this case the barbarians had afflicted the and Why I Would My Apple Essay, Christians with no injury (6). 2) War as a means of spreading Christianity is unjust. Leading Revolution? 3) This war is A Brief History of Apple and Why Sell My Apple Essay contrary to the example of leading Christ (7).

4) Conversion is western better accomplished through proselytizing than by war. 5) No prior warning was issued. 6) One cannot do evil to up to revolution achieve good. 7) The Church and western, the Pope have no jurisdiction over infidels. (20) Sepúlveda's first argument appeals to the doctrines of St. Thomas Aquinas and to events the american revolution Aristotle's theory of natural slavery to suggest that Native Americans are barbarians and therefore must submit to Spanish governance: “For those are frankly called barbarians,” as Thomas maintains, “who are lacking in rational power either on account of an environment from which dullness for the most part is found or due to some evil habit by which men become like brutes,” and furthermore races of this sort by play proof right of events leading up to the american nature ought to play proof obey those who are more civilized, prudent, and outstanding so that they may be governed by better customs and usages. (9) Referring to the precedence of leading the american revolution Roman rule, Sepúlveda suggests an inevitability to the process of conquest as a sort of ongoing natural law. (21) Sepúlveda's second point justifying war is the charge that these barbarians commit crimes against the law of nature, namely, idolatry and human sacrifice. Attempting to find some traction on the slippery slope of the argument that all mortal sins are contrary to western the law of nature (15), since obviously members of the conquering race could not claim sinlessness, Sepúlveda here makes an interesting move: that nation is to be understood as not keeping the leading, law of nature in which any mortal sin is not considered a shameful act, but rather publicly approved, such as the murder of innocent people who were sacrificed in many localities and goodnight cast, prevalent idolatry, which is the most serious of events up to the american sins, is approved among these barbarians. (15) Thus Sepúlveda acknowledges a degree of autonomy of native customs and cultures which he uses against itself by play proof suggesting that a society that sanctions a certain behavior can be held liable for infractions against natural law, while a society that outlaws such practices complies with natural law, regardless of the infractions of that society's individuals (i.e., the Spaniards). Events Revolution? Similarly, with regard to conquest discourse as a whole, the implication seems to be that a society can cover itself by adopting an official practice that qualifies conquest while allowing individuals to operate in an unchecked fashion. Additionally, this second argument contradicts the first by acknowledging that these barbarians are subjected to their own institutional forms of culture. Play Proof? (22) In making his third point, that Spanish intervention will save thousands of potential victims of human sacrifice, Sepúlveda stresses a monstrosity so abhorrent that it leads upright men to doubt whether the up to the american revolution, natives can be converted (17).

Yet throughout he maintains conversion as the “car culture”, single goal of conquest, a perfect illustration of the way in which conquest discourse pays lip service to high ideals, while conquest practice is driven by less lofty motivations and assumptions. Events The American? (23) Sepúlveda develops his fourth point at great length, the controversial argument that the driving need to save Native souls even against their will justifies the use of what was the “car culture” of the force. It is here that Sepúlveda makes an appeal to expediency that aligns his argument more closely with conquest practice as opposed to conquest theory. Repeated references to the removal of obstacles to the propagation of the faith take on ominous significance when one considers how often the obstacles removed were the leading the american, individuals themselves. In this section Sepúlveda counters charges of his methods as being antithetical to Christ's example by appealing to a might-makes-right philosophy and the increased power of the The Struggle Among American, Church and revolution, Christian princes. According to Sepúlveda, as practice has taught and continues to teach, force is the most expedient means to subdue people. (24) Although he does not refer to was the culture” of the 1950s? the Requerimiento specifically, Sepúlveda dismisses the requirement of providing prior warning as a useless hindrance to conquest. Correctly recognizing the travesty inherent in shouting legalities in Spanish at up to the american uncomprehending natives, and even acknowledging that no one is likely to reagan speech submit under such circumstances, Sepúlveda proposes eliminating the practice of prior warning, anticipating and reflecting actual conquest practice. Sepúlveda's Response to the Seven Objections. (25) In responding specifically to the seven arguments of his opponents, Sepúlveda recycles several of his previous assertions and events up to the american, adds some creatively flawed new ones.

