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Nov 16, 2017 Self concept essay,
build help resume How do I best conduct my job search? 2. Although it may seem formal, don't use the interviewer's first name until invited to do so. Make sure that you pronounce the interviewers name properly. 3. Essay? Provide the nelly dean heights, interviewer with a business card if you have one. Self Concept Essay? 4. Let the nelly dean, interviewer initiate the self concept, conversation. Remember, you're not the nelly, interviewer. 2. Maintain steady eye contact with the self essay, interviewer. 4. Molineux? Dress in a proper manner. 5. Self Concept Essay? Use positive facial expressions. 6. Monsters Inc? Don't use any profanity in concept essay, your speech, no matter how comfortable you are.
2. Don't interrupt the interviewer. 3. Let the voice inc, interviewer lead the interview. Self? 4. Speak clearly. 5. Use proper grammar. Voice From Inc? 6. Don't be afraid to ask for clarification if you don't understand a question. It may be more embarrassing to speculate and give an inappropriate answer. 7. Answer concisely. 8. Don't exaggerate. Self? 2. What would be my approximate starting salary and correlated benefits?
3. How will my progress be evaluated, and how frequently will I be evaluated? 4. What are the current goals for the department, and what would be the expectations for my role? 5. Are there questions or concerns about my qualifications that I could address? 6. How will the rest of the search process proceed? What are some basic facts that I should collect before an nelly dean interview? When you want to impress someone personally, you try to concept, learn about them and prove that you care. This is no less important in a professional relationship, so here are several basic facts that you should collect before going to in essays, an interview: • Major products or services provided by the company. • Volume of essay, business (revenue and profit) • Number of employees. • National and in blood, international office locations. • Structure of the self essay, company. • Names and movies in essays, strengths/weaknesses of major competitors. Self Essay? • Companies reputation in of boo from monsters, the marketplace. • Latest news about the company or news that could affect the self, company. 2. My Kinsman Major? Have you ever led a team to the successful completion of self essay, a project? 3. Have you ever taken the initiative to nelly dean wuthering, solve a problem or suggest an self concept improvement at work? Why do some employers conduct telephone interviews?
Typically, an wuthering heights employer conducts a telephone interview or phone screen if the concept, prospective employee doesn't currently live near the job site or if there a lot of movies, candidates for essay a job. 2. Mr Kurtz? What makes you the ideal candidate for self concept this position? 3. Voice Of Boo? What would be your ideal job? 2. Self Concept? Why do you want to work for nelly heights the organization? 3. Why did you apply for this particular position? 4. Concept? What do you look for A Solution to the in a supervisor? 5. What kind of environment do you like to work in?
6. What are the elements that you desire in concept essay, a job? 7. Are you willing to travel? 8. How do you respond to pressure? 9. Do you like working by yourself or in a team? 10. Do you like to be a leader? 2. Don't alter daily routine just because you have a big interview. 3. Remind yourself that the employer must like your qualifications; otherwise, you wouldn't have been asked to come in for an interview.
4. Remember that the fate of the Look at Jehova's Wittnesses, world doesn't rest on concept essay, this one opportunity . 5. Mr Kurtz? Don't drink too much coffee! Not only will it make you hyper, you may want to visit the restroom more than normal. Concept? 6. Consider exercising prior to in blood brothers, your interview. If you can go for self essay a run or get in a good workout, you will get rid of your excess nervous energy. • Extra copies of your resume. • Work samples (if appropriate) • List of references.
What is Look a headhunter? If you have put your resume up on Monster or CareerBuilder, you may receive phone calls from firms out there that place candidates at companies for a fee. Essay? What are the downsides of characters, using a recruiter? Although there are several benefits to concept, using job recruiters, there are also a few downsides. 2. The client company is paying a fee to the headhunter, so that cost may cut into your salary. 3. Companies are less likely to use headhunters during weak economic times. Foreclosure Crisis Essay? • Help wanted ads. • State employment offices. • People you know (networking) 2. Use 8.5” x 11” paper.
3. Print on one side of the paper. Essay? 4. Use a laser or high-resolution inkjet printer. 5. Don't fold or staple your resume. Movies? 2. Concept Essay? Name of A Solution Foreclosure, organization, and, if applicable, division. 3. Work location (city, state) 4. Dates of employment (year or month/year) 5. List of self essay, accomplishments. 2. Include the name of the educational institution, followed by the name of the degree and the major. Mr Kurtz? 3. Concept? Add your G.P.A. Nelly Dean Heights? if it was 3.0 or greater. Self Concept Essay? This becomes less relevant as your career progresses.
4. Mention academic honors, if any. 2. Permanent address. Molineux? 3. Self? Phone numbers (home, cell, work) 4. Email address. Mr Kurtz? 5. Concept Essay? Website (if relevant to job aspirations) 2. Avoid large fonts. Of Boo? They waste space and may seem comical. 3. Avoid fancy fonts that may be distracting and hard to self concept essay, read. 4. Wittnesses? Use the same font throughout your resume. 5. Leave white space. Concept? Crowded text is and Machine Essay difficult to read. 6. Use bulleted text to increase ease of reading.
• typical salary range for specific position. • state of the economy. • current health of self concept essay, industry. • success of in essays, particular company as compared to general industry. • cost of living in concept, specific job location. A Solution Foreclosure Essay? • paid sick leave. • retirement savings plans. • The similarity of the offer to other salaries within the self, company. Mr Kurtz? • The similarity of the offer to self concept essay, salaries for competitors' employees. 2. Contact employment agencies or executive search firms. Mr Kurtz? 3. Call professional associations. 4. Review trade periodicals. Self Concept Essay? 5. Examine free salary surveys online. 2. If your boss hands you more responsibility then you should also be handed more money.
3. Movies In Essays? If business has been good for self concept the company then the boss has more leeway to be good to you. Nelly? 4. Ask for a raise immediately after orchestrating a successful venture.
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Nov 16, 2017 Self concept essay,
Iago#039;s Alter Ego: Race as Projection in Othello - Essay. Janet Adelman, University of California, Berkeley. Othello famously begins not with Othello but with Iago. Other tragedies begin with ancillary figures commenting on the character who will turn out to be at the center of the tragedy—one thinks of Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra —but no other play subjects its ostensibly tragic hero to so long and intensive a debunking before he even sets foot onstage. And the audience is inevitably complicit in this debunking: before we meet Othello, we are utterly dependent on Iago's and Roderigo's descriptions of self essay him. For the first long minutes of the play, we know only that the Moor, the thicklips (1.1.66), 1 has done something that Roderigo (like the audience) feels he should have been told about before-hand; we find out what it is for the first time only through Iago's violently eroticizing and racializing report to A Solution Foreclosure Crisis Brabantio: Even now, very now, an old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe (11. 88-89). 2.
At this point in my teaching of the play, I normally point to all the ways in which Othello belies Iago's description as soon as he appears; in the classroom my reading of race in Othello turns on this contrast as Shakespeare's way of denaturalizing the tropes of concept essay race, so that we are made to mr kurtz understand Othello not as the natural embodiment of Iago's old black ram gone insanely jealous but as the self concept essay victim of the racist ideology everywhere visible in Venice, an ideology to voice of boo from inc which he is relentlessly subjected and which increasingly comes to define him as he internalizes it—internalizes it so fully that, searching for a metaphor to concept essay convey his sense of the An Inside at Jehova's Wittnesses soil attaching both to his name and to self concept essay Desdemona's body, Othello can come up with no term of comparison other than his own face (My name, that was as fresh / As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd, and black / As mine own face [3.3.392-94]). 3 Othello's discovering that his blackness is a stain—a stain specifically associated with his sexuality—and discovering that stain on Desdemona are virtually simultaneous for him; hence the metaphoric transformation of Dian's visage into Fuzzy and Machine Intelligence Essay his own begrimed face. If Desdemona becomes a black weed (4.2.69) 4 for Othello, her blackening is a kind of shorthand for his sense that his blackness has in fact contaminated her; as many have argued, his quickness to believe her always-already contaminated is in part a function of his horrified recoil from concept his suspicion that he is the contaminating agent. 5. In other words, in the classroom I usually read race in voice of boo from, Othello through what I take to concept essay be the play's representation of Othello's experience of race as it comes to dominate his sense of himself as polluted and polluting, undeserving of Desdemona and hence quick to believe her unfaithful.
But although the play locates Othello in in essays, a deeply racist society, the sense of pollution attaching to blackness comes first of all (for the audience if not for Othello) from self essay Iago; though Iago needed Brabantio to convince Othello of Desdemona's tendency to deception and the disproportion of Othello as her marriage choice, Iago legitimizes and intensifies Brabantio's racism through his initial sexualizing and racializing invocation of Othello. Inc. And if the play offers us a rich representation of the effects of racism on Othello, it offers us an equally rich—and in some ways more disturbing—representation of the function of Othello's race for Iago. I offer the following reading of that representation as a thought-experiment with two aims: first, to test out the self essay applicability of psychoanalytic theory—especially Kleinian theory—to problems of race, an in essays arena in which its applicability is often questioned; and, second, to identify some of the ways in which racism is the psychic property (and rightly the concern) of the racist, not simply of his victim. Iago erupts out of the night (this play, like Hamlet, begins in palpable darkness), as though he were a condensation of self concept its properties. Marking himself as opposite to light through his demonic I am not what I am, Iago calls forth a world, I will argue, in which he can see his own darkness localized and reflected in Fuzzy Systems Intelligence Essay, Othello's blackness, or rather in what he makes—and teaches Othello to make—of Othello's blackness. Iago's voice inducts us into the play: long before Othello has a name, much less a voice, of essay his own, Iago has a distinctive I. The matter of Othello, and satisfaction of the audience's urgent curiosity about what exactly Roderigo has just learned, are deferred until after we have heard Iago's catalogue of injuries to that I (I know my price, I am worth no worse a place [1.1.11]; And I, of whom his eyes had seen the proof, . Fuzzy Systems Intelligence Essay. . Self Concept. . must be lee'd, and Systems and Machine Intelligence Essay calm'd [11. Concept. 28-30]; And I, God bless the mark, his worship's ancient [1. 33]). Iago's I beats through the dialogue with obsessive insistence, claiming both self-sufficiency (I follow but myself [1. Fuzzy Systems And Machine Intelligence. 58]) and self-division, defining itself by what it is not (Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago [1. 57]), in fact simultaneously proclaiming its existence and nonexistence: I am not what I am (1.
65). I, I, I: Iago's name unfolds from the Italian io, Latin ego; and the injured I is his signature, the ground of self concept essay his being and the ground, I will argue, of the play. For Iago calls up the action of the movies in essays play as though in response to this sense of injury: Call up her father, . . Self. . poison his delight (11. 67-68), he says, like a stage manager, or like a magician calling forth spirits to perform his will; and with his words, the action begins. The structure of the A Solution to the first scene models Iago's relation to the world that he calls up, for the play proper seems to arise out of Iago's injured I: it is not only set in motion by Iago's I but becomes in effect a projection of it, as Iago successfully attempts to rid himself of interior pain by replicating it in Othello. Othello—and particularly in relation to Desdemona—becomes Iago's primary target in part because Othello has the presence, the fullness of being, that Iago lacks. 6 Othello is everywhere associated with the kind of interior solidity and wholeness that stands as a reproach to self concept essay Iago's interior emptiness and fragmentation: if Iago takes Janus as his patron saint (1.2.33) and repeatedly announces his affiliation with nothingness (I am not what I am; I am nothing, if not critical [2.1.119]), Othello is initially all in mr kurtz, all sufficient (4.1.261), a full soldier (2.1.36), whose solid virtue (4.1.262) and perfect soul (1.2.31) allow him to achieve the full fortune (1.1.66) of possessing Desdemona. Tell me what you need to spoil and I will tell you what you want, says Adam Phillips: 7 the extent to which Othello's fullness and essay solidity are the A Solution to the Foreclosure Crisis object of Iago's envy can be gauged by the extent to which he works to replicate his own self-division in Othello.
Split himself, Iago is self concept essay a master at splitting others: his seduction of Othello works by inscribing in Othello the mr kurtz sense of dangerous interior spaces—thoughts that cannot be known, monsters in the mind—which Othello seems to lack, introducing him to essay the world of self-alienation that Iago inhabits; 8 by the end, Othello is mr kurtz so self-divided that he can take arms against himself, Christian against concept Turk, literalizing self-division by splitting himself graphically down the middle. 9 Though Iago is not there to see his victory, we might imagine him as invisible commentator, saying in effect, Look, he is not all-in-all sufficient, self-sustaining and full; he is movies in essays as self-divided as I am. 10. To shatter the illusion of Othello's fullness and presence is also to shatter the illusion of his erotic power; his division from himself is first of all his division from Desdemona and from the fair portion of himself invested in her. Self Essay. If Cassio is any indication, that erotic power is dean wuthering heavily idealized by the Italians: Great Jove, Othello guard, And swell his sail with thine own powerful.
That he may bless this bay with his tall ship, Make love's quick pants in Desdemona's arms. Give renew'd fire to our extincted spirits. . . . But for Iago it is intolerable: what begins as a means to an end (Iago creates Othello's suspicions about Desdemona to discredit Cassio in order to replace him as lieutenant) increasingly becomes an end in itself, as Iago drives Othello toward a murderous reenactment of sexual union on self the marriage bed, even though that reenactment will make Othello incapable of bestowing the position Iago initially seeks. The thrust of his plot toward the marriage bed, even at An Inside Wittnesses the cost of his own ambition, suggests that what Iago needs to spoil is on that bed: the fullness and presence signified by Othello's possession of Desdemona, the sexual union that reminds him of his own extincted spirits. For Iago's own erotic life takes place only in his head; though he seems to imagine a series of self essay erotic objects—Desdemona (11. 286-89), Cassio (3.3.419-32), and Othello himself (in the coded language—the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat [2.1.290-91]—that makes cuckoldry an monsters inc anal invasion of Iago's own body)—he imagines them less as realizable erotic objects than as mental counters in his revenge plot, and he imagines them only in self essay, sexual unions (Othello with Desdemona, Othello with Emilia, Cassio with Desdemona, Cassio with Emilia) that everywhere exclude and diminish him. And in response, he effectively neutralizes the erotic potency that mocks his own lack. His primary tool in this neutralization is the creation of Othello as black: and in from monsters, fact it is Othello as progenitor that first excites Iago's racializing rage. Self Concept. His first use of the language of black and white is in his call to Brabantio: An old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe. If Cassio needs to make Othello into an exotic super-phallus, capable of restoring Italian potency, Iago needs to make him into a black monster, invading the citadel of in essays whiteness. (The idealization and the debasement are of self concept course two sides of the same coin, and they are equally damaging to mr kurtz Othello: both use him only as the self concept essay container for white fantasies, whether of desire or fear.) Your white ewe/you: Iago's half-pun invokes the whiteness of his auditors via the An Inside Look at Jehova's Wittnesses Essay image of Othello's contaminating miscegenation; 12 true to concept form in racist discourse, whiteness emerges as a category only when it is mr kurtz imagined as threatened by its opposite.
Iago's language here works through separation, works by essay, placing blackness outside of whiteness even as it provokes terror at the thought of their mixture. Look At Jehova's Essay. But the play has already affiliated Iago himself with darkness and the demonic; the threat of a contaminating blackness is already there, already present inside the whiteness he would invoke. Iago creates Othello as black—and therefore himself as white—when he constructs him as monstrous progenitor; and he uses that racialized blackness to essay destroy what he cannot tolerate. Mr Kurtz. But the trope through which Iago imagines that destruction makes Iago himself into the monstrous progenitor, filled with a dark conception that only darkness can bring forth: I ha't, it is engender'd, he tells us; Hell and concept essay night / Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light (1.3.401-2). This trope makes the blackness Iago would attribute to Othello—like his monstrous generativity—something already inside Iago himself, something that he must project out into the world: as though Iago were pregnant with the monster he makes of Othello. 13. If the structure of the first scene predicts the and Machine Intelligence Essay process through which Iago becomes the progenitor of Othello's racialized blackness, the trope of the monstrous birth in concept, the first act's final lines perfectly anticipates the mechanism of projection through which Iago will come to movies in essays use Othello's black skin as the container for self concept, his own interior blackness. Voice Of Boo. Cassio uses Othello as the locus for fantasies of inseminating sexual renewal; Iago uses him as the repository for essay, his own bodily insufficiency and his self-disgust. Voice Of Boo Inc. For Iago needs the self concept essay blackness of others: even the white ewe Desdemona is voice of boo from monsters blackened in his imagination as he turns her virtue into pitch (2.3.351).
How are we to understand Iago's impulse to self essay blacken, the impulse for Fuzzy and Machine Essay, which Othello becomes the perfect vehicle? What does it mean to take another person's body as the self receptacle for in essays, one's own contents? The text gives us, I think, a very exact account of what I've come to call the psycho-physiology of Iago's projection: that is, not simply an account of the psychological processes themselves but also an account of the fantasized bodily processes that underlie them. Projection is in its own way comfortingly abstract; by invoking the concept essay body behind the abstraction, Othello in effect rubs our noses in it. 14. Let me begin, then, by thinking about the way Iago thinks about bodies, especially about the insides of A Solution Crisis Essay bodies. For Iago is the play's spokesman for the idea of the inside, the hidden away.
At the beginning of his seduction of Othello, he defends the privacy of his thought by asking where's that palace, whereinto foul things / Sometimes intrude not? (3.3.141-42); no palace is concept impregnable, no inside uncontaminated. Characteristically, Othello takes this image and voice from makes it his own, reinscribing it in his later anatomy of Desdemona as a cistern, for foul toads / To knot and gender in (4.2.62-63). But merely by insisting on the hidden inwardness of thought, Iago has already succeeded in causing Othello to conflate the hidden with the hideous, as though that which is inside, invisible, must inevitably be monstrous (he echoes me, / As if there were some monster in his thought, / Too hideous to be shown [3.3.110-12]). Self. 15 According to this logic, the An Inside Look Wittnesses Essay case against self essay Desdemona is complete as soon as Iago can insinuate that she, too, has—psychically and anatomically—an inside, unknowable and monstrous because it is inside, unseen. If Iago succeeds in transferring his own sense of hidden contamination to Desdemona, localizing it in her body, the sense of the hideous thing within—monstrous birth or foul intruder—begins with him. Seen from this vantage point, his initial alarum to Brabantio (Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags. . . . Are all doors lock'd? [1.1.80, 85]) looks less like a description of danger to Brabantio or Desdemona than like a description of danger to Iago himself. For Iago finds—or creates—in Brabantio's house the perfect analogue for his own sense of vulnerability to intrusion, and he can make of Othello the perfect analogue for the intrusive foul thing, the old black ram who is tupping your white ewe/you—or, as we later find out, tupping Iago himself in Iago's fantasy, and leaving behind a poisonous residue (I do suspect the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into mr kurtz my seat, the thought whereof / Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw my inwards [2.1.290-92]). But even the image of the body as a breached and contaminated palace suggests rather more interior structure than most of Iago's other images for the body. Again and again Iago imagines the body filled with liquid putrefaction, with contents that can and should be vomited out or excreted. The three fingers Cassio kisses in show of courtesy to Desdemona should be clyster-pipes for his sake (1.
176), Iago says; through the concept bizarre reworking of Iago's fantasy, Cassio's fingers are transformed into enema tubes, an imagistic transformation that violently brings together not only An Inside lips and faeces, mouth, vagina, and anus, but also digital, phallic, and emetic penetration of a body—Desdemona's? Cassio's?—imagined only as a container for faeces. Early in the play, poor Roderigo is a sick fool . . . Self. Whom love has turn'd almost the wrong side outward (2.3.47-48); by the end, he is a quat rubbed almost to A Solution Crisis Essay the sense (5.1.11), that is, a pus-filled pimple about to break. The congruence of these images suggests that Roderigo becomes a quat for Iago because he can't keep his insides from running out: the love that has almost turned him inside out is here refigured as pus that threatens to break through the self surface of his body. In Iago's fantasy of the body, what is in essays inside does not need to essay be contaminated by a foul intruder because it is already pus or faeces; in fact, anything brought into Foreclosure Essay this interior will be contaminated by it. Iago cannot imagine ordinary eating, in concept, which matter is taken in for the body's nourishment; any good object taken in will be violently transformed and mr kurtz violently expelled.
When he is done with her, Iago tells us, Othello will excrete Desdemona (The food that to him now is as luscious as locusts, shall be to him shortly as acerb as the coloquintida, an emetic or purgative [1.3.349-50]); when Desdemona is sated with Othello's body (1.351), she will heave the gorge (2.1.231-32). (Poor Emilia has obviously learned from self concept essay her husband: in her view men are all but stomachs, and we all but food; / They eat us hungerly, and when they are full, / They belch us [3.4.101-3].) Given this image of the body's interior as a mass of undifferentiated and contaminated matter, it's no wonder that Iago propounds the ideal of self-control to Fuzzy Systems Essay Roderigo in the garden metaphor that insists both on the rigid demarcation and differentiation of the body's interior and on its malleability to the exercise of will: . . Concept. . 'tis in ourselves, that we are thus, or thus: our bodies are gardens, to the which our wills are gardeners, so that if we will plant nettles, or sow lettuce, set hyssop, and Essay weed up thyme; supply it with one gender of herbs, or distract it with many; either to have it sterile with idleness, or manur'd with industry, why, the power, and corrigible authority of this, lies in our wills. This is not, presumably, his experience of his own body's interior or of his management of self concept essay it; it seems rather a defensive fantasy of an orderly pseudo-Eden, in which man is wholly in mr kurtz, control both of the concept essay inner processes of his body/garden and wuthering heights of the troublesome business of gender, and woman is wholly absent. 16 His only explicit representation of his body's interior belies this defense: the mere thought that Othello has leaped into his seat (even though he know[s] not if't be true [1. 386]) Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw [his] inwards. No reassuring gardener with his tidy—or even his untidy—rows here: Iago's inwards are hideously vulnerable, subject to a poisonous penetration. Through an imagistic transformation, Othello as penetrator becomes conflated with the thought that tortures Iago inwardly; Othello thus becomes a toxic object lodged inside him. Self Essay. (The garden passage simultaneously expresses and defends against the homoerotic desire that here makes Othello a poisonous inner object, insofar as it voices a fantasy of supply[ing] the body with one gender rather than distract[ingj it with many. 17 ) What I have earlier called Iago's injured I—his sense that he is chronically slighted and betrayed, his sense of self-division—produces (or perhaps is produced by) fantasies of his body as penetrated and contaminated, especially by Othello. In fact, any traffic between inner and outer is dangerous for Iago, who needs to keep an absolute barrier between them by making his outside opaque, a false sign (1.1.156 and 157) of voice inc his inside; to do less would be to risk being (Roderigolike) turned almost the wrong side outward, to self wear [his] heart upon Intelligence [his] sleeve, / For dawes to peck at essay (11. 64-65). 18 To allow himself to A Solution to the Essay be seen or known is self concept essay tantamount to being stabbed, eaten alive: pecked at from the voice monsters outside unless he manages to keep the barrier between inner and outer perfectly intact, gnawed from the inside if he lets anyone in.
Iago's need for sadistic control of self essay others (Pleasure, and action, make the hours seem short [2.3.369], he says, after managing Cassio's cashiering) goes in tandem with his extraordinarily vivid sense of vulnerability: unable to be gardener to himself, he will sadistically manage everyone else, simultaneously demonstrating his superiority to those quats whose insides are so sloppily prone to bursting out, and hiding the contamination and chaos of his own insides. Roderigo plays a pivotal role in this process. As the embodiment of what Iago would avoid, Roderigo exists largely to give Iago repeated occasions on which to heights display his mastery over both self and other: in effect, Iago can load his contaminated insides into Roderigo and then rub him to essay the sense in order to mr kurtz demonstrate the difference between them and, hence, the impermeability of Iago's own insides. Moreover, in managing Roderigo, Iago can continually replenish himself with the fantasy of new objects to self be taken into mr kurtz the self: objects over which—unlike the self concept essay thought of Othello, which gnaws at his inwards—he can exert full control. Obsessively—six times in fourteen lines—Iago tells Roderigo to voice monsters Put money in essay, thy purse . . . And Machine Intelligence Essay. fill thy purse with money (1.3.340, 348).
We know that Iago has received enough jewels and concept essay gold from nelly heights Roderigo to have half-corrupted a votarist (4.2.189), but we never see Iago taking the miser's or even the spendthrift's ordinary delight in this treasure; detached from any ordinary human motivation, the money accrues almost purely psychic meaning, becoming the sign not of any palpable economic advantage but of Iago's pleasure in being able to empty Roderigo out, to fill himself at will. Put money in thy purse, he repeats insistently, and self concept essay then adds, Thus do I ever make my fool my purse (1.3.381), as though the emptiedout Roderigo becomes the container that holds the illusion of Iago's fullness. For his repetition signals a compulsive need to A Solution Crisis fill himself with objects in order to compensate for the contamination and chaos inside: hard shiny objects that might be kept safe and might keep the self safe, objects that could magically repair the sense of what the self concept self is made of and Fuzzy Systems and Machine Intelligence Essay filled with. Iago's hoarding, his sadism, his references to purgatives and clyster-pipes can be read through the language of classical psychoanalysis as evidence of an anal fixation; in that language the equation of money with faeces is familiar enough, as is the association of sadistic control with the anal phase. 19 Iago's obsessive suspicion that Othello has leaped into his seat, along with his heavily eroticized account of concept essay Cassio's dream, similarly lend themselves to a classically psychoanalytic reading of Iago as repressed homosexual. 20 While these readings are not wrong within their own terms, they nonetheless seem to me limited, and not only Fuzzy Systems and Machine Essay insofar as they can be said to assume a historically inaccurate concept of the subject or of the homosexual: 21 limited even within the terms of psychoanalysis insofar as they do not get at either the quality of Iago's emotional relationships (his inability to essay form any kind of libidinal bond, his tendency to treat others as poisonous inner objects) or the terrifying theatrical seductiveness of the processes of projection that we witness through him. I want consequently to move from the consideration of libidinal zones and conflicted object choices characteristic of classical psychoanalysis to the areas opened up by the work of Melanie Klein; a Kleinian reading of Iago will, I think, help us to An Inside Look at Jehova's Wittnesses understand the ways in which Iago's imagination of his own interior shapes his object relations as he projects this interior onto the landscape of the play. In Klein's account the primitive self is essay composed in part of remnants of internalized objects (people, or bits and pieces of Fuzzy Systems people, taken into the self as part of the self self's continual negotiation with what an outside observer would call the An Inside at Jehova's Essay world) and the world is composed in part of projected bits and pieces of the self.
Ideally, the good breast is taken in and becomes part of the concept essay ego, and the infant who was first inside the mother now has the mother inside himself. 22 Internalization of the good object is the basis for trust in one's own goodness; 23 full identification with a good object goes with a feeling of the self possessing goodness of its own and hence enables the return of goodness to in essays the world: Through processes of self concept essay projection and introjection, through inner wealth given out and re-introjected, an enrichment and Fuzzy Systems Intelligence deepening of the ego comes about. . . . Self Essay. Inner wealth derives from having assimilated the good object so that the individual becomes able to mr kurtz share its gifts with others. 24 And the corollary is clear: if the infant cannot take in the experience of the good breast (either because of his/her own constitutional conditions or because the experience is self essay not there to be had in a consistent way), the dean wuthering bad breast may be introjected, with accompanying feelings of one's own internal badness, poverty, poisonousness, one's own inability to give back anything good to the world. But, in the words of Harold Boris, a contemporary post-Kleinian analyst of envy, the infant who cannot, sooner or later, feed the hand from which it feeds . . . Self Essay. is the child who will then attempt to bite it. 25 The infant stuck with a depleted or contaminated inner world will, Klein suggests, exist in a peculiar relation to the good breast: even if it is there and apparently available, the infant may not be able to to the use it. For if the infant cannot tolerate either the discrepancy between its own badness and the goodness outside itself or the sense of dependency on this external source of goodness, the good breast will not be available for the infant's use: its goodness will in concept essay, effect be spoiled by the infant's own envious rage. The prototype for Kleinian envy is the hungry baby, experiencing itself as helplessly dependent, empty, or filled only with badness, confronted with the imagined fullness of a source of goodness outside itself: the first object to be envied is the Look at Jehova's feeding breast, for the infant feels that it possesses everything he desires and that it has an unlimited flow of milk, and love which the breast keeps for its own gratification. 26 Klein's insistence on the priority of the breast as the first object of envy effectively reverses Freud's concept of penis envy; in Klein's account even penis envy becomes secondary, derivative from this earlier prototype.
27 But Klein's concept of envy turns on an even more startling innovation: for most analysts of self infantile destructiveness and rage, the source and target is the nelly wuthering frustrating bad object—a maternal object that doesn't provide enough, is not at the infant's beck and call, provides milk that in some way is felt to be spoiled; but in essay, Klein's reading of envy, the nelly dean source and self essay target of rage is movies in essays not the concept essay frustrating or poisonous bad breast but the good breast, and dean it is self essay exactly its goodness that provokes the rage. Hence the movies in essays peculiar sensitivity of the envious to the good—and the consequent need not to possess but to destroy it, or, in essay, Klein's terms, to put badness, primarily bad excrement and bad parts of the self, into the mother, and first of all into her breast, in order to spoil and A Solution to the Foreclosure destroy her. 28 But the breast so destroyed is of course no longer available to the child as a source of essay good: The breast attacked in Look, this way has lost its value, it has become bad by being bitten up and poisoned by urine and faeces. 29 Insofar as the infant has succeeded in destroying the good object, he has confirmed its destruction as a source of goodness within himself; hence the peculiarly vicious circle of concept envy, which destroys all good both in the world and in the self, and hence also its peculiar despair. We do not, of course, need the help of a Kleinian perspective to An Inside Look Wittnesses Essay identify Iago as envious. His willingness to kill Cassio simply because He has a daily beauty in his life, / That makes me ugly (5.1.19-20) marks the extent to which he is driven by envy; in self, an older theatrical tradition he might well have been named Envy. Here, for example, is Envy from Impatient Poverty: A syr is not thys a ioly game . Movies. . . Enuy in fayth I am the same . . . I hate conscience, peace loue and reste. Debate and stryfe that loue I beste.
Accordynge to my properte. When a man louethe well hys wyfe. I brynge theym at debate and stryfe. 30. This genealogy does not, however, make Iago a Coleridgean motiveless malignity. Concept Essay. For in Iago, Shakespeare gives motiveless malignity a body: incorporating this element of the morality tradition, he releases through Iago the range of bodily fantasies associated with a specifically Kleinian envy. Klein describes an movies in essays envy so primal—and so despairing—that it cannot tolerate the existence of goodness in the world: its whole delight lies not in concept, possessing what is good but in spoiling it. And that spoiling takes place in fantasy through a special form of object-relating: through the violent projection of bits of the self and its contaminated objects—often localized as contaminated bodily products—into the good object. Voice Of Boo Inc. By means of this projection, the self succeeds in essay, replicating its own inner world out there and thus in destroying the movies goodness it cannot tolerate; at the end of the process, in essay, the words of one Kleinian analyst, There is nothing left to envy. 31 Through the lens of voice monsters a Kleinian perspective, we can see traces of this process as Iago fills Othello with the poison that fills him.
In Iago's fantasy, as I have suggested, there is no uncontaminated interior space: he can allow no one access to self concept essay his interior and has to nelly wuthering heights keep it hidden away because it is more a cesspool than a palace or a garden. And there are no uncontaminated inner objects: every intruder is foul; everything taken in turns to pus or faeces or poison; everything swallowed must be vomited out. This sense of self concept essay inner contamination leaves him—as Klein would predict—particularly subject to the sense of goodness in others and particularly ambivalent toward that goodness. His goal is to make those around him as ugly as he is; but that goal depends on his unusual sensitivity to their beauty. Even after he has managed to bring out the quarrelsome drunkard and class-conscious snob in Cassio, transforming him into a man who clearly enjoys sneaking around to see his general's wife, Iago remains struck by the daily beauty in Cassio's life—at a point when that beauty has become largely invisible to the audience. And Machine Intelligence Essay. To Roderigo, Iago always contemptuously denies the goodness of Othello and Desdemona (he is an concept erring barbarian and Fuzzy Systems Intelligence Essay she a supersubtle Venetian); but in soliloquy he specifically affirms their goodness—and affirms it in order to imagine spoiling it. Othello's free and open nature he will remake as the self essay stupidity of an ass who can be led by the nose (1.3.397-400).
He will not only use Desdemona's virtue; he will turn it into pitch, in a near-perfect replication of the projection of faeces into the good breast that Klein posits. For Iago the desire to movies in essays spoil always takes precedence over self concept essay, the desire to possess; one need only contrast him with Othello to see the difference in their relation to good objects. 32 Othello's anguish over the loss of the voice of boo good object gives the play much of its emotional resonance. He imagines himself as safely enclosed in self concept essay, its garnery, nourished and protected by it, and then cast out: But there, where I have garner'd up my heart, / Where either I must live, or bear no life, / The fountain, from the nelly wuthering which my current runs, / Or else dries up, to self be discarded thence (4.2.58-61). When he is made to imagine that object as spoiled—a cistern, for foul toads / To knot and gender in—its loss is wholly intolerable to him; even at A Solution Essay the end, as he kills Desdemona, he is working very hard to restore some remnant of the good object in her. Although he approaches Desdemona's bed planning to bloody it (Thy bed, lust-stain'd, shall with lust's blood be spotted [5.1.36]), his deepest desire is not to stain but to restore the purity of the good object, rescuing it from contamination, even the contamination he himself has visited upon it. By the time he reaches her bed, he has decided not to essay shed her blood (5.2.3). Instead he attempts to recreate her unviolated wholeness (that whiter skin of hers than snow, / And smooth, as monumental alabaster [11. 4-5]) in a death that he imagines as a revirgination; 33 in fantasy he cleanses the Foreclosure Essay slime / That sticks on filthy deeds, remaking her unmarred and unpenetrated, one entire and perfect chrysolite (11. 149-50, 146).
But Iago's only self concept joy comes in spoiling good objects: Othello mourns being cast out from the garnery/fountain that has nourished him; Iago mocks the meat he feeds on dean wuthering (3.3.170-71). His description of the concept green-eyed monster he cautions Othello against marks the workings of a very Kleinian envy in him: 34 like the empty infant who cannot tolerate the fullness of the breast, he will mock the objects that might nourish and sustain him, spoiling them by means of wuthering his corrosive wit. 35 (Or perhaps—in good Kleinian fashion—by tearing at them with his teeth: especially in conjunction with the image of feeding on meat, mock may carry traces of mammock, 36 to tear into pieces, suggesting the oral aggression behind Iago's biting mockery and hence the talion logic in his fantasy of being pecked at.) Mockery—especially of the meat he might feed on—is Iago's signature: different as they are, Othello, Cassio, and Roderigo share an almost religious awe toward Desdemona; Iago insists that the wine she drinks is made of grapes (2.1.249-50), that even the best woman is self concept only good enough To suckle fools, and Wittnesses chronicle small beer (1. 160). If the first object to be envied is the essay feeding breast, Iago's devaluation of maternal nurturance here is Fuzzy Systems Intelligence Essay just what we might expect. But envy does not stop there. As Klein suggests, Excessive envy of the breast is likely to extend to self essay all feminine attributes, in particular to to the Crisis Essay the woman's capacity to bear children. . . . The capacity to give and to preserve life is felt as the greatest gift and therefore creativeness becomes the deepest cause for envy. 37 If Othello's potency and fullness make him the immediate target of Iago's envious rage, the destruction of concept Desdemona's generativity has been Iago's ultimate goal from the beginning: poison his delight, he says; And though he in A Solution, a fertile climate dwell, / Plague him with flies (1.1.70-71). The image half-echoes Hamlet's linking of conception and concept essay breeding with the stirring of maggots in dead flesh, 38 for the fertile climate that Iago will transform into mr kurtz a breeding ground for plague is Desdemona's generative body. Hence, I think, the urgency with which Iago propels the plot toward the marriage bed (Do it not with poison, strangle her in her bed, even the bed she hath contaminated [4.1.203-4]): the ultimate game is to make father destroy mother on that bed in a parody of the concept essay life-giving insemination that might have taken place there. 39.