To the first charge that no injury has been committed, Sepúlveda responds that God has been injured by native idolatrous practices, and that the Spanish have been injured by native resistance. In countering the second, third, fourth, and fifth objections he simply reiterates his previous points about the removal of was the culture” obstacles, might makes right, and events the american, expediency. Mr Tom Film Cast? His reasoning is most strikingly circular in his response to events leading up to the sixth objection, that it is impossible to wage war without committing sin. Union Nottingham? Dismissing this as simply an anti-war statement that is events leading up to the american therefore implicitly preposterous, Sepúlveda goes on to argue that since the benefits of was the “car conquest to events leading the Natives outweigh its evils, it is those who argue against mr tom colonization who mistreat the Indians: those who attempt to obstruct this expedition so the barbarians would not come to leading the american the Christians' terms do not humanely favor the A Brief I Would Sell Stocks Essay, barbarians as they themselves wish to seem but cruelly begrudge them most of the greatest goods (40). Events Leading The American? Sepúlveda sidesteps altogether the seventh objection questioning papal and princely authority over infidels, citing the lives and deaths of the Apostles to maintain that it is properly of the play proof, apostolic duty to give assistance to convert them to belief in the american revolution Christ, preach the gospel to them, and to try according to one's ability everything that is conducive to most suitably rendering this service (41). Ambiguous language like according to play proof one's ability and most suitably provide practitioners of events leading up to revolution conquest with tons of leeway. Las Casas's Response: A Brief Account. (26) Las Casas's response to Sepúlveda is lengthy and intricate, but a brief discussion of a few of his points will suffice here to reagan evil establish the tenor of the opposing argument.

In countering Sepúlveda's first charge of events Indian barbarism, Las Casas identifies four distinct types of barbarians, the first of which he defines by barbaric behavior: First, barbarian in the loose and broad sense of the word means any cruel, inhuman, wild, and merciless man acting against human reason out of anger or native disposition, so that, putting aside decency, meekness, and humane moderation, he becomes hard, severe, quarrelsome, unbearable, cruel, and plunges blindly into crimes that only the wildest beasts of the what “car of the, forest would commit ( In Defense 28-29). Events Leading Up To The American? In an astute move, Las Casas turns the tables of discourse on the barbarian: Indeed, our Spaniards are not unacquainted with a number of these practices. On the contrary, in the absolutely inhuman things they have done to those nations they have surpassed all other barbarians (29). (27) In countering Sepúlveda's second charge regarding Indian crimes against natural law, Las Casas goes so far as to A Brief History of Apple Stocks Essay suggest that even cannibalism is not intrinsically evil in cases of necessity and extreme hunger. Elsewhere, in his Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies , Las Casas tells the lurid tale of a human abattoir sanctioned by Spanish conquerors in events which natives are forced to perform cannibalism. While as unverifiable as other charges of Native cannibalism, this account may serve as a metaphor for the way in which the Native is was the culture” figuratively made a cannibal by propagandist accounts of barbarianism. (28) Las Casas troubles the logic of Sepúlveda's third argument on conquest as the salvation of the innocent by considering its practical execution, noting that in an actual war it is impossible to separate the oppressed from the oppressors. Finally, the overarching premise of Las Casas's position is his opposition to Sepúlveda's most controversial position: that conversion can and should be effected by force.

Arguing throughout his many treatises for a kinder, gentler conversion, Las Casas never once questions the Christianizing mission itself, thus paradoxically maintaining the events the american revolution, very Eurocentrism that promotes forcible conquest. (29) I have posited Sepúlveda as the loser in the Valladolid debate due to the subsequent suppression of Among American Essay his work cited above. However, neither side can be said to have conceded. As Lewis Hanke relates, The judges at Valladolid, probably exhausted and confused by the sights and sounds of this mighty conflict, fell into argument with one another and reached no collective decision. Las Casas later stated that the decision had been favorable to events up to the american revolution his viewpoint, although unfortunately for the Indians the measures decreed by union the Council were not well executed, and Sepúlveda wrote to a friend that the the american, judges thought it right and lawful that the barbarians of the New World should be brought under the dominion of the Christians, only union nottingham one theologian dissenting ( All Mankind Is One 113). Although he does not concede, Las Casas here perhaps recognizes that Sepúlveda's views will win the day in the New World. Bolstering his argument by attacking Sepúlveda's attempts to legitimize his views through publication, Las Casas mentions that Sepúlveda offers as a confirmation of his contagious opinion, that is, a work on Indian affairs which its author, a certain Oviedo, calls A General History ( In Defense 343). Las Casas here properly recognizes the contagious nature of Sepúlveda's theory as epitomizing the tenets of actual conquest practice. Events The American? Conclusion: Sepúlveda's Theory as Conquest Practice. (30) The reluctance on the part of the Spanish Crown and reagan empire speech, universities to legitimate Sepúlveda's work by events up to the american approval or publication suggests the theorists' need to dissociate themselves from the dirty practice of what “car of the 1950s? conquest, about which Sepúlveda's work is not only surprisingly accurate but strikingly non-apologetic. A brief quotation from the Oviedo work mentioned above will suffice to establish a link between Sepúlveda's derogatory opinion of Amerindians and that of a conquistador in the field. Eerily echoing Sepúlveda's offensive comparison of Natives, women, children, and monkeys, Oviedo's prejudice bleeds through his words: [The Indians are] naturally lazy and vicious, melancholic, cowardly, and in general a lying, shiftless people. Leading Up To The American Revolution? Their marriages are not a sacrament but a sacrilege.

They are idolatrous, libidinous and commit sodomy. Their chief desire is to eat, drink, worship heathen idols, and commit bestial obscenities. What could one expect from a people whose skulls are so thick and hard that the Spaniards had to take care in fighting not to of Apple and Why Stocks strike on the head lest their swords be blunted? (qtd. in Hanke, The Spanish Struggle 11) Here Indian hard-headedness is literalized as an obstacle to conquest, echoing the rhetoric that appropriates resistance as justification. Leading Revolution? (31) A final account from the field of conquest provided by Lewis Hanke illustrates another facet of the rhetorical bind that ensnares the Native American. Reagan Evil Speech? Hanke writes, It was difficult to inculcate habits of honesty and sobriety, stated Juan de Ampies, because when Spaniards beat them [Indians] or cut off their ears as punishment, the guilty ones were not held in less repute by events their fellows ( First Social Experiments 30). In its refusal to comprehend a culture unwilling to adopt Christian notions of shame and communal ostracism, the History of Apple and Why Sell My Apple, Eurocentric discourse perverts the solidarity of the Native Americans into a lack of events revolution reason and virtue.

Thus the real loser of the Valladolid debate on the justification of New World conquest was the Native American, forced to be identified as either noble (submissive) savage or fierce (resistant) barbarian, either a tabula rasa awaiting conversion or an obstacle to the propagation of the faith. Either choice meant annihilation, the one of culture, the other of existence. Hamilton, Bernice. Political Thought in Sixteenth-Century Spain: A Study of the Political Ideas of Vitoria, DeSoto, Suárez, and Molina . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. Hanke, Lewis. All Mankind Is One: A Study of the Disputation Between Bartolomé de Las Casas and Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda in 1550 on the Intellectual and Religious Capacity of the American Indians . DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1974. ---. Aristotle and the American Indians: A Study in Race Prejudice in the Modern World . What Was The “car Culture” 1950s?? Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1959. ---. The First Social Experiments in America: A Study in the Development of Spanish Indian Policy in the Sixteenth Century . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1935. ---. The Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of America . Events? Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1949.

Las Casas, Bartolomé de. In Defense of the Indians . Ed. Trans. Stafford Poole. DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1974. ---. A Short Account of the Destruction of the union nottingham, Indies . Ed. and trans. Nigel Griffin. New York: Penguin Books, 1992. Up To? Losada, Angel. Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda a través de su Epistolario y Nuevos Documentos . Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1949.

Muldoon, James. The Americas in the Spanish World Order: The Justification for Conquest in the Seventeenth Century . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1994. Nader, Helen. Rights of Discovery: Christopher Columbus's Final Appeal to King Fernando: Facsimile, Transcription, Translation Critical Edition of the John Carter Brown Library's Spanish Codex I . Providence: John Carter Brown Library, 1992. Pagden, Anthony. Spanish Imperialism and the Political Imagination: Studies in European and Spanish-American Social and Political Theory 1513-1830 . The Struggle For Freedom American Citizens? New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. Parry, John H., and Robert G. Keith, eds. New Iberian World: A Documentary History of the Discovery and Settlement of Latin America to the Early 17th Century . New York: Times Books, 1984.

Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de. The American? Apology for the Book On the Just Causes of War . Play Proof? Trans. and Ed. Leading? Lewis D. Epstein. Bowdoin College, 1973. ---. Demócrates Segundo o De Las Justas Causas de La Guerra Contra los Indios . Trans. Angel Losada.

Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Francisco de Vitoria, 1951. Play Proof? Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de, and Bartolomé de Las Casas. Apología . [ Defense .] Trans. Angel Losada. Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1975. Vitoria, Francisco de. Political Writings . Leading Up To Revolution? Ed. Anthony Pagden and Jeremy Lawrance.

Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. Williams, Robert A., Jr. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest . New York: Oxford UP, 1990.

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Introduction to events leading up to Musical Theatre Essay. The concept of musical theatre combines the drama and and Why Sell My Apple Stocks plot of a stage play with a musical component; the extent of this musical collaboration has changed over the years, from events leading the american operas to orchestras to full-fledged plays. From its humble beginnings to its current status as Broadway spectacle, the art form has carried a great influence in the world of performance. In this essay, a detailed history of musical theatre, from its infancy to now, will be explored. Musical theatre has had a long, storied history; the style dates all the way back to ancient Greek theatre, back in the 5th century BCE. In that time, Greek comedies and tragedies almost always had a musical component; songs and dance were common to the plays of Aeschylus and Sophocles, who acted as composers and empire speech choreographers to events up to the american revolution their own works. In Rome in the 3rd century BCE, Plautus wrote comedies that also had orchestrations and choreographed dances to their songs. Roman theatre also innovated the process of dancing, creating crude tap shoes called sabilla , which were chips of metal attached to the shoes of performers to make their steps easier to hear and notice in the large theatres they played in. The Middle Ages saw theatre take a much more mobile, nomadic route to performance; with traveling minstrels moving from town to town and village to village, performing songs and small routines. Small troupes of performers would do the same, offering slapstick-filled, delightful plays they would offer to those who would watch them.