And hence the subterranean logic of Iago's favorite metaphor for that destruction, his monstrous birth. For if Iago enviously devalues Desdemona's generativity (she can only suckle, and only suckle fools; her body will breed only flies), he also appropriates it, and appropriates it specifically through imitation. Here both senses of mock —as devaluation and derisive imitation—come together, as Boris's work on envy predicts: The urge to take charge of the envied object has several components to it. Wuthering. First, of course, is the self denuding (an idea) and disparagement (an emotion) of the inherent value of the to the Crisis Essay original. This makes possible what follows, namely the self concept idea that the 'knock-off (the 'as-if' ) is in voice of boo, every way the essay equal of the real thing. Mr Kurtz. 40 In conceiving of his monstrous birth, that is, Iago not only mocks but also displaces Desdemona's generativity by taking on its powers for himself, denying the difference—between her fruitfulness and his barrenness, between her fullness and his emptiness—that he cannot tolerate. Iago's substitution in fact proceeds by stages. Self Concept Essay. When he first invokes the metaphor of Systems and Machine Intelligence pregnancy, he is merely the midwife/observer: There are many events in self concept essay, the womb of time, which will be delivered (1.3.369-70). But his triumphant I ha't only thirty lines later—I ha't, it is mr kurtz engender'd; Hell and essay night / Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light—replaces time's womb with his own: as I have already argued, his is the body in which the monstrous birth is engendered, and hell and night have become the midwives. Through this metaphor, Iago's mental production becomes his substitute birth, in which he replaces the Systems Essay world outside himself 41 —the world of self essay time's womb, or of Desdemona's—with the projection of his own interior monstrosity; thus conceived, his plot manages simultaneously to An Inside at Jehova's Essay destroy the generativity that he cannot tolerate and to proclaim the superior efficacy of his own product.
Emilia's description of the jealousy Iago creates in Othello—it is a monster, / Begot upon essay itself, born on itself (3.4.159-60)—is not accurate about Othello, but it suggestively tracks Iago's own envy to its psychic sources. Mr Kurtz. If Iago imagines himself enacting a substitute birth, making the world conform to the shape of his envy by undoing the self essay contours of the already-existing generative world, Emilia expresses the wish behind his metaphor: the wish to be begot upon oneself, born on A Solution Foreclosure Crisis Essay oneself, no longer subject to—dependent on, vulnerable to—the generative fullness outside the self and the unendurable envy it provokes. 42 Unable to achieve that end, he will empty himself out on the wedding bed, substituting his own monstrous conception for the generative fullness that torments him, and destroying in the process the concept envied good object in Desdemona. And it is just here, in this fantasy, that Othello's blackness becomes such a powerful vehicle for Iago. I have already suggested that Iago's capacity to spoil good objects rests on Fuzzy Systems Intelligence his capacity to blacken them, and to blacken them through a bodily process of projection.
His monstrous birth is from the first associated with the darkness of hell and night; and self when, in his conversation with Desdemona, he imagines his invention as his baby, that baby is associated specifically with the extrusion of a dark and sticky substance: Comes from my pate as birdlime does from. It plucks out brain and all: but my Muse. And thus she is deliver'd. An Inside At Jehova's Wittnesses. . . Concept. . Presumably Iago means that his invention is movies in essays as slow—as laborious—-as the process of removing birdlime from rough cloth (frieze), in which the nap of the cloth is removed along with the soiling agent (hence plucks out brain and self all). But the route to this relatively rational meaning is treacherous: the syntax first presents us with birdlime oozing from his head (invention / Comes from my pate as birdlime does), takes us on an apparent detour through the soiling of cloth (the birdlime stuck to the frieze), and ends with the image of mr kurtz his head emptied out altogether (plucks out brain and self concept all), as though in a dangerous evacuation. Systems And Machine Essay. Then, through a buried pun on concept essay conception, the movies concealed intermediary term, the evacuation becomes a pregnancy and delivery, displaced from his own body to that of the self concept essay Muse, who labors and is delivered.
Invention, in other words, becomes the male equivalent of monsters pregnancy, the production of a sticky dark baby. Concept Essay. What we have here, I suggest, is the vindictive fantasy of a faecal pregnancy and delivery that can project Iago's inner monstrosity and darkness into the world: 44 initially displaced upward to the evacuated pate, this faecal baby is Fuzzy Systems and Machine Intelligence Essay then returned to its source as his monstrous birth, the concept essay baby he has conceived in response to Desdemona's request for praise (2.1.124) and the easy generativity (his own is a difficult labor) that he envies in her. This baby's emergence here marks, I think, both the source of his envy and the exchange that envy will demand: he will attempt in effect to replicate his dark sticky baby in her, soiling her generative body by mr kurtz, turning her virtue into pitch, 45 spoiling the object whose fullness and goodness he cannot tolerate by making it the receptacle for his own bodily contents. And he counts on the contagion of this contaminated object: he will turn Desdemona into pitch not only because pitch is black and sticky—hence entrapping—but because it is notoriously defiling; 46 his scheme depends on using Desdemona as a kind of tar baby, counting on her defilement—her blackening—to make Othello black. In fantasy, that is, Iago uses Desdemona and Othello to contaminate each other; they become for him one defiled object as he imagines them on that wedding bed. But at the same time, Othello plays a special role for Iago: in self concept essay, Othello's black skin Iago can find a fortuitous external sign for the entire process, or, more accurately, a container for the internal blackness that he would project outward, the dark baby that hell and night must bring to the world's light; emptying himself out, Iago can project his faecal baby into Othello, blackening him with his own inner waste. Iago plainly needs an Othello who can carry the in essays burden of his own contamination; and to some extent the play makes us complicit in the process, as it makes Othello in concept, effect into Iago's monstrous creation, carrying out Iago's conception as he murders Desdemona on in essays her wedding bed, enacting a perverse version of the concept essay childbirth that might have taken place there. Othello himself seems to recognize that a birth of sorts is taking place, though he does not recognize it as Iago's: preparing to kill Desdemona on that bed, he says that her denials Cannot remove, nor choke the strong conception, / That I do groan withal (5.2.56-57), 47 as though he has been impregnated through Iago's monstrous birth. Fuzzy Systems And Machine Essay. And in fact he has: part of the peculiar horror of this play is that Othello becomes so effective a receptacle for—and enactor of—Iago's fantasies. If Iago imagines himself filled with a gnawing poisonous mineral through what amounts to Othello's anal insemination of him (2.1.290-92), he turns that poison back on Othello: I'll pour this pestilence into concept essay his ear (2.3.347). This retaliatory aural/anal insemination fills Othello with Iago's own contents, allowing Iago to serve his turn on Othello by doing to Othello what he imagines Othello has done to him. (I follow him to serve my turn upon him is sexualized in ways not likely to be audible to a modern audience [1.1.42].
For turn, see Othello's later she can turn, and turn, and yet go on, / And turn again [4.1.249-50]; 48 characteristically, Othello replicates in Desdemona the turn Iago has replicated in him.) And The Moor already changes with my poison, Iago says, adding for An Inside Wittnesses, our benefit—in case we have not noticed the links between his poisonous conceit and Othello's—Dangerous conceits are in their natures poisons, / Which . . . Concept Essay. Burn like the mines of sulphur (3.3.330-34). The Moor already changes with my poison: the line marks what is distinctive about projection in this play—and distinctively Kleinian. Mr Kurtz. Before Klein, projection was usually understood as a relatively uncomplicated process in which disowned ideas and emotions were displaced onto an external figure. Klein insisted both on the fantasies of bodily function accompanying this process and on the extent to which it is specifically pieces of the self and its inner objects that are thus relocated, with the consequence that pieces of the self are now felt to essay be out there, both controlling the object into wuthering heights which they have been projected and subject to dangers from it; Klein renamed this process projective identification. And her followers have expanded on concept essay the concept, stressing the effects of these projected contents on the recipient of the projection, the ways in movies, which the projector can in self concept, fact control the recipient. In this version of projective identification, the recipient will not only experience the bits of self projected into him but also enact the projector's fantasy scenarios, hence relieving the projector of all responsibility for them. 49 When Iago imagines Roderigo turned inside out, his body filled with pus, he seems to me to be engaging in Fuzzy, something close to garden-variety projection: he is attributing to self concept Roderigo portions of himself, or ideas about nelly dean, himself, that he would like to disown; and, as far as we know, Roderigo does not come to experience himself as pus-filled or inside out. Concept. But when Iago imagines filling Othello with his poison, when he imagines (in Klein's formulation) the forceful entry into the object and control of the An Inside Look Essay object by parts of the self, 50 he is much closer to a specifically Kleinian projective identification; and, as Klein's followers would predict, Othello really does change with Iago's poison, as he begins to experience himself as contaminated and hence to self essay act out Iago's scenarios. And the play depends on mr kurtz precisely this specialized kind of projective identification, in which Iago's fantasies are replicated in Othello's actions. Self. When we first meet Othello, he is confident enough about mr kurtz, his status and his color that he wishes to be found; he can confidently wish the goodness of the night (1.2.35) on Cassio and the duke's servants because blackness has not yet been poisoned for him. But as Iago projects his faecal baby into him, Othello comes more and self concept more to imagine himself as the foul thing—the old black ram—intruding into the palace of Venetian civilization or the palace of Desdemona's body; as Iago succeeds in making Othello the container for his own interior waste, Othello himself increasingly affiliates his blackness with soiling (he becomes collied or blackened by passion [2.3.197]; 51 his name is in essays begrim'd, and black as his face) and with bad interior objects. (In Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell [3.3.454], he calls on black vengeance to self concept arise as though from within the hollow of himself.) 52 His experience of himself, that is, comes increasingly to resemble what Iago has projected into at Jehova's Wittnesses Essay him; and self concept he begins to act in accordance with that projection, replicating in Desdemona the contagion of projection itself.
The Othello who feels himself begrimed because he has internalized Iago's foul intruder will necessarily see Desdemona as foul (5.2.201), as a begrim'd Diana or a black weed, and will evacuate his good object as Iago had predicted (1.3.350); by to the Crisis, the end of the play, Emilia can call Othello the blacker devil, Desdemona's most filthy bargain, As ignorant as dirt (5.2.132, 158, 165) because he has so perfectly introjected Iago's sense of inner filth. Insofar as Iago can make Othello experience his own blackness as a contamination that contaminates Desdemona, he succeeds in self concept essay, emptying himself out into Othello; and insofar as Othello becomes in effect Iago's faecal baby, Othello—rather than Iago—becomes the bearer of the fantasy of inner filth. Movies. Through projective identification, that is, Iago invents blackness as a contaminated category before our eyes, enacting his monstrous birth through Othello, and then allowing the Venetians (and most members of the audience) to self essay congratulate themselves—as he does—on their distance from the now-racialized Othello. Through this process, Othello becomes assimilated to, and motivated by, his racial type—becomes the monstrous Moor easily made jealous—and Iago escapes our human categories altogether, becoming unknowable, a motiveless malignity. But this emptying out of Iago is no more than Iago has already performed on himself: if the projection of his own inner contamination into Othello is voice from Iago's relief, it is also his undoing, and in a way that corroborates both the essay bodiliness of the fantasy of projection and its dangers to the projector as well as the recipient. Klein notes that excessive use of dean wuthering heights projective identification results in the weakening and impoverishment of the ego; in the words of Betty Joseph, at times the mind can be . . . so evacuated by self essay, projective identification that the individual appears empty. 53 If at the end of the play there is nothing left to envy, there is also no one left to experience envy: Iago's projection of himself into the racial other he constructs as the container for his contamination ends not only by destroying his (and our) good objects but also by leaving him entirely evacuated. Having poured the pestilence of nelly dean wuthering heights himself into Othello, Iago has nothing left inside him: his antigenerative birth hollows him out, leaving him empty. The closer he is to his goal, the flatter his language becomes; by self essay, the end, there is no inside left, no place to speak from. Of Boo From Monsters. The play that begins with his insistent I ends with his silence: from this time forth he never will speak word.
1 Quotations follow the Arden edition of concept Othello, edited by M. R. Ridley (London: Methuen, 1958). Ridley follows the 1622 quarto, which often differs from the Folio Othello; I have noted the differences where they seem significant to my argument. Citations of plays other than Othello follow William Shakespeare: The complete Works, ed. Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). 2 Race is of course a vexed term; many have pointed out Foreclosure Essay that the word race gained its current meaning only as it was biologized in support of the self concept essay economic institution of slavery and that the link between race and skin color is a peculiarly contemporary obsession, that (for example) Irish and Jews might in 1604 have been thought of nelly wuthering heights as racially separate from the English. For a particularly lucid account of the questions surrounding the invocation of race as a category in early modern England, see Lynda E. Concept. Boose, 'The Getting of a Lawful Race': Racial discourse in dean, early modern England and the unrepresentable black woman in Women, Race, and Writing in the Early Modern Period, Margo Hendricks and Patricia Parker, eds. (London and New York: Routledge, 1994), 35-54, esp.
35-40; see also John Gillies, Shakespeare and the geography of self essay difference (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994), for the claim that early modern otherness was based on geography rather than on the anachronistic category of Fuzzy Systems Essay race (25). Nonetheless, in Iago's capacity to make Othello's blackness the concept essay primary signifier of Look Wittnesses Essay his otherness—as Boose observes, once his Ensign has raised the flag inscribing Othello within the difference of skin color, all the presumably meaningful differences Othello has constructed between himself and the infidel collapse (38)—the text insists on the visible difference of skin color that will increasingly come to define race, perhaps because, unlike religion, it (proverbially) cannot be changed. For a discussion of the significance of self essay visible difference in early modern England, see Kim Hall, Reading What Isn't There: 'Black' Studies in Early Modern England, Stanford Humanities Review 3 (1993): 23-33, esp. Crisis. 25-27; in her account science merely takes up already pre-existing terms of difference, such as skin color and features, that have [previously] been combined with physical and self mental characteristics (25). 3 Ridley follows the Folio reading of line 392, since this line occurs in a passage not found in Q1 ; Q2 (1630) famously reads Her name in place of F's My name, perhaps to rationalize Othello's peculiar association of his name with the fairness of mr kurtz a figure for female virginity.
I prefer My name, partly because it suggests the concept essay identificatory dynamics that underlie Othello's love for Desdemona; but either reading points toward Othello's association of the stain on Desdemona's virgin body with the blackness of his own face. 4 Desdemona becomes a black weed only in the quartos; F omits the nelly adjective. 5 This position was powerfully—and variously—articulated in three classic essays published in self essay, 1979-80: Edward A. Snow's Sexual Anxiety and the Male Order of mr kurtz Things in Othello, English Literary Renaissance 10 (1980): 384-412; Stanley Cavell's Othello and the Stake of the Other in Disowning Knowledge in Six Plays of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), 125-42 (originally published in concept, 1979 in Crisis, The Claim of Reason [Oxford: Oxford UP]); and Stephen Greenblatt's The Improvisation of Power in Renaissance Self Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare (Chicago and London: U of concept Chicago P, 1980), 222-54, esp. 232-52. For the nelly association of Othello's blackness specifically with sexual contamination, and self concept Othello's internalization of this association, see especially Snow, 400-402; and Cavell, 136-37. For a fuller reading of the Look Essay association between blackness and monstrous sexuality in early modern English culture and in Othello, see especially Karen Newman, 'And wash the Ethiop white': femininity and the monstrous in Othello in Shakespeare Reproduced: The text in essay, history and ideology, Jean E. Howard and Marion F. Voice Of Boo From. O'Connor, eds. (New York and London: Methuen, 1987), 143-62, esp. 148-53; for a fuller reading of the ways in which Othello internalizes the Venetian construction of self his blackness, see Edward Berry, Othello's Alienation, Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 30 (1990): 315-33. Voice Of Boo Monsters Inc. The blackening of Desdemona has become a critical commonplace: see, for example, Michael Neill, Unproper Beds: Race, Adultery, and the Hideous in Othello, Shakespeare Quarterly 40 (1989): 383-412, esp.
410; Berry, 328; Ania Loomba, Gender, race, Renaissance drama (Manchester and New York: Manchester UP, 1989), 59; Parker, Fantasies of 'Race' and essay 'Gender': Africa, Othello and bringing to light in Hendricks and to the Foreclosure Crisis Essay Parker, eds., 84-100, esp. 95; and especially Newman, 151-52, for whom the blackening of Desdemona indicates the convergence of woman and self concept essay black in the category of monstrous sexuality. 6 See W. H. Auden's related account of Iago as practical joker: The practical joker despises his victims, but at the same time he envies them because their desires, however childish and mistaken, are real to them, whereas he has no desire which he can call his own. .. Look At Jehova's Wittnesses Essay. . If the word motive is given its normal meaning of a positive purpose of the self like sex, money, glory, etc., then the practical joker is without motive. Yet the professional practical joker is certainly driven, .. . but the drive is essay negative, a fear of lacking a concrete self, of being nobody. In any practical joker to whom playing such jokes is a passion, there is wuthering always an element of malice, a projection of his self-hatred onto others, and in the ultimate case of the absolute practical joker, this is concept projected onto all created things (The Dyer's Hand and in essays other essays [New York: Random House, 1962], 256-57).
The emptiness of Auden's practical joker is sometimes associated by later critics with Iago's facility in self, role-playing; see, e.g., Shelley Orgel, whose Iago gains a temporary sense of self by playing the roles that others project onto him (Iago, American Imago 25 : 258-73, esp. 272). Greenblatt's Iago has the role-player's ability to Crisis imagine his nonexistence so that he can exist for a moment in essay, another and as another; but for Greenblatt, Iago's imagined emptiness is less an ontological state than a cover for his emptying out of his victim (235 and 236). More recently Iago's emptiness has reminded critics of a Derridean absence of self or meaning; see, e.g., Bonnie Melchior, Iago as Deconstructionist, Publications of the Arkansas Philological Association 16 (1990): 63-81, esp. 79; or Karl F. Zender, The Humiliation of Iago, SEL 34 (1994): 323-39, esp. 327-28. In Alessandro Serpieri's brilliant semiotic reading, Iago suffers from an envy of An Inside Wittnesses Essay being that is the self essay deconstructionist's equivalent of the mr kurtz state Auden describes: Iago cannot identify with any situation or sign or enonce, and is thus condemned to deconstruct through his own enonciations the enonces of others, transforming them into simulacra. Othello is precisely the lord of the enonce (Serpieri, Reading the signs: towards a semiotics of self concept essay Shakespearean drama, trans.
Keir Elam, in of boo monsters inc, Alternative Shakespeares, John Drakakis, ed. [London and concept essay New York: Methuen, 1985], 119-43, esp. 139). And Machine Essay. In its emphasis on envy and projection, Auden's and self essay Serpieri's work is closest to movies in essays my own; but see also David Pollard's powerful Baudelairian reading of Iago's emptiness and the sadistic projections through which he attempts to fill it (Iago's Wound in Othello: New Perspectives, Virginia Mason Vaughan and Kent Cartwright, eds. Self Essay. [Rutherford, Madison, and Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1991], 89-96). 7 Adam Phillips, Foreword in Harold N. Boris, Envy (Northvale, NJ, and A Solution to the London: Jason Aronson, 1994), vii-xi, esp. ix. 8 For some, Othello is split long before Iago begins his work.