The 12th and 13th centuries saw the musical theatre advent of religious dramas, like The Play of Daniel and mr tom film cast The Play of Herod ; these dramatic works would have church chants interspersed within them, offering that musical component. This would evolve into the mystery play, which told a story of the Bible in leading revolution, a musical manner. The mobility of performing troupes would also be made more efficient through the advent of reagan evil pageant wagons. These were mobile stages the troupe would bring with them to provide added production value to their plays; they would settle down, perform their show, and pack up. These shows often consisted of poetic forms, prose dialogue, and events leading up to the american revolution musical numbers. In the Renaissance, musical theatre took a giant leap forward with the development of commedia dellarte, a type of musical theatre where well-known stories were improvised by actors using the empire speech art of events up to the american clown to create broad humor throughout. Music became a large part of The Struggle Among African American Citizens Jacobean and Elizabethan plays; lutes, organs, pipes and more would play during these performances in order to enhance a scene. Often, if a play was a tragedy or a heavier historical, it would be interrupted with short plays filled with music to add levity. This is where the jig was created; jiggs were broad, farcical afterpieces that followed these heavier works. In the Tudor period, court masques were created, where the first inklings of leading modern musical theatre were created. Western Union. In these masques, elaborate set designs were combined with elegant and detailed costuming, as well as performances that combined singing, dancing and acting to music.

The purpose of these masques were often to leading the american revolution flatter a royal patron or nobility that was in The Struggle African Citizens, the audience at the time. The masques were popular types of theatre created by up to the american playwrights such as Ben Jonson and William Shakespeare. Soon, just the musical components of masques would be made into operas altogether; acting as sung plays that would be the first templates of musical theatre. The famous French playwright Moliere created farces that would have musical components to reagan them (song and dance numbers interspersed within the work). These developments led to the creation of English opera; some of the more famous playwrights were Thomas Shadwell, John Blow, Henry Purcell, and more. By 1685, however, English opera started to lose its luster. In the 1700s, musical theatre in England developed into events leading up to revolution two distinct varieties: ballad operas and culture” of the comic operas. The Beggars Opera by leading up to the american revolution John Gay is the quintessential example of the ballad opera; it offered new lyrics spoofing the popular songs of the time, the olde English equivalent of The Struggle for Freedom Among African Citizens a jukebox musical. Comic opera, on the other hand, carried a romantic plot set to original music; The Bohemian Girl by Michael Balfe is a fine example of a comic opera. In the meantime, lighter, more fleeting forms of opera were being created, like Comedie en vaudeville and opera comique, which led to the notions of burlesque, melodramas, vaudevilla, and the notion of the music hall.

Since many London theatres only got a license as a music hall, plays had to events leading the american have music in them; therefore, musical theatre became a more popular part of theatrical life in England, and this led to the popularization of melodramas and burlettas. In Colonial America, the first real presence of theatre to A Brief History and Why be found did not happen until 1752, when a theatre was formed in Williamsburg, Virginia by William Hallam, which performed classic English plays. Soon after, however, they moved to The Beggars Opera and other ballad operas and revolution farces in New York. This theatrical presence slowly morphed into what would become Broadway in the 1920s and 1930s. These early plays were the first to be widely recorded and toured, with hundreds of performances in a single run for many musical plays. The further evolution of musical theatre came with the development of the play proof operette, which was created in 1850 by events the american the French composer Herve. These were light musical comedies that would often provide broad satire and wit to the stage, combined with bright melodies and high energy. These would be the model for all musical theatre that would come after it. After Jacques Offenbach and Johann Strauss II would develop the style further, it would become popularized in Among American Essay, the works of events leading Gilbert and Sullivan, Irving Berlin and play proof Rodgers and Hammerstein. The music hall and musical burlesques would comprise the majority of events revolution musical theatre in 19th century England. The Black Crook proved to what was the culture” 1950s? be the very first play that would fit the modern conception of the up to revolution musical this combined dance and “car 1950s? original music which would supplement the events leading the american straightforward story being told.

In 1866, this play premiered in New York and became a staggering success. Other musical comedies came out around this year, and the late 19th century saw comedic musical theatre that spoke to the common man, adding legitimacy to The Struggle for Freedom African American Citizens Essay the theatrical proceedings. The stories were no longer broad, royal farce; they were meant to be more legitimate, with complex plotting and the american significant characters. By landing more reputable singers like Vivienne Segal, Fay Templeton and more, they offered significant credentials to film those who put on these plays. Once the modern musical was developed, there were other changes to theatrical procedure that allowed for longer runs. With street lights and electricity, it was safer to the american revolution come out at night; therefore, night shows became the norm, adding a larger number of performances for each show. With the money that came from the added revenue these extra shows afforded them, production value of goodnight mr tom film cast Broadway and West End shows increased substantially. Gilbert and leading the american revolution Sullivan began producing large comic opera shows that would become extremely popular around this time; shows like HMS Pinafore and The Mikado , as well as The Pirates of play proof Penzance , were family friendly and very accessible, leading to worldwide success. Due to their unparalleled success, the standards for up to the american revolution, theatrical popularity changed dramatically.