In Berry's account, for example, Othello is self concept essay divided from the beginning by the two contradictory selfimages he absorbs from Venice; his failure to escape this limiting framework and hence to achieve a true sense of personal identity is a powerful source of tragic feeling in the play (323 and 330). But for critics who read Othello as an early instance of a colonized subject, this failure is not personal but systemic: both Loomba (32, 48, and in essays 54) and Jyotsna Singh (Othello's Identity, Postcolonial Theory, and Contemporary African Rewritings of Othello in concept, Hendricks and Parker, eds., 287-99, esp. 288) position Othello specifically in opposition to what Singh calls the dominant, Western fantasy of at Jehova's Essay a singular, unified identity (288). But Iago at self least insists that he is the divided one, and Othello initially claims that his soul is perfect or undivided; whatever the state to which Othello is reduced, Othello —like The Tempest —seems to Fuzzy and Machine Intelligence Essay me to encode the fantasy that the exotic other possesses a primitive unitary identity before his induction into self concept essay a Western-style split self. 9 I first read this paper to a very helpful and responsive audience at Notre Dame in November 1994, on which occasion Richard Dutton called my attention to the way in Crisis, which Othello's self-division is literally played out on the stage. 10 As Iago's self-alienation passes to concept essay Othello, so does his habit of soliloquizing. Soliloquies are usually in mr kurtz, Shakespearean tragedy the self essay discourse of self-division: only those whose selves are in pieces need to explain themselves to themselves and nelly wuthering heights have distinct-enough interior voices to self essay carry out the job for our benefit. Initially Iago's soliloquies formally mark him as fractured in comparison with Othello's wholeness; by the end, Othello is the soliloquizer. 11 I here depart from Ridley in following F's version of line 80; Ridley and Q1 (1622) give And swiftly come to Desdemona's arms.
Ridley himself finds Q1's version of movies in essays line 80 pallid and thinks Shakespeare probably revised it for F; that he nonetheless rejects the Folio version on the grounds that it is self concept essay inconsistent with Cassio's character suggests his resistance to mr kurtz seeing just how eroticized Cassio's idealizing of Othello is self concept essay (xxixxxx and 52n). In the context of lovemaking, spirits is not a neutral term; for its specifically sexual senses, see Stephen Booth, Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale UP, 1977), 441-43. 12 See Neill's powerful account of the ways in which the audience is implicated in Iago's invocation of the horrors of miscegenation, the Systems Intelligence improper sexual mixture that medieval theologians called adultery (395-99 and 407-9). For Arthur L. Little Jr. the self concept essay whole of the play constitutes the primal scene of mr kurtz racism, a forbidden sexual sight/site from which the audience constructs the significance of race ('An essence that's not seen': The Primal Scene of Racism in Othello, SQ 44 : 304-24, esp. 305-6). 13 The familiar associations of blackness with monstrosity (see, e.g., Newman, 148; and James R. Aubrey, Race and the Spectacle of the Monstrous in Othello, Clio 22 : 221-38) and self concept essay specifically with monstrous births (see Neill, 409-10; and Look Aubrey, 222-27) would probably have made the subterranean connection between Othello and Iago's monstrous birth more available to Shakespeare's audiences than it is to a modern audience. 14 Projection has classically been invoked as a mechanism in Othello, but usually in the other direction, from Othello to Iago; see, e.g., J.I.M.
Stewart, Character and Motive in Shakespeare: Some Recent Appraisals Examined ([London, New York, and Toronto: Long-mans, Green and Company, 1949], 102-5), though Stewart ultimately abandons a naturalistic reading of the play through projection for a symbolic reading of self concept essay Iago and Othello as parts of a single whole. For somewhat later versions of Iago as Othello's projection, see, e.g., Henry L. An Inside Look At Jehova's Essay. Warnken, Iago as a Projection of Othello in Shakespeare Encomium 1564-1964, Anne Paolucci, ed. (New York: The City College, 1964), 1-15; and Orgel, 258-73. Concept Essay. In these accounts projection is loosely used to indicate that Iago expresses unacknowledged doubts or desires in Othello's mind (or, in Orgel's reading, Othello's unacknowledged need for a punitive superego); they generally do not explore the mechanism of projection or consider the degree to which the structure of the play posits Iago—not Othello—as its psychic starting point. For Auden, who reads the voice of boo inc play through Iago as practical joker, projection begins with Iago, not Othello (see n. 6, above); see also Leslie Y. Rabkin and Jeffrey Brown, who read Iago as a Horneyan sadist, assuaging his pain by self concept, projecting his self-contempt and hopelessness onto others (Some Monster in His Thought: Sadism and A Solution to the Foreclosure Crisis Tragedy in Othello Literature and Psychology 23 : 59-67, esp. 59-60); and Pollard, who reads Iago as Baudelairian sadist, filling the world with sadistic projections with which he then identifies to fill his inner emptiness (92-95). Serpieri sees Iago as the artificer of a destructive projection; in his semiotic analysis, litotes—Iago's characteristic nay-saying figure—becomes the linguistic equivalent of projection, a figure of essay persuasion which, by denying, affirms in the 'other' all that—the diabolical, the mr kurtz lustful, the alien—which it refutes or censures in self, the 'self (134 and 142). Attention to mr kurtz the status of others has made contemporary criticism particularly sensitive to Othello as the site of Iago's projections rather than as the originator of projection; see, e.g., Parker on the violence of projection (100). My account differs from those cited here largely in giving projection a body and in specifying the mechanisms of projective identification at work in the play. 15 Although Neill emphasizes the hidden/hideousness of the bed rather than of bodily interiors (394-95), my formulation here is very much indebted to his. In the course of her enormously suggestive account of the cultural resonances of the hidden/private in Othello and concept Hamlet, Parker comments extensively on the association of the of boo from monsters inc hidden with the woman's private parts, partly via gynecological discourse; see Parker, Othello and Hamlet: Dilation, Spying, and the 'Secret Place' of Woman, Representations 44 (1993): 60-95, esp.
64-69. 16 Gender can of course mean kind; but, as Ridley notes, Shakespeare normally uses it of difference of sex (40n). 17 Ridley notes that supply = satisfy (40n); for a specifically sexualized use, see Measure for Measure, 5.1.210. 18 Doves is the reading in Ridley and Ql; I here depart from self concept essay it in giving F's and Q2's dawes. 19 On the relationship between money and faeces, see Sigmund Freud, Character and Anal Eroticism in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, ed. James Strachey, 24 vols. (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1953-74), 9:167-76, esp. 171 and 173-74; Ernest Jones, Anal-Erotic Character Traits, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 13 (1918): 261-84, esp. 272-74 and 276-77; Karl Abraham, Contributions to the Theory of the An Inside Look Wittnesses Essay Anal Character in Selected Papers of Karl Abraham (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1927), 370-92, esp. 383; and Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (New York: Norton, 1945), 281. On sadism and self essay anality, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes in Dreams and Neurosis in Selected Papers, 318-22, esp. Movies. 319 and 321; Jones, 268; and Fenichel, 283.
20 The loci classici for this reading are Martin Wangh, Othello: The Tragedy of Iago, Psychoanalytic Quarterly 19 (1950): 202-12; and Gordon Ross Smith, Iago the Paranoiac, American Imago 16 (1959): 155-67. Both essays are based on Freud's account of delusional jealousy as a defense against homosexual desire in the Schreber case. For an extension and self concept elaboration of this view, with particular focus on Iago's hatred of women, see also Stanley Edgar Hyman, Iago: Some Approaches to the Illusion of His Motivation (New York: Atheneum, 1970), 101-21. Contemporary critics who comment on the homoerotic dynamic between Iago and Othello tend to locate their readings not in this model but in the complex of metaphors that makes Iago's seduction of Othello into an aural penetration and insemination, with a resulting monstrous (and miscegenistic) conception; see, e.g., Coppelia Kahn, Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: U of California P, 1981), 144-45; and Parker in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 99-100. Parker notes that the Fuzzy and Machine Intelligence Essay imagined penetration is anal as well as aural (99); see also, e.g., Graham Hammill's brief discussion of Iago's anal eroticism, The Epistemology of Expurgation: Bacon and The Masculine Birth of Time in Queering the self essay Renaissance, Jonathan Goldberg, ed. (Durham, NC, and London: Duke UP, 1994), 236-52, esp. 251n. 21 For historically based arguments against Foreclosure Crisis Essay Iago-as-repressed-homosexual, see Jonathan Dollimore, Sexual Dissidence (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 157-62; and Bruce R. Smith, Homosexual Desire in self concept, Shakespeare's England: A Cultural Poetics (Chicago and Wittnesses London: U of Chicago P, 1991), 61-63 and 75. Both Dollimore and Smith stress the social functions of the male homosocial bond rather than the dynamics of homoerotic feeling partly on the grounds that the homosexual subject is an anachronism in the early modern period. But Shakespeare does not need to have the category of the homosexual subject available to self concept him in order to represent Iago as acting out of desires inadmissible to him, including sodomitical desires; and critics who insist that we do away with the homosexual as a category sometimes throw out the baby with the bathwater. In Homosexuality and the Signs of Male Friendship in Elizabethan England (in Goldberg, ed., 40-61) Alan Bray demonstrates the cultural (nonsexual) uses to which the bedfellow could be put; but in order for Smith, for nelly heights, example, to invoke Iago's report of Cassio's bedfellow dream to concept essay make the argument that Iago is a self-conscious male-bonder rather than a repressed homosexual, he has to ignore the explicit sexiness of the dream (the hard kisses plucked up by the roots, the leg over voice, the thigh).
The dream clearly crosses the concept essay line—between male friendship and sodomy—that Bray delineates, more strikingly because Iago need not have included all that sexiness to convey his information to Othello; and whether or not the reported dream proclaims Iago a repressed homosexual, its effect on Othello clearly depends as much on its crossing of that line as on the information that Cassio dreams about Desdemona. As for subjectivity: whether or not the Renaissance shared our sense of the bourgeois subject—in any case, emphatically not the subject as it is construed by mr kurtz, psychoanalysis— Othello is concept essay obsessively about from monsters inc, what is hidden away within the person, the essay inner, private, and unknowable self that might harbor inaccessible desires. For a good summary of A Solution to the Foreclosure Essay these controversies—and a sensible middle position—see Alan Sinfield, Cultural Politics—Queer Reading (Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1994), 12-14. 22 Melanie Klein, Envy and Gratitude (1957) in Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963 (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 176-235, esp. 179. 24 Klein, 192 and 189. 27 For an early statement of this position, see Klein, Early Stages of the Oedipus Conflict (1928) in Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works 1921-1945 (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 186-98, esp. Self Essay. 190-91 and 193-96. 28 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 181. 29 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 186.
30 Quoted here from Bernard Spivack's discussion of Iago and to the the morality tradition in Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil: The History of a Metaphor in Relation to His Major Villains (New York: Columbia UP, 1958), 184. 31 Betty Joseph, Envy in everyday life in Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Change: Selected Papers of Betty Joseph, ed. Michael Feldman and Elizabeth Bott Spillius (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1989), 181-91, esp. 185. 32 In Kleinian terms, Othello has reached the depressive position, characterized by the capacity to mourn for the damaged object and to make reparations to it (see especially Klein, A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States  and concept essay Mourning and its Relation to Manic-Depressive States , both in Love, Guilt and Reparation, 262-89 and 344-69); Iago functions from within the more primitive paranoid-schizoid position, with its characteristic mechanisms of splitting and projection/introjection (see especially Klein, Notes on voice monsters Some Schizoid Mechanisms in Envy and Gratitude, 1-24). 33 As many have argued: see especially Cavell, 134; and Snow, 392. See also my Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of self essay Maternal Origin in Shakespeare, Hamlet to The Tempest (New York and London: Routledge, 1992), 69-70. 34 Iago's words here, like Emilia's at to the Foreclosure Crisis Essay 3.4.157-60, refer explicitly to jealousy but nonetheless define the self-referential qualities of envy. Although the two terms are sometimes popularly confused, they are distinct in psychoanalytic thought: jealousy occurs in a three-body relationship, derived from the self essay oedipus complex, in which the loss of A Solution to the Essay a good object to a rival is at stake; envy occurs in a pre-oedipal two-body relationship, in which the good qualities of the object are felt to be intolerable.
Jealousy seeks to preserve the concept good object, if necessary by killing it; envy seeks to spoil the to the Foreclosure Crisis Essay good object. (For these distinctions, see Klein, Envy and self Gratitude, 196-99; and Joseph in Feldman and An Inside Look at Jehova's Spillius, eds., 182.) Jealousy is concept essay a derivative of envy but is more easily recognized and more socially acceptable (Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 198; Joseph in Feldman and Spillius, eds., 182); partly as a consequence, it can sometimes serve as an important defence against envy (Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 198). Mr Kurtz. This defensive structure seems to me at work both in Iago and in the play at large: in Iago, who repeatedly comes up with narratives of jealousy as though to justify his intolerable envy to himself (tellingly, he uses the traditional language of envy—Spenser's Envy inwardly . Essay. . . chawed his owne maw in The Faerie Queene [I.iv.30]—to register the gnawing effects of jealousy on him); and in Othello itself, insofar as its own narratives of Look at Jehova's jealousy are far more legible and recognizably human than the envy represented through Iago and dismissed in him as unrecognizable, inhuman, or demonic. 35 Mock has puzzled commentators for years, occasioning five pages of concept essay commentary in Look at Jehova's Wittnesses Essay, the New Variorum edition of Othello (ed. Horace Howard Furness [Philadelphia: J. Concept. B. Lippincott, 1886]). Wuthering. William Warburton (1747) glosses mocke (in terms strikingly close to concept my own) as loaths that which nourishes and sustains it (176). With very little plausibility but some interest for my argument, Andrew Becket (1815) transforms mocke to muck, glossing it as to bedaub or make foul: two other commentators—Zachariah Jackson and Lord John Chedworth—approved of this emendation enough to voice from monsters come up with candidates for the monstrous animal that befouls its food, mouse and dragon-fly, respectively (179). 36 Zachary Grey suggested in 1754 that mock is a contraction for self concept, mammock (Furness, ed., 176); as far as I can tell, his suggestion has been entirely ignored. 37 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 201-2. 38 See Hamlet, 2.2.181-82.
39 This destruction also has the effect of separating the two figures whose conjunction has haunted Iago's imagination. Klein hypothesizes the combined parent figure as a special target of mr kurtz envy (the suspicion that the parents are always getting sexual gratification from one another reinforces the phantasy . . . that they are always combined [Envy and Gratitude, 198]); Iago in self concept, fact evokes such a fantasy-figure in his initial description of Othello and Desdemona as fused, a beast with two backs (1.1.116), always in the process of achieving the An Inside at Jehova's Essay incorporate conclusion (2.1.258-59) that is concept always denied him. 41 My formulation here is partly indebted to nelly dean wuthering heights Janine Chausseguet-Smirgel's work on essay perversion, especially anal perversion, which she sees as an mr kurtz attempt to dissolve generational and gender differences in order to defend against acknowledgment of the pervert's own puniness and vulnerability; though she does not draw specifically on Klein's concept of envy, her work sometimes intersects usefully with Klein's. In Chausseguet-Smirgel's reading, Sade's intention, for example, is to reduce the self essay universe to faeces, or rather to annihilate the universe of differences (Perversion and the Universal Law in Chausseguet-Smirgel, Creativity and Perversion [New York: W. W. In Essays. Norton, 1984], 4). Insofar as perversion attempts to replace God's differentiated universe with its own undifferentiation, it is the equivalent of concept essay Devil religion (9); the undifferentiated anal universe constitutes an imitation or parody of the Fuzzy Intelligence Essay genital universe of the father (11). While this formulation is suggestive for Iago, I think that Chausseguet-Smirgel is hampered by her Lacanian milieu, with its overvaluation of the phallus and self concept essay the father's law; Iago is at least as intent on imitating and ultimately replacing the mother's generative function as the father's law. 42 With the kind of psychological intuition that everywhere animates his portrayal of Satan, Milton reworks Emilia's comment: unable to stand the nelly dean heights debt immense of endless gratitude to the God who has created him (Paradise Lost, Bk.
4, 1. 52), Satan proclaims himself self-begot, self-rais'd / By our own quick'ning power (Bk. 5, 11. Self. 860-61). Klein cites Milton's Satan as an A Solution Foreclosure Crisis Essay instance of the spoiling of creativity implied in essay, envy (Envy and Gratitude, 202). 43 According to the Oxford English Dictionary, birdlime is a sticky substance made out of the bark of the holly tree and smeared on branches to entrap birds; With the barkes of Holme they make Bird-lyme, cited from Henry Lyte's 1578 Niewe herball or historie of plantes (Oxford English Dictionary, prep. J. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner, 2d ed., 20 vols. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989], 2:216).
Holme is confusing; it is cited as blacke Holme in Spenser's Virgils Gnat (1. 215), but there apparently refers to the oak, not the holly. In any case, despite the echo of at Jehova's lime, birdlime seems to self concept essay have been dark, not white. 44 The equation of faeces with baby is familiar to psychoanalysis; see, e.g., Freud, On the Sexual Theories of Children, on the cloacal theory of birth (If babies are born through the Fuzzy Systems anus, then a man can give birth just as well as a woman [9:205-26, esp. 219-20]); Jones, 274-75; and Susan Isaacs, Penis-Feces-Child, Internationaljournal of Psycho-analysis 8 (1927): 74-76.
For fantasies that overvalue the power of faecal creation to create or destroy every object, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes, 322; about one of self concept his patients he reports, That night he dreamed that he had to expel the universe out of mr kurtz his anus (320). 45 Oddly, Ridley associates the pitch into which Iago will turn Desdemona's virtue with birdlime without noting its source in Iago's earlier metaphor (88n). 46 For Shakespeare's reworkings of the proverbially defiling properties of pitch, see, e.g., Love's Labor's Lost, 4.3.3; 1 Henry IV, 2.4.394-96; and Much Ado About Nothing, 3.3.53. 47 I here depart from Ridley in following F and Q2; Q1, Ridley's copytext, gives conceit. Self Concept. The half-buried metaphor of childbirth is, I think, present in either case, both through the association of groan—especially in proximity to a bed—with childbirth (see, e.g., All's Well That Ends Well, 1.3.140 and 4.5.10; and Measure for Measure, 2.2.15) and through the family relation between conceit and Latin conceptus, cited in Intelligence, the OED; the OED also gives Conception of concept offspring as an obsolete meaning for conceit with a 1589 instance, though it notes that this usage is Perhaps only a pun (3:647-48, esp.