Gilbert and Sullivan also pioneered several conventions of the modern musical as well; in their shows, the dialogue and the lyrics were combined to make the what “car culture” story more understandable and sensible, even with the integration of music into the performance. P.G. Wodehouse, Ira Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Andrew Lloyd Weber and more would take this particular style of comic opera and leading the american develop it further. The Savoy operas in the 1880s began to enjoy considerable success in America as well. Play Proof. Unlike the tawdry sensibilities of previous musicals, these shows were thought to be family friendly and respectable, something that was harder to look down upon. Before these developments, musical theatre was often thought to up to the american be for perverts, a much seedier audience; now, theatre was for everyone, especially musical theatre. Broadway saw its fair share of western musicals in the 1890s as well; attempting to ape Gilbert and Sullivan, many copycat productions took place, like El Capitan by John Philip Sousa. Ragtime became more popular as a freeform style of theatre, a different, more fast-paced and up to the american modern variety of vaudeville. Musical comedies continued throughout the early 20th century, through Tin Pan Alley-composed songs.

In Broadway, the runs were shorter than in the West End (never reaching thousands of performances like some Gilbert and Sullivan shows), but often would have longer tours with the original cast. In the Gay Nineties (the subjectively wonderful 1890s in England, as they were known), musicals were becoming more popular on the London Stage. George Edwardes took over the Gaiety Theatre, seeking to play proof change it from the bawdy burlesque show that it was and providing a straightforward, light musical alternative to the heavy, absurdist and politically charged Savoy operas that were the flavor at events up to revolution, the time. He decided to try doing family friendly, breezy, lighthearted comic romances, combined with style and spectacle. While there were burlesque elements to union nottingham them, there were also comic opera traditions sprinkled throughout, and the replacement of low-class burlesque dancers with respectable dancers and singers. These types of plays were such a success, they would determine the next thirty years of musical theatre in London. Many of these plays, like The Shop Girl and A Runaway Girl , followed the events tropes of romances where the poor maiden falls in love with royalty, and faces many obstacles before finally winning him. These set the tone for musical comedies that would sweep across the face of musical theatre in The Struggle for Freedom Among Citizens, both England and America, as many other theatres would copy these shows with increasing complexity, including Sidney Jones The Geisha and San Toy . During this time, the operetta had been essentially removed from the English stage due to the prevalence of Edwardian musical comedies, but it made a comeback in the early 20th century with the operetta The Merry Widow, which premiered in the american revolution, 1907 in reagan empire speech, London and Broadway. This success led to the direct competition of musicals and operettas for the next few years, with new and events leading up to old operettas being brought out on the stages of both American and England.

New operettas that premiered at this time included the works of Victor Herbert ( Babes in Toyland, The Red Mill, The Fortune Teller ), and goodnight mr tom modern musical plays that were a bit more intimate. In an attempt to cash in on the still-popular Gilbert and Sullivan-style musical, P.G. Widehouse, Jerome Kern and Guy Bolton all came out with Princess Theatre shows, which offered light entertainment while remaining continuous with its songs and plot, offering a complete, detailed and complex story throughout. Unlike the broader comedies of the time, and events leading the american revolution which had come before, situational comedies had a much greater influence, and the characters were more realistic. The songs were actually used to develop the characters or move the plot along; this was a breakthrough in the plotting and development of what was the culture” of the musical theatre. Revolution. With the advent of the Princess Theatre musicals, these lighter shows proved they could integrate song and story just as well as Gilbert and reagan empire Sullivan could. The theatre experienced a boom in business with the start of World War I; given the devastation of the battlefield and the front, audiences flocked to the stages in order to events up to the american get some escapism. Irene , a play by Harry Tiernet and Joseph McCarthy, premiered in goodnight, 1919 to widespread popularity, holding the events up to the american revolution Broadway record for longest run (670 performances) for a long time. While those were impressive by American standards, they held nothing to the British capacity for holding a musical run; Chu Chow Chow ran for over two thousands performances. For Freedom Among African Essay. Revues started to become popular, as they incorporated light, multi-act performances that offered variety.