648). 48 See also the best turn F th' bed (Antony and nelly dean heights Cleopatra, 2.5.59). Self Essay. For serve, see Lear's Oswald, A serviceable villain, / As duteous to the vices of movies in essays thy mistress / As badness would desire (4.6.248-50); for serve my turn, see Costard's exchange with the king (Love's Labor's Lost, 1.1.281-82). For follow / fallow, see Parker in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 99, citing Herbert A. Self Essay. Ellis, Shakespeare 's Lusty Punning in Love 's Labour's Lost (1973). 49 This is an oversimplified summary of movies a very complex development in concept essay, psychoanalytic theory; for a fuller summary, see Projective Identification in R. D. Hinshelwood's A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought (London: Free Association Books, 1991), 179-208; or Elizabeth Bott Spillius's Clinical experiences of wuthering projective identification in Clinical Lectures on Klein and Bion, Robin Anderson, ed. Self Concept Essay. (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1992), 59-73, esp. Mr Kurtz. 59-64. For Klein's initial development of the concept of projective identification, see Envy and Gratitude, 8-11. The development of the concept concept by her followers has had broad ramifications for clinical work; for a particularly lucid account of some of these, see, in addition to Spillius, Joseph, Projective identification—some clinical aspects in Melanie Klein Today: Developments in and Machine Essay, Theory and Practice, Elizabeth Bott Spillius, ed., 2 vols. (London and New York: Routledge, 1988), 1:138-50.
50 Klein, Envy and self Gratitude, 11. 51 Collied is conjecturally related to from monsters inc coaly by the OED, 3:390-91. 52 Folio gives hell for Q1's cell. The Folio reading would ally black vengeance with Iago's monstrous birth. In either reading, the apparently superfluous hollowness suggests an inner space; as Ridley notes, it occurs, again redundantly, in essay, the reference to a hollow mine (4.2.81). Shortly after he calls up black vengeance, and again in 5.2, Othello imagines his revenge swallowing up his victims (3.3.467 and 5.2.76), as though returning them to the interior source of his vengeance. 53 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 11; Joseph in Spillius, ed., Melanie Klein Today, 140.
Source: Iago's Alter Ego: Race as Projection in Othello in Systems and Machine Intelligence, Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 2, Spring, 1997, pp. 125-44. Access our Othello Study Guide for Free. The most significant purpose for Venice being the setting of Othello has to do with Shakespeare honoring the source from which his ideas for the play came. Almost the entire play is self concept essay based on an. In Othello, Iago is extremely manipulative.
Iago is a master at manipulation. Through his mere words, he plants seeds of doubt in Othello. Truly, Iago is subtle in his accusation as he merely. There is A Solution to the Essay - as usual in Shakespeare's tragedies - a huge body count at the end of Othello. In the scene in self concept essay, the dark, Cassio is mr kurtz wounded in concept essay, the leg, and Roderigo is An Inside killed by Iago in the dark. In the. There are several reasons given for concept, Iago's hatred of, and intended ruination of Othello. To The Crisis Essay. First, he is insulted by Othello's promotion of Cassio; he felt that he deserved the promotion.
That is. For each of the following soliloquies, you can find modern English versions in the etext version of the script. For now, I'm just giving a capsule summary. One comes at the end of Act I, scene 3.
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Stragetic Management Essay Sample. USQ MGT8039 Strategic Leadership S2, 2005 Study Book (p 1.11), sighted that Hoskisson, Hitt and Ireland (2004, p.37) defined strategic leadership as “the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility and empower others to create strategic change as necessary… managing through others, managing an entire enterprise rather that a functional subunit”. 2. Critical Analysis. Strategic management can be described as a process undertaken by self concept essay, top-level management. Thomson el all (2002, pp. 3-15)) elaborate that strategic management is process about defining the purpose of existent of an organization, formulating a long term strategy to to the Foreclosure fit the organization’s external and internal situation, build sustainable advantage and self concept essay, improve organization performance. In contrast, strategic leadership is a function that drives the strategic management process in the organization. In view of this, the author would like to adopt a stand that strategic leadership is dean heights different from strategic management but both intertwined and co-exist to self concept essay compliment each other. Of Boo Monsters Inc? Strategic management will not exist without strategic leadership.
The scope of top level management in this respect shall encompasses the Board of self essay Directors, CEO and top management and the strategic leadership which, they exercise would be in-conjunction or individually. Emergence of globalization whilst giving new opportunities for organization to new markets, also exposes organization to new challenges for competitions and rapid changes of competitive environment. The strategic management undertaken by organization to address these challenges required strategic leadership to drive the task of crafting and voice of boo from inc, executing the organization strategy. According to essay Richardson (1994), modern strategic management needs to be met by a multi-skilled strategic leadership response and not adopt a stand of mr kurtz “this by and large, is the only way to do strategic leadership”. Nicholls (1994) proposed that in order to counter the fast-changing business environment, organization through the role strategic leadership must adopt the fundamental changes in concept the way they think and behave with respect to both people and customers. In the process of strategic management, decisions making would have to voice from inc take place to determine the direction of the strategy and according to Harrison Pelletier (1997) strategic decisions constitute the essence of strategic leadership. Nicholls (1994) also added that strategic leadership of an organization requires equal attention to both paths finding and culture building. He further explained that in “performing this strategic role, strategy formulation and strategy implementation are no longer sequential and separate but are subsumed in the complementary leaderships of concept path finding and culture building”. Strategic thinking (Bonn, 2001), decision making (Harrison Pelletier, 1997) and Fuzzy and Machine Essay, culture building (Nicholls, 1994) which are associated with human cognitive capability and behavior, required strategic leadership approach in developing and capitalizing these aspects of human resource to support and ensure the success strategic management process. Even though the above observations were made to support the author stance, it would presumptuous to conclude that the practice of strategic leadership would ensure the success of strategic management.
Richardson (1994) in essay his “strategic configuration” model, explained that the domain of strategic management consist of many components, which includes, decisional processes, environmental circumstances, critical problems, political situation and leadership style. These components according to him, are multi-facet and interactive and the effectiveness of the “strategic configuration” are dependent upon the deployment of all of the components. By definition, strategic leadership is different with strategic management but by being strategic in “nature” and by wuthering heights, the definition of this course module, both have common association, which is the top-level management of organization. In view of this, strategic leadership needs to be analyzed and discuss in the context of concept strategic management. Bonn, I,” Developing Strategic Think as a Core Competency”, Management Decision, Vol. 39/1, 2001, pp 63-70.
Harrison, EF Pelletier, MA 1997, “CEO perception of strategic leadership”, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol. Ix, no. 3, pp. 299-317. Nicholls, J 1994, “The strategic leadership star: a guiding in from delivering value to the custyomer”, Management Decision, vol.21, no. 8, pp. Concept Essay? 21-6 (1994) Richardson, B 1994, “Comprehensive approach to strategic management: leading across the nelly wuthering strategic management domain”, Management Decision, Vol.
32, No. 8, pp27-41. Thomson, AT, Strickland, AJ, Gamble, JE 2002, “Crafting and executing strategy: The quest for competitive advantage, edn. 14th, McGraw-Hill, New York, USQ MGT8039 Strategic Leadership S2, 2005 Study Book.
5. Annexure – Author Background. The author is currently holding a position of self a Sales Manager, in monsters inc an Australian owned, company, PolyPacific Polymers Sdn Bhd located in Malaysia. The author has about twenty years of working experience, which consist of fourteen years in the manufacturing and six years in the sales. The author was employed as a young supervisor at the age of twenty and climbs to the rank and file to the current position. In term of leadership experience, the concept essay author has nine years of working experience in supervisory capacity and eleven years of working experience in managerial capacity. During the course of heights working, the author has received training on self essay, basic leadership skills. The author has not exposed to strategic leadership or strategic management as the strategic management process in the company was undertook by the CEO in conjunction with the Look at Jehova's Essay Board of Directors of the essay company. The author has not completed MGT8002 and his limited knowledge of strategic management was acquired through reading during the Crisis Essay course of his MBA studies. The reason the author chose to do MGT8039 was mainly due to his special interest in leadership studies and intends to major in leadership and hoping to learn and be a better leader.
Apart having a profession as a Sales Manager, the author also involves in social work, training and teaching young people in the area of leadership. This also has been the motivating factor for the author to embark on the specialization of leadership in his MBA studies. Part B – Word Count -1042 words. For those who have not read any great leaders biographies and theirs accomplishments, the book provide good introduction of all the essay seven exceptional corporate leaders and their signature strategies. The books should be able to stir reader interest for more serious reading and learning on A Solution to the Foreclosure Crisis, other more in-depth leadership books. Krames’s rigorous analysis of each of the CEO and their strategies, provide reader an self, understanding of what are their strategies and voice, how the strategies implemented and why they were implemented. The book not only discusses the framework of each of their strategies but also entails some of the self concept example of the movies leaders’ relevant experience.
Through these leaders, the book portrays proven business insights, ideas and innovations of concept practiced by these world-class organizations. The inclusion of thoughts provoking case studies and self-test “Assessing Your CEO Quotient” at each of the movies chapters provide interactive learning experience. The book could have provided experience from wider spectrum of leaders from other non-profit organization, corporate leaders from emerging economies and self, corporate leaders from Asia. The definition of successful leaders in this book is narrow is the sense its only from the perspective of immediate financial wealth creation. 4. General Learning Benefit. The author, being a novice in the area of strategic leadership studies found that the book provide a very good introduction to strategic leadership and corporate strategy. Foreclosure Crisis Essay? The books open the author mind on the dynamism of strategic and critical thinking of addressing corporate problems. The author found that the self “More Lesson From CEO” sections at the end of each chapter were practical and applicable to the author current profession. 5. Ranking of Wittnesses Essay Learning Benefit of Each CEO. Out of all the CEOs the author has learned the most is from Andy Grove. Turning from self concept essay, negative situation to positive though it took resourcefulness to achieved, without real strong courage and determination, many leaders would not succeed.
These strong qualities possessed by Grove no doubts would have developed through his early days hardship and this had earned Grove the respect of being a leader. Through his ability see the condition Intel from the perspective of an outsider enable him to to the Foreclosure Crisis Essay prepare Intel for drastic change and turn into a multi-billion dollars business. The author admired Grove leadership style based on truth telling. Ranking second after Grove is Herb Kelleher. The author learned the important of self concept essay building performance-based culture in business. Kelleher’s down-to-earth leadership style, by putting customer and employee, putting aside title and nelly wuthering, protocol caught the attention of the author especially when it came from the leader from big organization like Southwest.
Kelleher lean management structure that made him accessible by self essay, his front lines supervisor plus his flamboyant and people treatment breed loyalty and commitment from his staff. Ranking third is Sam Walton. Walton continuous endeavor to be better by learning from his competitors, and remain faithful to his vision to provide lowest cost impressed the author. Normally when organization became big, they will not adopt lowest cost strategy. Lesson that the author draws from to the Crisis, Walton leadership style was to lead by example in the aspect of learning from others.
Ranking fourth is Bill Gates. Concept Essay? Bill Gates leadership approach to knowledge management was definitely a lesson that that the author have learned. Of Boo Monsters? Gates ability to see the future label him as visionary leader. Ranking fifth is self concept essay Jack Welch. Jack Welch was good corporate strategies. Though through learning organization make GE a great company, his “number one or number two” strategy was mean and neglected the human aspect which the author believe negate the A Solution to the Crisis Essay overall leadership pursuit. This strategy though might work with big corporation like GE, might not work on the smaller organization. People commitment to their job could be due to job security. Ranking sixth is Lou Gerstner. Gerstner approach to put IBM under the scrutiny of its customer and concept essay, use the market feedback to transform IBM would be expected of voice of boo monsters him. Self Concept? His previous experience in Nabisco naturally would give IBM a fresh perspective of nelly how to business would be directed.
No doubt his leadership abilities would have contributed to his success transforming IBM. Ranking seventh is self concept essay Michael Dell. Dell approach to build DELL business model surround the customer and A Solution to the Essay, his strategy of mass customization would be the natural things to do for highly competitive industry like computers. Whereas other failed, Dell succeeded to harness the power of Information Technology to build DELL supply chain. Probably other computer makers would have recognized the important of bringing the business closer to the customer but they fail to know how. 6. Other Prominent Leader. Another leader that the author regards to be prominent is Fujio Cho, the president of the Toyota Motor Corporation. Fortune reported that Toyota’s worldwide sales leapt 10%, to 7.5 million vehicles, posting strong growth in essay all regions. Toyota’s profits for fiscal year 2003 exceeded those of GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and Volkswagen combined. From Monsters Inc? (Annex A) Cho portray his leadership style particularly dedicates his time through interaction with the working group on the production floor, congratulating them of their best achievement.
Cho leading by self concept, example has earned him admiration and respect from his employees. (Annex B) Cho none compromising stand on environmental issue evident went he lambasted his own company saying “The sense of crisis we feel, despite increasing sales and profits, stems from our fear that we have no kept up. Particularly fears that we have not kept up with environmental issues…” (Annex C) To be globally competitive today, according to Cho, a company must be agile, able to make rapid decisions and respond quickly to changing business environments (Annex D) and this factor has brought Toyota to the current level. Cho leadership exemplifies the quest for organization for continuous improvement. Lesson that can be drawn by movies in essays, the author from his leadership and strategy are, his treatment for his employee, passion for quality and meeting customer expectation and respect for the environment. The reading of the book provides the author a good introduction of the practice and the dynamics of strategic leadership.
Based on experiences of these CEOs, the author realized that the application strategic leadership varies depending on the personality of the leadership and the circumstances and type of the organization they are in. Annex A -TOYOTA CEO FUJIO CHO IS NAMED FORTUNE’S ASIA BUSINESSMAN OF THE YEAR. Cho is driving Toyota to new heights-and straight past the competition. Hong Kong, January 24, 2005-FORTUNE announced today that Fujio Cho, CEO of Toyota, is the Asia Businessman of the Year. Cho leads a company whose model lineup features some of the U.S. Self Essay? market’s most popular vehicles. Smart products and An Inside Look Essay, a sterling reputation for quality have lifted Toyota’s share of the U.S. market to 12%, and many industry analysts predict it will soon pass DaimlerChrysler to essay join the ranks of the U.S.
Big Three. Wittnesses Essay? Cho earns FORTUNE’s nomination for self essay his near flawless execution of Toyota’s plan for global expansion. Of Boo? The story, “Full Speed Ahead,” appears in the February 7 issue of FORTUNE, on newsstands January 31 and at www.fortune.com. “By nearly every measure, Toyota is the world’s best auto manufacturer,” says FORTUNE writer Clay Chandler. “It may be the self essay world’s best manufacturer, period. Consider: Last year, Toyota’s worldwide sales leapt 10%, to 7.5 million vehicles, posting strong growth in all regions. But Toyota has long since kicked the Japanese habit of chasing sales and market share at the expense of profit.” Toyota’s profits for fiscal year 2003 exceeded those of GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and Volkswagen combined. Toyota has embarked on Fuzzy and Machine Intelligence Essay, an ambitious international expansion plan, though Cho is struggling with the self concept complexities of transplanting Toyota’s vaunted production methods to foreign soil.
For Cho, running Toyota is like “trying to pull a handcart up a steep hill-there’s always tremendous danger if we relax, even for a moment, we could loose momentum and be thrown to the bottom.” Cho downplays-but does not disavow-the objective widely reported in the Japanese press of capturing at 15% share of global vehicle sales by the end of the decade. But the multi-front blitzkrieg launched to reach that target has put unprecedented strain on the production process once hailed as the Systems and Machine Essay “machine that changed the world.” The dilemma, says Chandler, is how to maintain the pace without diluting what Toyota executives call their corporate DNA-a principle called kaizen, the self concept essay notion that engineers, managers, and line workers collaborate continually to systematize production tasks and identify incremental changes to make work go more smoothly. Cho not only has to make this approach work in Toyota’s U.S. factories-where feedback from workers has made him change some of Toyota’s long-held approaches-but also in China, the world’s fastest growing auto market, where Toyota has forged a partnership with First Autoworks in Changchun. One of movies in essays Toyota’s gambles has been the Prius, a hybrid car that critics claim has yet to be profitable. There is concept high demand in the U.S., and China is Essay pressing for access to the technology. Getting an early grip on this market may turn out to have been a shrewd move on self concept essay, Cho’s part, says Chandler.
Many expect Cho to movies step down in June and self concept, take the more ceremonial role of chairman. “Whether Cho stays on,” concludes Chandler, “expect Toyota to keep pulling its handcart uphill-and to rush to the next mountain the moment it gains the mr kurtz summit.” FORTUNE, part of Time Inc., is the global leader in business, known for its unrivalled access to industry leaders and decision-makers throughout the world. FORTUNE’s Asia edition, based in Hong Kong, is dedicated to covering Asian business from self concept, a trademark global perspective. With an Asian circulation of nelly heights 85,000 and a worldwide circulation of concept 1,020,000, FORTUNE is one of the fastest growing magazines in the world. To The Foreclosure Essay? Founded in 1930, FORTUNE has grown to a worldwide circulation of over one million and a readership in excess of five million. Annexure B -An authentic Leader…
By Enrique Mora. Fujio Cho, President of the Toyota Motor Company, is an exemplary leader. In Japan the company has about concept essay, a dozen plants, producing 3.5 million vehicles every year. Seldom is Cho found in his office. Voice Of Boo From Monsters Inc? He dedicates most of his time on concept essay, the floor of the plants, congratulating the working groups with the in essays best achievements. It has won him all Toyota’s 264,000 employees’ admiration and respect, and it also creates an exemplary image that should be followed by other executives. The world sees very few executives at Cho’s level spending so much time with employees.
Is it that companies have to concept be at the level of Toyota to have these leaders? Or maybe Toyota is at that level because of the practices of these leaders? Companies don’t succeed because of their names; it is their people who create energy for success. The success of a company is a direct result of attitudes of the leaders who comprise it. We can all “make the difference.” Many times I hear negative comments of people complaining that “their company” does not respond to their positive and changing attitudes.
Error: We can All influence the results of the company. Look Wittnesses? And, if by chance, the self concept company doesn’t have the An Inside Wittnesses appropriate atmosphere and vision to capture and take advantage of that positive energy, there is no problem. Get ready for concept essay a better opportunity, because you will surely find it. The example of Fujio Cho is impacting. Managers from all over the world should follow it if they want to meet the demands in the evolution process called “World Class.” This determines the competitive position of a company in the coming years. In Essays? This opportunity is in our hands, and we should not waste it. Here is essay a few questions to ask yourself: 1. – How well do you know your people? Do you know their names?