As the 20th century chugged along, American musical theatre began to up to the american revolution take dominance in both popularity and quality. The Struggle Essay. The Theatrical Syndicate, led by Charles Frohman, spearheaded the events leading up to the american development of shows like the Princess Theatre shows and many other Tin Pan Alley-inspired musicals. Jazz and for Freedom African American ragtime became a much more popular component of modern musicals at the time, and the Gershwin brothers, as well as Irving Berlin and others, started to get shows produced. This shift in American musical theatres popularity was due to events leading revolution the changes in society that were happening at the time; the increase in vernacular and play proof naturalism that was desired by audiences of the modern era led to leading revolution a slow death of the broad, the theatrical and the operatic. Shows and A Brief History of Apple and Why I Would Sell musicals were more direct with their plot, their characters and their intentions, and tradition gave way to innovation. The Roaring Twenties saw the advent of the motion picture, and its rise in popularity; this proved to be a challenge for theatres. Even though they were silent at first, and up to revolution so could not offer the audio component of theatre, the A Brief and Why Sell Stocks creation of talking films like The Jazz Singer meant that it offered a real threat to live theatre. The American. Musicals in that era started to The Struggle bring in bigger stars and up to the american greater spectacle, offering loudness and of Apple and Why Sell Stocks Essay music hall sensibilities in lieu of up to the american revolution complex plotting and character development. Despite the fact that there was not a whole lot tying these glorified revues together, they proved extremely popular and light entertainment. Theatre writers began to transition into what popular music, as most of the music people were listening to at the time was what they heard in these reviews and vaudeville shows. Production values increased substantially during this time, making the musical more expensive to produce than ever.

The concept of standards became popular in the 1920s; the events leading up to the american lighthearted shows were never that memorable ( Sally, Oh, Kay! ), but their songs would stick in empire, the publics mind. As a result, they would be covered by a variety of popular music artists, like Cole Porter, Marilyn Miller, Fred Astaire. Operettas also came back into the limelight for a time, and Noel Coward and other composers started to enjoy newfound popularity. Show Boat in leading the american revolution, 1927 proved to be one of the most complex mixes of score and book that there had been to date; even the evil speech Princess Theatre musicals lacked this level of sophistication. There existed dramatic themes that were told with every component of the show, from the up to movement to the setting. This integration of cast production value with narrative complexity that rivaled anything that had come before. While this was popular, events like the Great Depression led to people going back to lighter entertainment. When the Great Depression hit, it left people with little money to revolution entertain themselves with; this mean substantially reduced ticket sales. History And Why I Would Sell My Apple. It was also cheaper to go to events leading up to the american revolution the talkies than see a show, making it even more challenging for theatres to find an audience.

Vaudeville was eliminated by musical films, as they agreed to be filmed for one-off shows that effectively killed future live performances of their work. There were still Show Boat -like shows that were great hits for mr tom cast, those who could afford the ticket price; Of Thee I Sing was the first musical that was given the Pulitzer Prize. Anything Goes cemented singers like Ethel Merman, who would become the queen of leading up to the american musical theatre due to her loud, booming voice. The first Broadway show to star a black person (Ethel Waters), was 1933s As Thousands Cheer . Porgy and Bess proved to be a very popular musical, created by George Gershwin and The Struggle Among American released in 1935. Modern musicals like Knickerbocker Holiday by Kurt Weill provided satire of FDR and detailed the history of New York City. With these more complex works, there were still lighter hits on Broadway, like Id Rather Be Right and The Dancing Years . Cole Porter came into popularity with Anything Goes and DuBarry Was a Lady . Leading Up To Revolution. All of empire speech these contributions led to leading the american revolution the overall success and play proof survival of up to revolution musical theatre, which was a miracle in a time when economic destitution was the worst this country has ever experienced. The evolution of musical theatre at this time allowed for History of Apple and Why Stocks, fast-paced music, staging, choreography and more naturalistic dialogue, a far cry from the overt theatricality and melodrama of events leading up to the american revolution previous eras. Musical theatre in the 1940s would hit a new zenith with Rodgers and Hammersteins musical Oklahoma! Continuing the Show Boat tradition of having complex plotting and serious storytelling amongst musical numbers, the show offered dream ballets and integrated the music more cohesively into the story, rather than providing dance as an excuse for men to see barely-dressed women. Agnes de Mille was the choreographer for this show, and it revolutionized the play proof format of musical theatre by providing a decided lack of tawdriness and an earnest desire for storytelling that was not present at this level before. In the opening number, there were no showgirls, but instead the actual play began with Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'.

This earnestness and leading up to the american quality of production gave the show rave reviews and cast unexpected popularity. It got the Pulitzer Prize, and the musical achieved new narrative heights. It turned into the first Broadway show to be considered a blockbuster, and was even adapted into film. In the canon of musical theatre, it was the first extremely successful Broadway musical, and it holds a beloved place as a milestone of theatrical history. The success of the play sent Rodgers and Hammerstein into incredible popularity, coming out with a string of further hits, like South Pacific, The King I and The Sound of Music.

In all of events up to the american revolution their shows, dark themes were presented in a way heretofore unseen in musical theatre; Oklahomas villain was a murderer, and Carousel tackled the theme of domestic abuse. Play Proof. Due to their vast creativity, everyone else wanted to emulate them, which meant a string of successive musicals in that vein; this led to the Golden Age of American musical theatre. The war itself was brought to the theatre, with many war-themed shows becoming popular; On the Town showcased a shore leave between soldiers and their women, bringing wartime uncertainty and pathos to revolution the big stage. Play Proof. Annie Get Your Gun, Finians Rainbow, Kiss Me, Kate and other such plays were modeled after the events up to Oklahoma! trend of having complex plots with integrated music within, enhancing the overall quality of the musical theatre canon. In the 1950s, shows like Guys and reagan Dolls, Paint your Wagon, My Fair Lady and the american more continued the tradition of complex characters within musicals; records continued to be shattered, with My Fair Lady running a record 2,717 performances. Each of these popular musicals would have film adaptations made of them as well, bringing in a newfound collaboration between Broadway and Hollywood. Stars like Julie Andrews and Judy Garland dominated musicals at this time. Off-Broadway musicals also came to prominence, with shows like The Threepenny Opera and The Fantasticks proving that a show does not have to be part of the Broadway system to be critically and financially successful. The orchestras were smaller, and union nottingham the scale was toned down, but they could still work. West Side Story adapted Romeo and Juliet into a modern New York City setting, and brought home significant box office returns and events up to the american myriad Tonys. This cemented Stephen Sondheims reputation as a master composer for musicals.

The 1960s saw even greater popularity and experimentation on the part of musicals. More blockbusters, such as Fiddler on the Roof, Hello Dolly!, Funny Girl and Man of La Mancha would be created, and some of the overt sexuality of the goodnight film burlesque would come back with the popularity of Cabaret . The rock musical would then usurp these musical styles by leading the american the end of the play proof 1960s. Stephen Sondheim and Jerry Herman would significantly shape the pattern of events up to musicals in this decade and reagan evil speech the next, through the darker themes that he would explore in works like Sweeney Todd and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum . These plays were bloody, cynical, and gritty, eschewing the sunny dispositions of earlier musicals to leading the american make plays about play proof, singing surprisingly dark and brooding. Into the leading up to Woods and what culture” of the 1950s? Assassins explored these themes further, showcasing a sophistication in lyrics and music that belied the the american revolution overall exclusiveness of some of the empire speech plays themes. Soldheim tried a number of new things during this time, including reverse-engineering shows and breaking the fourth wall to the audience, all things that made musical theatre challenging and intriguing again.

With the start of the up to the american musical Hair , rock music would be incorporated into musicals. Also, the Vietnam War was brought up as a theme, something which would prove controversial and also indicative of musical theatres propensity to challenge societal attitudes at the time. Racial tolerance was found in many Golden Age musicals, which were then resurfaced ( The King I, South Pacific , and more). Western Union Nottingham. Racial integration finally occurred in the end of the revolution 1960s; homosexuality was first openly explored as a theme in of Apple and Why I Would Sell My Apple, Hair , and then moved onto other shows. In the 1970s, with the advent of the rock musical, The Rocky Horror Show, Jesus Christ Superstar, Godspell and more started to bring in this rapidly popular style of music to the theatrical realm, bringing with it an added edge that was never before seen onstage. Events Revolution. Some of these plays, like the Who musical Tommy , tended to play proof work more towards concepts of opera than they did musicals, with little spoken dialogue and most of the story and character conveyed through song. African-Americans got their own musical representation onstage, portraying the black experience through The Wiz, Dreamgirls and more. As the Broadway canon expanded, more and more variation occurred, with musicals of every genre coming into prominence. A Chorus Line proved to be a giant among contemporary musicals; released in 1975, the play, which was about an audition for a musical, broke narrative conventions in a fascinating way, also providing with it amazing music and spectacle, busting box office records and events reaching incredible critical acclaim.

This led to more plays along that same style, such as Chicago, Pippin, Nine, Evita and more. These were risque, tawdry yet liberating pieces, bringing sensuality to the stage without it being classless or inaccessible. In the 1980s and 1990s, pop music began to invade musicals to a larger degree, and larger production values brought incredible spectacle to play proof these productions, like falling chandeliers in The Phantom of the Opera . Events Up To The American Revolution. Novel and literary adaptations were beginning to play proof be the norm, and up to European influences were more and more prevalent. The Struggle For Freedom American Essay. Andrew Lloyd Webber became an leading up to the american, incredible mega-hit musical creator with Cats and Evita , The Phantom of the was the 1950s? Opera and more. A greater emphasis on adaptations has been put forth as the events leading up to revolution 1990s rolled along; corporations began to get into the Broadway game, with the Disney Company allying with Broadway to evil speech adapt their musical films to events leading revolution the stage; Julie Taymors production of The Lion King stands out among that canon. With the greater opportunities available for smaller playwrights to create small-scale musicals, musical theatre split into larger, spectacle-based musicals of Broadway, and the quirkier, smaller musicals of off-Broadway. Goodnight Mr Tom. Little Shop of Horrors , Bat Boy: The Musical , and events leading the american revolution others provided smaller scale but interesting stories that eschewed overly elaborate set pieces for small sets of characters and developed storylines. Incredible innovations would come from shows such as these, and a new niche audience was created for them.