Do they know your face? Do they come and talk to and Machine Essay you? 2. Self Concept? – How do you show appreciation for mr kurtz the efforts of the concept essay people on your team? How do you publicly commend those employees who are doing outstanding jobs? 3. – Would you say that the at Jehova's Wittnesses Essay atmosphere of your company is one of empowerment? Do you share the power and information with everyone, not just a select few? A leader’s success depends on the honest answers to self concept essay these questions, since they determine: 1. – How will your company do in the short and medium term? 2. – What is the level of collaboration you will have from your labor force? The trend of the automotive industry has clearly defined the economy in the last 60 years and it will continue to do so.
The arrogance of “the three big ones” of America has blinded them. A Solution Foreclosure Essay? They don’t seem to be willing to concept change, and they continue to loose market share and prestige. The Japanese industry, on movies in essays, the other hand, shares its “secrets” with everybody. Determine today what example you want to follow: that of the self concept essay winners or that of the losers. The industries of the world need Leaders, people who give authentic support instead of orders; who model the Fuzzy Systems and Machine Essay behavior they want to self see from others; who encourage ideas and new ways of improving processes and An Inside Look Wittnesses, products; who “grow” new leaders for the future. I wish you a day of essay change and success, followed by another and another…… Annex C -Toyota experiences extreme self disappointment, somebody cry me a river. Posted Aug 9, 2004, 10:48 AM ET by Christopher Diken. Related entries: Hybrids/Alternative, Trends.
Despite raking in $10 billion in movies in essays earnings last year and looking like it will surpass that mark this year, Toyota is self not happy. Chairman Fujio Cho lambasted his own company last week, saying “The sense of crisis we feel, despite increasing sales and profits, stems from our fear that we have no kept up. Particularly fears that we have not kept up with environmental issues…” Ok, Fujio, I know it’s noble to be hard on yourself, as that’s how Toyota got to this point in and Machine Intelligence the first place, but what about the unbridled success of the Prius and the manifold hybrid concepts like the Volta and Lexus’ pending RX hybrid SUV? It’s still not even close to enough, apparently, as Chairman Cho revealed plans to get 300,000 hybrids on tarmac by the end of next year. But, wait, this isn’t really about concept essay, environmentally-responsible transport, is it? No, I didn’t think so: Toyota has long been forced to compete only with itself as far as quality and reliability were concerned; this year, however, the untarnishable reputation pitted slightly around the edges as Hyundai passed Toyota in J.D.
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10 Free Online Tools To Create Professional Resumes. The first thing connecting you with a recruiter is your resume. The way it is concept usually done is dean you work on a template you get from a friend or from an essay online source, then produce a black and white dull rendition of just another face in the crowd which you then print out and mail to potential employers. It’s time for a change: wow your recruiters with a fresh new look to movies your resumes while still presenting yourself in a modern and professional manner with the help of online tools. Concept? These tools will guide you through every aspect of creating your resume or CV, perfect for fresh graduates who are unsure of where to begin. To The Crisis Essay? Most of them give you the concept option to download a PDF, ready-for-print version, and all you have to An Inside at Jehova's do is fill in your details.
You probably created a CV in essay soft copy for yourself anyways, or have signed up for an account on an online job portal. The transfer would be done in the blink of an eye. Systems And Machine Intelligence Essay? LinkedIn is the site for professionals and if you haven’t already have a complete LinkedIn profile, it’s a good place to start building your portfolio. Better yet, most of the online resume tools featured in this article can import the information you have put into the LinkedIn profile to create a resume. LinkedIn also lets you export your information into a professional-looking resume in PDF form. All you have to self do is view your Profile and click on the down arrow next to ‘edit’ then select Export to PDF . Want to wuthering add a little color into your resumes? With DoYouBuzz you can design your resume to the color scheme you desire or choose from the templates that they have to create your resume.
Registering an self essay account with DoYouBuzz lets you import your LinkedIn information. Alternatively, you can enter your details from scratch. The complete resume can then be downloaded in PDF, Word or OpenOffice format. Not enough? Share your resume with the world via a link to your account e.g. “doyoubuzz.com/yourname”. Store your resume online here and nelly dean wuthering redirect anyone to concept essay it just by giving them your URL, which looks something like resume.com/ username . Add sections to your resume and follow the examples and tips offered on how and nelly dean heights what to self concept write. After you’ve completed each section, you can publish your resume and from direct people to it via the URL or download a DOC or PDF copy . Self Concept Essay? Here’s another resume maker but with support for 17 languages. CV Maker features a very simple ‘fill-in-the-blanks’ format to fill up, as well as a customizable editor which lets you rearrange sections (Work Experiences, Qualifications, Education). You can also add your own sections with rich text formatting. Register to save and edit your resume from time to time or else just fill in your information and Look at Jehova's Wittnesses download the resume in PDF, HTML or TXT formats. This is self concept essay another online resume tool that doesn’t require you to register but there’s no way to Systems and Machine Essay import data from other websites, so you have to self essay fill everything in manually.
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cool resume names Q84: Several sources ask: With rising temperatures are we seeing cockroaches flying more? The increased gliding flight of pest cockroaches might be expected in a hot NYC because they have a preferred temperature range which is between 75°F and concept 86°F. Below that temperature they will move to a warmer one if they can find it. Above 86°F they will try to find a cooler temperature. So, in a hot NYC the roaches will be climbing and in essays gliding down to find that cooler temperature. In addition, in a drought they will be looking for concept essay water, particularly because above 86°F their cuticle lipids allow water to evaporate from their body much faster and they will dehydrate unless they find water.
Hot temperatures and lack of water will keep the to the, roaches jumping or they will die. That is why they have survived since they evolved 250 million years ago. Unfortunately they have staying power. Q83: Christopher Idoy asks: Where do cockroach's bodies go after their lifespan? In nature, wild cockroaches that die of concept essay, old age are usually on wuthering the forest floor under some leaf liter or under some loose bark. Self Concept Essay? There the omnipresent bacteria and voice of boo from inc molds will degrade them relatively quickly and thus they are recycled. Most cockroaches do not die of old age.
Most are eaten by a predator such as a mouse or shrew or spider. The household pest cockroach may more likely die of old age and concept will likely dry up and grow some mold if not vacuumed up in the routine cleaning of the living spaces. Fuzzy Systems? If they die in concept, a partition, their dried up bodies may accumulate if not eaten by a beetle larva such as a carpet beetle or silverfish or another cockroach. Eventually they will be recycled also. More important is the question of where do their cuticles go when they molt and nelly dean also when they die. If not eaten by the newly molted individual, the shed cuticle may crumble or be ground into the dust of a room. That cuticle contains the antigen that causes childhood asthma. That is concept essay, one good reason to vacuum up the dust from carpets and floors so that the level of the cockroach antigen is kept low enough not to nelly dean heights irritate the immature immune systems of children. It seems that the concept essay, immature immune system can be hyper sensitized by the cockroach antigen and other household dust borne items such as dust mites. Mr Kurtz? That is to be avoided. Everytime there's a Cockroach in my house, and I'm about to kill it.
I sometimes shiver in fear, and they start following me, as if they had some kind of self concept essay, censorial mechanism to attack me. In one of the mr kurtz, cases, one flew towards me. Can Cockroaches sense fear from, transmitted from, human bodies? Your characterization of cockroaches goes beyond their capabilities as they are currently understood. As presented in my FAQ the cockroach is presented as fairly dumb.
Their basic instincts are to seek our environmental cues in essay, an established order: thirst hunger sex. Temperature of and Machine Intelligence Essay, their environment fits somewhere in essay, there. If their water needs are not satisfied their primary goal would be to mr kurtz find water which they can sense in a directional way. They can follow humidity up a gradient to a water source. Concept Essay? When their water need is solved they would next seek out food, and so on . Sensing your fear is way beyond their capacity. If you are sweating due to fear, perhaps they could be sensing the Look at Jehova's, water coming from your sweat and approach you to self concept get water. The 'sensorial mechanism' in this case would be activated based on their water thirst. Cockroaches do have their own pheromones which are hormones for communication between organisms.
A fear hormone is talked about for mammals including humans but it would be a real stretch at this point to accept your characterization of the cockroach behavior you report as a sensing of your fear. I would eliminate the nelly heights, primal cockroach sensations as possible causes before I jumped to an as yet unknown sensory mechanism for cockroaches. That said, there are other proposed sensory capabilities of cockroaches that are not yet proven in a rigorous scientific way. One such is their possible ability to sense an earthquake before it happens. This ability if understood could be very beneficial to early warnings in rural or even cosmopolitan situations if it out-performs or is cheaper than conventional detectors. Similarly, a cockroach fear-sensor could be very useful if it could be calibrated and validated to self reliably detect fear.
An hypothesis such as you make needs to be tested rigorously by pointed experiments before it is accepted as 'truth' (i.e. not rejected). I recently went to open my refrigerator door and sure enough, there was a roach inside on Essay the refrigerator shelf. It got away, unfortunately, but made me wonder . How? Most refrigerators chill food to. What are the self concept essay, contents of a cockroach brain that makes it a possible antibiotic against MRSA and Escherichia coli ? The brain is a very important organ in an animals life and survival. It fights all sorts of attacks from invading organisms and also anything that might disrupt its function. All living organisms fight against microorganisms using whatever they are able to discover through the evolutionary filter of survival of the fittest. Ergo, we find an anti-cancer drug from the Yew tree's bark. There is movies, not enough Yew tree bark to provide the amount of its anti-cancer substance needed.
We have learned how to synthesize this drug without killing Yew trees. For some reason, the cockroach brain has developed a unique general approach to self concept essay antibiotics about monsters which you seem to have heard. Insects do not have the highly-targeted immune response that we have, i.e. IgG, IgA, IgM, t-cells, etc. They have general responses to fighting against essay microbes. Nelly Dean Heights? The cockroach brain factors are perhaps a new type of antibiotic which has not yet been identified and studied extensively.
I have only read about it in self, news reports and the discoverers are keeping the details that they know somewhat close to mr kurtz their vest perhaps because they are in the process of self concept essay, discovery that is needed to apply for a patent. Also the criteria for publishing in A Solution Essay, a peer-reviewed journal are more stringent that those for reporting phenomena at a conference. They are perhaps playing the wise strategy of giving a little bit of info to the public to stimulate interest and perhaps private/public investment until they have enough info to publish in a professional journal or patent the technique. I am not sure what the British patent law is like vs the USA law. Self? In Europe one can not patent a life-saving protocol. An Inside At Jehova's Essay? In America you can. In America you need to patent a protocol soon after you make the details public in a journal or you lose the right to patent. Self Concept? The most profitable approach would be to keep quiet about technical details until you to get a USA patent on the protocol/substance. For that reason we may not know the A Solution to the Foreclosure Crisis Essay, details of this story until the financial issues are settled. Self Essay? There are many such discoveries that never pan out.
However, if it is actually one or several new ways of in essays, fighting bacteria then understanding them could lead to new families of antibiotics that could be new treatments for the growing number of antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-strains such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) which no longer are controlled by self concept essay, their previously effective antibiotic. We bought two female cockroaches about seven months ago, and . one . has recently given birth. They are both . female, and she gave birth about six months after we got her, which is too long for her to have gotten pregnant in the (pet) shop isn't it?! Even stranger is that she has given birth twice now (we think) but only to about three cockroaches each time. Cockroaches need to mate only movies in essays, once to produce up to 3 or more sequential batches (oothecae) of fertilized eggs. Self? They store the sperm in dean, an internal storage location and use it as needed. Self Essay? Sometimes the last batches of hatching embryos are small in number because the sperm was running out. A Solution Essay? Also the essay, paired ovaries are made up of ovarioles which are strings of maturing oocytes. Only the terminal oocyte of an ovariole gets ovulated and fertilized to participates in a current ootheca.
Sometimes the ovarioles develop tumors which then inactivates that ovariole from participating in to the Crisis, a current or future ootheca. Sometimes if the female is not well fed and well supplied with water an embryo will die before hatching. Several phenomena contribute to how many offspring you will have. The female hissing cockroaches you bought may have been quite old adults when you purchased them. They do not show their age externally. With fresh larvae hatched to rear, you can control their health and growth by how well you treat them. The males usually metamorphose to the adult stage first, sometimes an instar earlier than the females.
Feed the larval males and concept essay females well with a low nitrogen diet. Mix ground dog biskit with corn starch to Fuzzy and Machine dilute the amount of protein nitrogen, moisten it with a bit of water and bake it into your own custom roach biskits. Too much nitrogen will give the cockroaches a form of self concept essay, gout, excess uric acid in their waste and their fat bodies. This gout can lead to an early death of your pet cockroaches. They are healthier if you feed them something like 10-15% dog biskit with 85-90% cornstarch. Give them a banana or carrot slice occasionally. In Essays? Keep their container relatively clean and look at self essay their fecal pellets to see if they have too much uric acid in Essay, them. They will be white if they have too much uric acid.
A healthy first parturition female Gromphadorhina portentosa can have 40-60 live offspring at each birth as you have read. Good luck. PS: Virgin births (parthenogenesis) is known among cockroaches! I . wonder if you might help me with (a) hypothetical: Say someone had found a cockroach that had been living near water and food contaminated by runoff from a golf course. It appears normal accept that it's roughly the size of a shoebox. Self Concept? How might you go about trying to explain such a thing? In your section on the Roach's size being regulated by its respiratory system and A Solution to the wondered if the two things might be connected?` The possibility that a local phenomenon, pollution runoff at a golf course, could be the basis for the appearance of a 'hopeful monster' is an unlikely outcome. The concept of a 'hopeful monster', your 'shoebox sized cockroach', is not new and you can read about such phenomena, which was most recently described by the late Stephen Jay Gould. Find out about this phenomenon by googling 'hopeful monster'.
What other insects or arachnids are related to the cockroach? Are scorpions or lobsters? Cockroaches are in self essay, the insect order Dictyoptera, which, to some, is a super order of the cockroaches, termites and preying mantids. In my mind, this is monsters, a firmly established group based on self concept molecular as well as morphological and An Inside at Jehova's Wittnesses Essay physiological evidence. I myself have published immunological evidence that the termites are like another family of cockroaches with the preying mantids being more distant from both termites and cockroaches. The termites can be considered social-cockroaches (they have a king and queen, workers and soldiers) and the preying mantids are anti-social-cockroaches (the bride eats the self concept, groom after mating!). Bjoern M. Mr Kurtz? von Reumont, Ronald A. Jenner, Matthew A. Self Concept Essay? Wills, Emiliano Dell'Ampio, Gunther Pass, Ingo Ebersberger, Benjamin Meyer, Stefan Koenemann, Thomas M. Iliffe, Alexandros Stamatakis, Oliver Niehuis, Karen Meusemann, and Bernhard Misof. In Essays? (2012). Pancrustacean Phylogeny in self essay, the Light of monsters inc, New Phylogenomic Data: Support for Remipedia as the Possible Sister Group of self essay, Hexapoda. Mol. Biol. Wittnesses? Evol.
29(3):1031-1045. . In one of (your) FAQs, someone asked about roaches making sounds, and you replied that to the best of your knowledge the (pest species) didn't communicate through sounds. However, one thing I noted at one point when my home was suffering a rather bad infestation of American roaches is that at self concept essay night I would hear a clicking sound, very similar to the sound made when a person snaps a fingernail and thumbnail together. If I made this snapping noise with my fingernails, I'd get a chorus of replies. Systems Intelligence? When I eliminated the roaches, the clicking noises also were eliminated. So although the evidence is a bit circumstantial, I believe that the American roach actually communicates via this clicking sound, perhaps a mating call? Good observation! That sound might fall within the realm of self concept, stridulation which I mentioned about some species of cockroach.
One might ask how stridulation developed evolutionarily and it might have started with a few clicks of the roach wings or limbs against Look at Jehova's one another. Your experiment with inducing them to click is particularly telling. Essay? I would think that rather than mating, which has been studied fairly thoroughly, that the clicking might be a warning that is transmitted through the roach world. In certain species of the closely related termites the large headed soldiers do head-knocking behavior in their wooden galleries, banging their little heads against the wooden walls which sends an alarm signal to the rest of the colony. Alarm-signal evidence in cockroaches would be an important finding. It would be further evidence of a social structure beyond mating much as white-tailed deer flash their tails or turkeys gobble a warning to fellow turkeys when danger arises. You may not be willing to recreate the environment in which the roaches were clicking and could respond to your nail-snaps but that would be necessary in order to Wittnesses Essay design experiments to test your 'communication hypothesis'. Someone may read this in my FAQ and do just that. In fact, we may need my readership to do the experiment you just described since once a person rids their home of cockroaches there is no desire to go back. Self Concept? Before you readers decimate the roach population in your home, please do the interesting experiment described above!
We are the producers of a commonly used household item. My question is this, we distribute product to Systems and Machine off sight clearing houses (shipping consolidators). Recently we delivered a job to such a facility and they in turn got the self essay, product to A Solution Essay the ultimate customer the next day. When the self, customer started opening the 20 some boxes he started finding cockroaches. Wuthering Heights? By the essay, time he had emptied the boxes he had found and killed ten roaches. We use common cardboard boxes as packing material, comparable to a sealed box of canned goods you would find in a grocery store.
If we delivered to an infested site how long would it take the little buggers to of boo from monsters get in the boxes? I know this particular job did not sit on their dock for more than 12 hours. Cockroaches are active for the four hours after the self, normal 'lights out' in a building. Your shipment was presumably packed in the evening and An Inside Look at Jehova's Wittnesses sat in the dark, perhaps still somewhat open, at the end of concept essay, business. The cockroaches became active and mr kurtz then after their four hours of activity they sought a hiding place for the coming day. Some hid in your packages and essay then were found upon eventual delivery the next day. Growing up, my room was the only room in A Solution Foreclosure Crisis Essay, my parents house that cockroaches completely infested. Self Essay? I was and An Inside Look Essay still AM a very clean person so I don't attribute their infesting to food or uncleanliness. I've had cockroaches drop on me in the middle of the night countless times, fly directly at me, fall on me in the shower, crawl underneath my pillow/couch cushion sit on my purse strap or inside my purse, crawl in concept, my shoes/clothes, crawl in my drawers, etc. . (Are) cockroaches . attracted to my scent, is that possible? In 2005 scientists at Cornell and movies NC State, including my good colleague Coby Schal, identified the elusive hormone that attracts the male of Blattella germanica to self essay the female.
A news release of that discovery can be viewed at URL: Q73: Liz Jeavans asks: I would like to know how cockroaches walk up walls. I heard that they have statically charged feet, but is this true? Liz, The feet of voice monsters inc, insects including cockroaches are made up of essay, a brush like pile which reacts with a surface like myriad weak suction cups. The weak forces involve adding together thousands of such individual adhering pillus ends and An Inside Look at Jehova's Wittnesses result in self essay, a strong enough force to suspend the body of a fly, a roach or even larger non-insectal critters such as lizards. To step the cockroach must remove the pilli individually in a wave, like ripping off some cellophane or an An Inside Essay adhesive bandage. If you tried ripping off a bandage whole at one time it would not come off but if you rip it off from one edge it comes of easily. So the self essay, insects and lizards had invented reusable tape long before humans.
Here is a detailed URL on the topic: Q72: Arlette Koiiman asks: I saw one cockroach with an Foreclosure Crisis ootheca when I caught it to self throw it out. My question is, where are the cockroaches most likely to place the ootheca?? Would they chose a specific location, or would they just loose the ootheca whenever the mr kurtz, time is right? Is it likely they would choose a spot in a frequently used airconditioned room?
Would they climb into self the drawers or closet and chose to place it between your clothes. Blattella germanica the German cockroach is the commonest small pest roach and carries its egg case until it hatches in about 18 days at 30C. At hatching the ootheca is on the female or dropped at random wherever she is at A Solution Foreclosure Crisis the time. Periplaneta americana or Blatta orientalis are the commonest large pest roaches. They carry their egg case for a few days and essay then deposit it in a corner or crevice, cementing it there with local debris and saliva. A favorite place is in the corrugations of corrugated cardboard. They chew a hole into the cardboard and nelly use the chewings to paste together over self concept essay the ootheca that they have placed into the hole they have made in the cardboard. They would not typically burrow into movies in essays clothing in a drawer to do it. They might chose the corner of the drawer and use some of the self concept essay, lint available to glue together over the deposited ootheca. Cockroaches prefer warm temperatures and it depends what temperature of Fuzzy Systems Intelligence Essay, air conditioning is imposed on the room they find themselves.
Cockroaches prefer temperatures between 25 and self concept essay 30C. They will move from a cooler spot to the warmer spot as long as it satisfies their basic drives: thirst, hunger and sex. Does Cockroach like to be touched on all its sides? What is the word for it? Thigmotropic. [Greek thigma , touch; as in thigmotaxis + -tropism.] This is a word used often in the plant world where a plant entwines itself about another object such as a vine climbing another vine or a tree or a string. Cockroaches are thigmotropic in the sense that they like to conform to a hiding place during the day, conforming to a curve or having something touching them on top and bottom such as in a crevice.
Q70: Merilliza Chan asks: Is it true that a cockroach can lay eggs without mating. Fuzzy Systems And Machine Intelligence Essay? how is that possible? o_o. There are three issues here, egg laying, fertile egg laying and virgin birth: 1) Cockroaches and many other animals can lay eggs (infertile) without mating. A cockroach and most other organisms must begin maturing their eggs (oocytes) in their ovary considerably before mating (humans too). Self Concept Essay? The egg is mr kurtz, ovulated on a schedule that is determined by whether it has developed in the ovary to a point when it is ready for ovulation. 2) After ovulation, there may or may not be sperm to fertilize the self essay, egg that is ovulated. In cockroaches, if there are no sperm to Wittnesses fertilize the self, egg, the An Inside Essay, ootheca that covers the eggs is often thinner.
The cockroach's physiology knows not to waste the protein on producing a thick oothecal covering and very often the female will eat the infertile eggs regaining the stored yolk protein lest it be wasted from the cockroach's nutritional economy. 3) Parthenogenesis is the self concept, process of Fuzzy Intelligence Essay, producing fertile eggs without male participation. Concept? Some species of cockroach use parthenogenesis as a rule (there are no males, or very rare males in such species). The American cockroach is said to be able to produce parthenogenetic offspring under severe conditions when no males are available. Why is there not a single photo of cockroach eggs on the net? Well ok I saw 2 photos on google image but they were drawn or cr___y! Cockroach eggs do not occur in nature singly, they come in batches called oothecae. A Solution Foreclosure Crisis? I have several images of self concept essay, cockroach eggs in an ootheca often extruding from the rear end of the female. Try the Fuzzy and Machine Essay, following links. Two families of cockroaches (Blattinae and Blattellidae) extrude the ootheca and concept hold onto it for a few day until they deposit it in a safe place to hatch about a month later.
One genus of Blattellinae, Blattella , including our favorite Blattella germanica , the German cockroach, holds onto the ootheca extruding from movies, its rear end until it hatches: The entire Blaberidae family of tropical cockroaches incubate their ootheca covered eggs internally and you never see their ootheca unless you are someone like me who rears them and you see the ootheca during the extrusion phase after which they take it back into the uterus and incubate it until hatching/birth. Probably more than you ever wanted to know about the visibility of cockroach eggs. Finally, you would have seen more cockroach egg pictures on the internet if you had searched Google Image for 'ootheca' rather than 'cockroach egg' What color are cockroaches most atrackted to? Cockroaches (and most other insects) have two light receptors, one sensitive in essay, the ultraviolet range and one in An Inside Wittnesses Essay, the green range. Many insects also have a third light receptor peaking in the blue.
Most pest cockroaches are not attracted to light. They are active at night and concept if anything they might avoid light. However, if you have a patio that is lit you might be asking what type of light should you have in your patio lighting scheme. The yellow 'bug' lights would be least visible to An Inside at Jehova's Wittnesses any of the wild cockroaches that can see light and essay fly and often are attracted to Intelligence Essay porch and patio lights. A fluorescent light has ultraviolet in its spectrum and thus could attract insects. A normal incandescent light will have the usual blue and green light in its spectrum and thus attracts insects that see that light.
The actual question of concept essay, whether they are attracted to the light is another issue. Insects attracted to porch lights are often exhibiting the moth to a flame attraction phenomenon. Wittnesses Essay? Insects flying at night are often orienting to a light they interpret as the moon. If you are trying to fly in a straight line you might chose to keep the moon at a constant angle in your front line of concept, sight. Since the moon is so far away, that keeps you going in a straight line.
However if you mistake a porch light for the moon and of boo inc keep a constant angle to it, you are likely to spiral into the light - like a moth into self concept a flame. Insects, in that instance, are not attracted to the light but are using it for navigation. Q67: Mike Delozier asks: We wanted to determine just how big a cockroach could get. Would the physiology and structure of the An Inside Look at Jehova's, insect allow it to be as big as a dog or cat?
We had heard if a spider got that big they would suffocate because the physiological structure couldn't support it. Is there any similar restrictions with the roach? That is self concept, a classic question in An Inside Look Wittnesses, insect physiology. Insects are usually thought to be limited by essay, the free diffusion in air of oxygen into their innermost tissues and movies in essays free diffusion of self concept essay, CO 2 out. Insects supply their tissues with oxygen using their segmental spiracular openings and the tracheal tubes that divide and subdivide until they reach the size of tracheoles which are small tubes that directly tangent the of boo monsters, cell surface and gases exchange. This subdivision is such that the self concept, cross sectional area of the tube does not change at each subdivision.
If the of boo monsters inc, cross-sectional area of each tracheole at the cellular level does not change, it necessarily follows that as the insect volume increases, the size of the outermost tracheal trunk will needs be get larger in proportion to tissue volume. Given the properties of concept, surface to volume, there is an upper limit to voice from monsters the size of an insect if the principles outlined are held constant. Self Concept? Extrapolated, the cross- sectional area of the spiracular openings would need to be larger than the available insect outer surface. These limits might be overcome if in Look, the larger insects a tidal lung function was developed. In some of the larger cockroaches there is a sort of concept, tidal rhythm that occurs through the mr kurtz, action of body wall muscles contracting and relaxing. This might extend the size of a cockroach by compensating for the need to maintain a constant crossectional area from the self concept essay, smallest to of boo the biggest tracheae. A tidal 'lung' function would get more air into the large tracheal trunks, but would not solve the basic problem of the size of the general tracheal system. I doubt that a single level of tidal 'lung' would allow the cockroach to get much larger than the current tropical cockroaches like Blaberus giganteus but it would be nice for someone to put a firmer theoretical basis on concept essay that limit. Good luck!
Q66: Wallace Anderson asks: . I was kinda worried because it (the leaf roach) seemed to have been injured a little when I swiped it from my hair where it had landed unexpectedly. . Will it heal? Good question! Actually I did my Ph.D. dissertation on that very topic. Cockroach regeneration of limbs. Mr Kurtz? I wrote a chapter in a book on cockroaches on the topic: Q65: Mariele Pellecer ask: I . wanted to essay know how do you sex them ( Blattella germanica ) before they molt to adults? Since this is an important issue for cockroach biologists I constructed a page to explain it as I understand it from Mary Ross and Don Cochran, and have used this technique for decades. It is mr kurtz, almost fool-proof:
Q64: Karna and Izzy and Sarah ask: . we are moving. And we have a problem with big huge roaches in our house, mainly kitchen and bathroom. I am VERY worried that during packing and essay moving the to the Crisis Essay, roaches will jump into my suitcases and nest in my clothes. What can I tell you? Cockroach larvae will hide anywhere they can.
Moving with migrating human populations is exactly how pest roaches have gotten around the world. I have no magic solution. Kill the roaches any way you can before you reach your new home. If you have roaches you can see, you need to do a general extermination to get them all, visible and self concept invisible. Fumigate the moving van? I am not an nelly dean exterminator and have no special expertise in that respect.
After cooking pizza in my microwave, I opened the microwave . and concept discovered a small roach . still alive. . is it possible that it was in the microwave . and . survived? This experiment has been done often. The microwave oven is amazingly non-uniform in voice from monsters, its heating. That is why most of them have carousels to keep the food moving through the concept essay, focus of the power. The roach you found was clearly not at the focus of the microwaves, otherwise it would have exploded under the heating regime at the focus. I wonder if you know of mr kurtz, any roaches that have spiny protrusions extending from a slightly elongated abdomen that they upend and essentially point at each other when fighting. The cockroach species, Diploptera punctata , is concept essay, found in Hawaii. It has cerci protruding from the tip of its abdomen and it will spray an acrid fluid from its upturned abdomen at attackers, usually not at each other but some small rodent intent on eating them. Here is a picture of a Diploptera family, (counter-clockwise) 2 adults, 3 larval stages, a late embryo and packet of eggs. Of course, your description sounds like a scorpion, which is not a cockroach but is a household pest in nelly wuthering, the US southwest. Self? It also sounds like an earwig which has pincer like protrusions from the tip of mr kurtz, their abdomen with teeth that are reared up in the air when they are disturbed.
You may be mistaken about the fighting. Mating male cockroaches extend their abdomen and self essay point it at the female offering her a taste of a secretion on his abdomen. If the female feeds on this gland it stimulates the male to continue the inc, mating process, eventually copulating and transferring a package of sperm to self the female which then uses it for A Solution to the Foreclosure the next month or two fertilizing eggs. What is the little brown sac that falls out of some roaches when they are dying? That is concept essay, a sac of eggs, called an mr kurtz ootheca. See the pictures at URLs: The females carry the ootheca protruding from their bursa which is at their tail end until, depending on self essay the species, it hatches, they hide it somewhere or until they retract it into their uterus to incubate it until the eggs hatch. Essay? The German cockroach carries it around until it hatches and might be the culprit you are specifically asking about. The American cockroach carries it around for self concept essay a day or two until it hardens and darkens and then hides it in a crevasse covered with some camouflage they glue in A Solution, place with saliva. Self Essay? The ootheca is only gently held in the bursa and Foreclosure Crisis Essay could easily fall off when the roach is concept, roughly handled or dying.
Q60: Elizabeth Palmer asks: How much weight can a cockroach carry? For instance, an ant can carry it's own weight. That saying about the ant sounds just as offhand as what I might give for the cockroach, but for A Solution to the Foreclosure Essay an important difference: The ant is a forager which is designed to find and carry objects back to its colony nest. Carrying things has a meaning for ants based on their innate behavior.
The cockroach does not move things more than a few millimeters when it lifts things that it is nibbling while eating or tasting. Therefore the carrying question is meaningless in most situations. Cockroaches were not designed to carry foreign objects around. The ant can probably carry things twice its weight. . This is a perfect question for an undergraduate lab, but not particularly interesting to essay an insect physiologist. Look? It would engage the self concept essay, student in trying to movies in essays get the cockroach and ant to essay carry something. The student would hopefully learn that the ant instinctively carries things off and the cockroach does not. This exercise would teach that the posing of a logical experimental question is an important step in doing research. A close relative of the monsters, cockroach is the preying mantis which catches and self concept essay lifts other insects to eat them. The females will even catch and eat the male after she mates with him.
The male in mating with the female, jumps on in essays its back and self concept essay is carried around during the mating process. The male weighs a bit less than the female but you could say that the to the Essay, female mantis can lift its own weight (or that of a mate). In this case the concept, female does carry the male on her back while mating, then she grabs him and eats him on the spot, usually without carrying him any further. Similarly the other close relative of the cockroach, the termite, is movies, a social insect which lives in self, a nest but it does not go foraging and bring back large objects the way that an ant does. The termite can forage for bits of wood and does lift bits of wet saliva soaked wood in order to Fuzzy Systems Intelligence extend its nest, often building huge structures in Africa, or, more close to self home, tunnels from A Solution Foreclosure Essay, house siding across foundation to ground. Carrying of this building material is essential to survival for these termites. The cockroach female does not carry the essay, male on her back during the mating process as the A Solution to the Essay, mantid and many other insects do, they mate tail to tail with no carrying involved. So, you need to self concept essay create a question about cockroaches that has meaning. A carrying question about a cockroach is An Inside at Jehova's, not meaningful, unless you could create a situation in which it needs to carry something.
When a group of cockroaches is very hungry I have observed them competing for food. Occasionally I have seen a cockroach drag a piece of food off to nibble on it without being harassed by close neighbors. Self? This is the only situation I have observed in which a cockroach does anything close to carry an object. Then a good question might be: When a group of Look Essay, cockroaches has been starved, how much food could an self concept essay individual cockroach lift and carry off in that situation? I do not know the answer. Reader Janis Innis (july 11, 2009) notes: I observed a roach running with a large chunk of dog food. It was running across the A Solution to the Foreclosure Crisis, kitchen, but when I entered the room, it turned and ran back towards the concept, other side of the room. Mr Kurtz? I would estimate it covered six feet while I was watching it. I would guess the dry dog food chunk weighed much more than the roach. . Q59: Jennifer Manley asks:
I have an insect that I believe to be a Blaberus colloseus , just judging by the one picture I could find on the internet. Self Concept Essay? Can you tell me where to A Solution Crisis Essay find out anything about this guy? I'm not having any luck on concept essay the internet. Ans: Jennifer, My experience with Blaberus species is inc, limited to B. giganteus, B. discoidalis , and B. cranifer . Now that other species of Blaberus are becoming attractive as pets and feeder cultures worldwide, our poor understanding and literature about the diversity of species in concept essay, this and most other cockroach genera is becoming obvious. The three species I mentioned were the first to be cultured in research labs and by hobbyists. There is a reasonable scientific literature on their use as lab animals. We actually know little about their natural ecology and mr kurtz behavior except where experimentalists and hobbyists have taken the time to describe it. I have no information and self could find no information at PubMed or Web-of-Science on Blaberus colloseus the Ecuador roach or Blaberus colossus , the more likely spelling. It is also possible that this name is An Inside Wittnesses, a synonym or a mistake that you have run across on the internet on the many hobbyist pages dealing with cockroaches.
One note of self essay, caution, many Blaberus species look alike and if you have collected your Blaberus species in the wilds of the southern USA, it is to the Foreclosure, most likely B. discoidalis or B. giganteus which can be found in the wild on self concept our southern USA coast. I'm a freelance editor on deadline trying to edit a story on roaches for a reading textbook . (T)here is so much conflicting information on the web. A Solution Foreclosure Essay? . (C)ould you clear up the following . questions for me? Ans: That number is not the usual number quoted and is ( 40 x 5-6) = 200-240. In my substantial experience using B. germanica in my lab, a single female can produce at max about 5-6 egg cases during her lifetime, each about a month apart after her own approximate 35 day juvenile phase. The timing depends on temperature and self essay they develop most quickly at 30C. Each egg case has approximately 40 eggs so that means a single female will only produce 240 primary offspring. However most people like to from monsters scare you with the calculation of total progeny. Self? That means understanding that only voice of boo monsters, half the 240 primary offspring are females who could each also have 240 offspring half of self concept essay, which are females. Wittnesses? Depending on the temperature one needs to calculate the larger number of offspring that a female can produce in a year, which is the essay, usual number that is quoted.
Ans: The American cockroach produces 1 ootheca per 2.5-3 days with each ootheca bearing about 12 offspring. The number of ootheca in from, the adult life of an American roach is self essay, probably somewhere in the literature. In Essays? The egg cases start being less frequent as the female gets older and self some of the ovarioles become inactive such that an ootheca might only contain 6-8 eggs in later life. I presume an adult female might continue the output for 6 months (although that is nelly dean heights, a guess) so resulting in 60 ootheca x 12 = 720 offspring. The variance about this average might be quite high so I would not be surprised by actual counts of females producing 500-1400 offspring in her lifetime. I see that you've mentioned that cockroaches are connected to asthma in kids. Please could you explain this to me? Why do they cause atshma? A: Rochelle, You ask a good question. Why do we develop asthma from interaction with some object we might experience particularly as a child (i.e. childhood asthma)?
Asthma is an over-reaction of our body to a foreign antigen we find in our environment. We have special antibodies in concept essay, our serum, immunoglobulin E, that are associated with allergic reactions. When we develop an to the Foreclosure Essay allergy to something in our environment that allergic reaction sometimes takes directions that are dangerous to the individual. A severe reaction is anaphylactic shock which can kill you. A milder reaction includes various levels of asthma. Why do children develop asthma by growing up in essay, a cockroach infested home? Young children crawl around on the floors and carpets which may have the parts and proteins of cockroaches imbedded in them. The same goes for to the Foreclosure Essay pet dander and self essay allergies to dogs and cat dander. When an Look at Jehova's Essay allergy test is given to those asthmatic individuals they find the children react perhaps to cockroach antigen and perhaps to dog or cat dander antigen. Only certain children develop the allergies and the asthmatic reaction to those conditions.
This seems to be partly an concept inherited tendency, so, allergic parents may pass on the tendency to become allergic to in essays their children. Here is an authoritative link to discussions of the relation between allergies and asthma. How fast are cockroaches? A: Glesne, Cockroaches are fast enough. Concept Essay? They have giant fibers in their ventral nerve cord that transmit the sensory info from their cerci, which sense air currents, directly to their thoracic ganglia which control their leg muscles. This is and Machine, a reflex circuit which does not need any decision by the cockroach brain. It is fast enough to detect the air wave in front of a predator and self concept essay allows the cockroach to scuttle away, avoiding capture. If you want to mr kurtz know how fast in self concept, cm/sec you will have to do your own experiment. Each species would have its own behavioral and mechanical limits of speed. You might make your measurement of speed in terms of body lengths per second which might allow you to compare species of dean heights, cockroaches. What would be your measuring conditions?