In order to attract younger audiences, Rent was released on film, Broadway and the West End, a dramatic tale of New York bohemia, rock music, and AIDS. The incredible success of the musicals invigorated the theatre scene with a much younger demographic, leading to the advent of interesting, new and unusual shows. Urinetown and Avenue Q brought modern, crude but wacky humor to smaller stages, Spring Awakening and other shows doing the same. While Broadway continued to play it safe with their familiar shows, the up to the american rise of adaptations began to surface. Wicked , The Producers, Spamalot, Hairspray and others indicate a modern, ongoing trend of taking an established property and making it into a musical.

The point of this is to offer something familiar, which audiences already know from A Brief Sell My Apple established material and have a fondness for, and offer a musical component to it. The jukebox musical, exemplified by Mamma Mia! and others, continues this trend of offering familiar songs framed around a new story.

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the gift depends on the financial status of the events revolution, families), to seal the deal. After this, the events that lead up to goodnight mr tom film cast, the marriage are a complete roller coaster . Many shopping trips, loans (especially from the events leading up to the american, girls family ) would need to be taken to buy gifts for all the grooms family members and their. A roller coaster is considered any elevated track with curves and rises, carrying passengers in open, rolling cars for entertainment (5). Todays roller coasters appear to be tons of mr tom film tubular metal intertwined around itself, but regardless of how big, fast, or gravity defying they are, they all use. history of Roller Coasters 2 Physics of events up to revolution roller coasters 2 Roller coaster Design 3 Analysis of Roller Coaster 4 1st Slope 4 2nd Slope 4 1st Dip 5 3rd slope 5 Loop 5 Conclusion 5 Bibliography 6 Appendix 6 Synopsis The context of this report is to design and analyse a roller coaster within. Roller Coasters : Adrenaline-fueled Architecture 600 years ago, roller coaster pioneers never would have imagined the what “car culture” of the, advancements that have been made to create the roller coasters of today. The tallest and fastest roller coaster in the world is the leading the american, Kingda Ka, a coaster in New Jersey that launches its. Studios, Epcot, and Animal Kingdom. Magic Kingdom is for the whole family to enjoy the evil speech, five different themes within this park.

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It has been a roller coaster ride- NO! a journey. That is what education is, nothing more that a journey, and like every journey it has a destination. What is educations destination. Title: Roller Coasters Specific purpose: To inform my audience on two types of roller coasters . Introduction I. Attention getter: What is hard and mr tom, bumpy, sometimes long, sometimes short, and make some people scream? Roller coasters of course. Events Up To The American Revolution! II. History Of Apple I Would Sell My Apple Stocks Essay! Reveal my topic: Roller coasters have been around. The Overseas Trip That Changed Me. eye was the leading up to, gigantic wooden roller coaster . I turned to my friend Joe, a tall kid with long thick brown hair, whom was known to be fearless and said, Lets ride that first! Sure. Joe replied in an enthusiastic tone. We then ran to the long line that was to board the coaster and waited in line.

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In this essay , I argue that there is a parallel between Will Ferrells professional career and the underlined theme that is Stranger Than Fiction. His performance. roaring monster. This monster called roller - coaster . Arghhhhhh. Shrieks pierced the stillness of the summer morning air. Events Up To Revolution! The passengers of this beast were of speech different expressions written all over their faces. As for events up to revolution, me, I was totally freaked out.

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moment that I will always remembered we continued to play other games Suddenly my husband play something by ear, he asked for a ride on the roller coaster I refused as I felt there were something wrong would happened I have told him many times not to ride it but with a calm voice, he answered. where the western union nottingham, Dad goes, his family goes, too. My friend, Ellen, was able to events leading the american, phone me and explain everything. It was all so hard to take in. I felt a roller coaster ride of emotions: sadness, a loss, and loneliness for my friend, abandonment, anger. I hurt, but still held out goodnight mr tom cast, a little hope, too, that we could. Instructions and leading up to the american, Worksheet for Writing a 5-Paragraph Essay. Instructions and Worksheet for Writing a 5-Paragraph Essay Step 1: Determine a Purpose for your Essay The following are the most common purposes for essay -writing: Narrative. an essay can narrate a sequence of empire speech events (i.e. the events surrounding the fall of man in leading the Garden of Eden; the events. beings are naturally curious bout the unknown that people are not aware of or familiar with, and the unknown really is the The Struggle African Essay, root of all fear. In his essay , The Critique of Pure Horror, Jason Zinoman writes that The horror is rooted in the unknown, but this strangeness also sparks curiosity and fascination.

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