Starting from a full stop and measure speed after 0.1 or 0.2 seconds? You have some thinking to do before you can decide how to measure the cockroach speed. How long can a cockroach maintain its top speed? How long does it take to accelerate to its top speed? Q55: Justin Winstead asks: I had a debate with my brother and his wife over whether or not cockroaches live in organized groups. I said that they do live in organized groups and they acted like I was crazy. Can you set us straight please?
A: Justin, Social structure in concept essay, the cockroach pest species is from monsters inc, next to invisible. However there are a few indications of group organization. Most such behavior would not be considered social: 1) Many cockroaches care for self essay their eggs until they hatch, including the German cockroach which carries the Crisis, eggs externally until they hatch. A whole Family of essay, cockroaches, the mr kurtz, Blaberidae with subfamilies Blaberinae, Zetoborinae, Epilamprinae Diplopterinae and Pycnoscelinae among others, carry the eggs internally until they hatch. One Blaberid species, Diploptera sp. , provides nutrition to the embryos which actually molt in utero several times such that they need only molt three times after they are born to become adults, URL: D_punctata-devel-2864.JPG.
2) There is a so-called group-effect among the young of German cockroaches. If they are alone they develop very slowly. If there are at least two larvae in self concept, a defined space they accelerate their development to become adults. This later behavior is Look at Jehova's Wittnesses, a mechanism that increases the probability that two adults will be present by the time adulthood is self concept essay, reached. Unfortunately, this effect is sex-neutral so the two adults could be both males or both females with a probability of 50%. 3) The termites are a group of insects that have approximately the nelly wuthering, same level evolutionary relationship as Families of cockroaches. This group is highly social and could be considered the social branch of the cockroach evolutionary tree. Any suspected social organization of your pest species is more likely a misunderstanding when one finds them all hiding together during their quiet period which is during our daytime. Hiding spaces are at self essay a premium and Fuzzy Systems a good hiding space will be used by many cockroaches. Is sleeping-together living in organized groups?
Do they aggregate during their quiet phase to activate the group effect, which may insure they are able to reproduce effectively? Q54: Laurie Betts asks: Are there Australian cockroaches in self, the USA? A: Laurie, There is a pest cockroach, Periplaneta australasiae , which is common outdoors in the southern USA. To The Foreclosure Essay? It is commonly called the Australian cockroach. Self Concept? It is nelly dean heights, found worldwide as a pest and also called the greenhouse cockroach because of its predilection for establishing itself as a pest in self essay, the warmth of greenhouses at mr kurtz all latitudes. It is also found in western Australia.
I am not sure of the etymology of the common name, 'Australian cockroach'. Self Essay? The actual geographic origin of pest species is not easy to determine. North Africa seems to be the major focus of the wild species of the genus Periplaneta , thus Periplaneta americana is thought to at Jehova's originate in North Africa despite its common name, the American cockroach. It is thought that the pest species of essay, cockroaches have dispersed around the world with the, relatively recent, early human migrations, explorations and trading activity. The 1400's - 1600's would be considered relatively recent relative to movies the 250 myr history of cockroach evolution. The scientific name is P. australasiae , which translates to Periplaneta of southern ( austral -) asia. The 'austral' of the scientific name does not necessarily indicate that it is from Australia but more correctly from southern Asia. The '-asiae' is the Latin genitive of possession, suggesting 'this Periplaneta belongs to southern Asia'. 'Australia' is generally thought of as the 'southern continent' not 'southern Asia'. Concept Essay? The scientific, Latin names of insects and mr kurtz their common names, if common names exist, are often applied for local or mistaken reasons.
Somehow, the common name 'Australian' was applied at concept essay some point in time to P. australasiae . See URL: There is another answer to your question. The cockroach Family group, Polyzosterinae, is almost entirely found in Australia, thus it could be thought of as a group of Australian cockroaches. Nelly Dean Wuthering Heights? It has hundreds of described species, most if not all wingless as adults. There is one species of this Family in the USA, Eurycotis floridana . It is thought that E. floridana reached the USA prehistorically when Australia was part of the plates that made up the super-continent Pangaea. During the separation of concept essay, Australia from South America, about 50 myr ago, it is thought that the then nuclear Family of which Eurycotis was a member split, sending one or a few representatives up into South American landmass and the remainder in the future Australian landmass.
The Eurycotis genus is thought to have reached the USA across the Central American land-bridge. Eurycotis floridana is the only surviving species of the Polyzosterinae in the USA while the in essays, Polyzosterinae blossomed in Australia. So you can say that there is at concept least one Australian cockroach in movies, the USA, E. floridana . . or two if you include P. australasiae . Q53: Kian Hwee (Singapore) asks: . Self Concept Essay? can you share with me a few examples of cockroaches that evolved some kind of symbiotic relationship with other living organisms? Thank you. A: Kian Hwee, Cockroaches in mr kurtz, general have one very important symbiotic relationship with bacteroids living in special cells, mycetocytes, in their fat body tissue. Concept? The bacteroids are passed from A Solution to the Foreclosure, generation to self essay generation as a thin coating on their eggs, between the chorion and the oocyte cell membrane. Inc? During embryology these bacteroids invest in self essay, the female future ovary and the developing fat body tissue. The bacteroids produce all the vitamins needed by the cockroach with the exception of choline and of boo inc cholesterol which remain as the only essential vitamins of the cockroach. The close relatives, termites and preying mantids have lost or never gained this type of symbiont. They must get their vitamins, like Vit A and D, in concept essay, their food. This is a true symbiotic relationship since the of boo inc, cockroaches have protected the bacteroids over the millions of years of their association and concept essay probably these bacteria-like organisms have been protected from An Inside Look, changes forced on their strains by mating with other bacterial strains and have remained true to concept their type since they accepted the cloistered life they enjoy in the cockroach fat body.
As long as the cockroach survives, these bacteroids will survive. They have hung their survival on A Solution a pretty sure bet. How is that for a symbiotic benefit? The cockroach makes out pretty well also since due to the vitamins supplied by the bacteroids, the cockroach can eat almost anything organic without thinking of self concept, whether it has vitamins and essential amino acids, which we all need to get via our diet or a vitamin pill! How would we know a cockroach was still alive if it does not move? My son would like to perform the experiment of cutting off a roaches head. I looked through the mr kurtz, questions already posted, but did not see how we would know it was still alive if it doesn't move.
A: Mendriks, The headless cockroach will move if stimulated with a feather or a toothpick. The cockroach will sense an irritation on concept its leg or back and move to avoid it if it is still alive. The way to do the Fuzzy Intelligence Essay, experiment with the greatest chance of success is to take some old-fashion dental floss, the type made up of very fine filaments and make a simple loop knot that is put over the cockroaches head and drawn tight around its neck. You can also use a fine silk thread or hair from your head and concept essay similarly make a loop knot that can be tightened. Mr Kurtz? At that point you can cut the head off on the head-side of the knot. This prevents the cockroach from losing any blood. The roach without its heads will survive for several days at least and, if kept from self, developing any mold, it can last for a month.
Without the knot the Fuzzy and Machine, experiment will work but if you disturb it too early, before a blood clot is formed on the wound, the concept essay, cockroach will expel its innards through its neck and die thereof. I read here that the cockroach can live for about a month without its head. Is it possible for a female to be headless and get pregnant by a male and give birth before it dies? A: Robert, your question requires explaining several scenarios: (1) A female carrying fertilized eggs could be headless and the eggs she carries could hatch. (2) Females also store sperm and nelly heights can fertilize several subsequent egg packages (oothecae) before they need to mate with a male again. However, a cockroach female needs the head associated gland, corpora allata , to produce the reproductive hormone, JH, to produce a batch of eggs and produce the pheromone that attracts a male to mate. Therefore a headless unmated female would not mate and produce fertilized eggs. (3) Whether a mated female with ripe eggs who loses her head could ovulate the now mature eggs and hold onto them until they hatched is questionable. I am not sure if we know the answer to that question. I do know that I did take the essay, ovaries out from in essays, of a female German cockroach that was half-way through her ovulation of eggs.
The eggs continued to be ovulated in the physiological saline that I was observing them in. I do not know if the other organs that put the oothecal covering over the eggs would have functioned properly. This would be a simple experiment to confirm using the synchronized batches of mated females that I have used previously in my experiments, URL: (4) In Blattella germanica , the German cockroach, the ootheca is held by the female for about 18 days before it hatches. The female provides moisture to the ootheca which the female carries protruding from her bursa. It is precisely the moisture that she provides the concept, ootheca that is in short supply when her head is severed. To The Foreclosure Essay? I doubt that a female which has lost her head and just ovulated her eggs could bring those eggs to essay term and hatching given the inability to Fuzzy Intelligence Essay provide water. In a moist atmosphere perhaps it would be possible.
(5) Periplaneta americana , the American cockroach, lays its eggs, one ootheca every 3 days, carrying the ootheca for about one day before depositing it somewhere safe. If such a female lost her head prior to dropping the ootheca then I am not sure whether the ootheca would be dropped but it is entirely provisioned with enough water to last until it hatches. So, your question's answer has several stages of possibility. If get pregnant means to mate with a male then losing a head would prevent mating. If a female has already gotten to the stage when she has released her sex pheromone to attract the male then a male would be attracted but the female must exhibit some requisite behavior, requiring the head, when a male presents himself to mate with her. Without its head it would not accept the male's mating overtures. But if a female was already mated before her head was lost and self concept get pregnant means the ovulation and A Solution Crisis fertilization of the eggs by the already acquired sperm, then the above discussion does not absolutely preclude her producing and hatching some eggs. Concept Essay? Carried eggs might well hatch, unovulated eggs might ovulate and nelly wuthering be fertilized but whether they would acquire the requisite oothecal covering to self essay reach hatching is experimentally unknown at the moment.
That is a good question. My 9 year old son came home today telling me that his science teacher told him that cockroaches were being used in large farms to produce methane gas. Crisis Essay? I had never heard of this. Any truth to it? Your son may have access to some information of which I am not aware. The practicality of methane production by cockroaches is self concept, not established as far as I know.
In 1991 some researchers in to the Foreclosure Essay, Tanzania did discover that there are methanogenic bacteria in concept essay, the gut of Periplaneta americana , the A Solution to the Foreclosure Crisis, American cockroach. Also in 1991 some Michigan State researchers discovered that the American cockroach will produce methane gas preferentially when they are fed a high fiber diet. These publications were part of self concept, a flurry of publications about methane production by cockroaches in the early 1990's. You can find these publications by using Google/Scholar: . and searching on: methane cockroach. I have not found that these facts have been commercialized into farms for the production of methane. Some scientific discoveries are interesting but are dead ends commercially. Small businesses however often go bankrupt because of poor planning and management; and perhaps the movies, underlying ideas are still sound.
There could be an industrious farmer out there in Tanzania or Canada or Michigan who dreams of making it big in the alternative energy and perhaps fertilizer byproduct market. Q49: Timothy Ampi asks: Does cockroach have emotion (fear, anger, happy)? Emotion is self, not usually associated with insect or cockroach behavior. The cold and unmoving surfaces of the An Inside at Jehova's, insect exoskeleton do not allow for movement of surface muscles and self concept skin that one can interpret as a smile or other facial emotion. Insects react to environmental cues with reflexes that we usually do not interpret as emotion. Have you ever seen the waggle communication of the worker honeybee? It is used to communicate the direction and richness of voice of boo from monsters, a nectar source. That is self, interpreted by insect behaviorists to be a reflex behavioral response released by finding the An Inside at Jehova's Wittnesses, nectar source.
The public might interpret it as an indication that the worker is happy at finding the sweet nectar. Go figure? Is there any evidence that the bee is concept essay, happy? What would that evidence be? Is a bee worker angry when it stings an intruder to the hive? We subjectively use the terminology angry worker bee. Now, is wuthering, there any behavior that you might ascribe to something you see a cockroach do? Is their escape behavior based on essay fear?
Or is it a 'simple' reflex? Science would suggest it is a simple reflex in Wittnesses Essay, all the above cases of insect behavior. Our emotions (e.g. happiness) are associated with the release of certain chemicals in the brain (endorphins) which also have been discovered in the insect brain. Concept? Does that mean that insects feel happiness? Does that mean that what we call happiness, endorphin release, in humans (or mice) is a reflex? These are difficult subjective questions that science rarely deals with but are fun for Look at Jehova's Essay us to think about. If you conclude that insects and cockroaches feel emotions would you treat them differently? Read the self concept essay, poem St.
Roach by Muriel Rukeyser. Q48: Martha Johnson asks: I am interested in some type of roach control that is safe and non-toxic for myself, an invalid, and mr kurtz my companion dog. We live in coastal Texas with high humidity and a leaky roof. Self Essay? The problem is moving me anywhere away from my setup for any length of time is impossible. and my dog loves (to eat) cockroaches. I used the Bengal product which worked for a while and also spread borax. I was involved as a consultant in the development of the Bengal product which uses a bait station dispensing a mold that is lethal to A Solution to the cockroaches (but non-toxic to vertebrate animals and humans), rather than a chemical poison. I highly recommend it but I would defer to the advice of professional control people because I have only self concept essay, a theoretical perspective on the matter.
The Bengal bait stations might have to Fuzzy Essay be applied periodically if the mold dies out due to a lack of critters to pass it on. The boric acid, not borax (a different compound), should not be dangerous to your dog if used in small quantities as a dusting in isolated corners where your dog would not reach to sniff it into its lungs. Self Concept Essay? Chemical safety bulletins are typically alarmist (e.g. Baker) and warn of respiratory damage and irritation if inhaled. A large amount (grams) needs to be ingested to An Inside Look at Jehova's Wittnesses be lethal. It is commonly used in eye drops to wash your eyes if that is any help in calming your fears of poisoning.
Some concern is voiced about constant exposure. It is not a poison in self concept essay, small quantities and should not be spread in mr kurtz, large quantities. Self? People often feel that if a small amount is movies in essays, good, a lot will work better. Concept? In this case a small amount is good but a large amount could be dangerous. Also boric acid is said to act in its dry form to abrade the cuticle of the cockroach so that it dies of water loss.
This might not be very effective in your situation where there is from, abundant moisture that could dissolve the self concept, applied boric acid and Look Essay thus make it ineffective as well as your leaky roof providing plenty of water to the roaches which would also save them from desiccating. These two solutions to roaches should not require that you or doggie companion to be moved out of your setup during their application as they are both non-toxic to self concept essay vertebrates if applied in moderation. In my experience, 75% of your problem is the excess moisture. Securing your roof in some way would make your roach control problems easier to solve with the nelly dean heights, methods you have already chosen. Q47: Alexandra Manou asks: What is the concept, cockroach reproduction cycle? . Was told by pesticide company that it is 40days, including winter. According to them, unless treated on a monthly basis, they cannot be exterminated.
Is this true or an excuse for frequent visits? The reproductive cycle like the Systems Intelligence, life cycle depends on the temperature. It is maximum for most pest species at 30ºC which is about 86ºF. At that temperature an egg case is produced by _Blattella germanica_ adults in self essay, about 6 days but it is held by the female for 18 days before they hatch. The other common pest species, _Periplaneta americana_, deposits an egg case every 3 days at to the Essay 30ºC and each egg case will hatch in about 30 days. Perhaps that is the magic number 30 that corresponds to the lunar monthly cycle that your exterminator has suggested is critical for visits. The rates of egg production and development are temperature sensitive so at 25ºC all the above times are approximately doubled, slowed down by the reduced temperature. Another 5ºC reduction again doubles the times and thus the German cockroach egg laying and hatching cycle would be quadrupled from 24 days to 96 days. Most homes are cooler in the winter than the summer so roaches are probably growing and reproducing slower in the winter than the self concept essay, summer. However the numbers involved may be determined by the exterminators practical experience for your area.
What works best in your community is probably not best determined by a professor of biology. Systems And Machine? For instance, the outdoor cockroach refuges that provide the reservoir of pests that would enter your home may be the self concept essay, determinant. In cities, the sewer system may be the major reservoir of cockroaches and it is the temperature there that possibly drives the infestation rate. The sewer environment may maintain a more even tropical temperature year round. Q46: Thomas Coxey asks: Where did the nelly, cockroach get its name? Pest cockroaches have lived with people of many cultures perhaps before language developed. Here is a link to self the common names given to cockroaches in Wittnesses Essay, different cultures:
Some common names have some suggestive associations. (1) Water Bug. Self Concept? (2) The German cockroach, Polish cockroach, Russian cockroach, Crotton bug all refer to the same species Blattella germanica because one community wanted to name it after something they despised. A Solution Crisis? (3) Some dominant societies have named their local pest cockroach after their oppressed native population. This practice is concept essay, a sad reflection of how far prejudice has driven our common language. Our common name 'cockroach' shares sounds with Dutch 'kakkerlak' and Spanish 'cucaracha' and the Spanish song 'La Cucaracha' brings to mind vigorous stamping of the flamenco dancers feet which could refer to movies the canons of self, war . or the stamping feet of a homeowner on the pests. In Essays? I am told by a reader that the song has multiple potential meanings. Concept? The origins of the names are entwined in mr kurtz, early cultural history and only careful etymological and sociological study might discover the origins of our word 'cockroach'. Self Concept? I am not aware that such research has been successful in this case. Q45: Frank Melchior asks: I have a question. An Inside Look At Jehova's Essay? . Would a male and a female cockroach that weigh the same have the same hemolymph volume? Larval males and concept essay females of the same size have the same hemolymph volume.
Last instar females are bigger than last instar males, anticipating the larger abdominal format of the females and tend to at Jehova's have more hemolymph. Adult females are generally more robust than males particularly in the abdomen where the ovaries of the female take up substantially more volume than the self concept essay, adult male gonads. Dean Wuthering Heights? In addition the fat body of the essay, adult female is much more developed due to its involvement in vitellogenin synthesis in support of egg development. Coincident with this greater abdominal tissue development there is more hemolymph in Foreclosure Essay, the reproductive adult female. Finding an self essay adult female the Look at Jehova's, same weight as an adult male might be difficult. The largest adult males and the smallest females might be the essay, same weight and monsters inc perhaps they might have the self concept essay, same blood volume but I doubt it. The females more extensive abdominal tissues are all laminar and would require more volume of blood to voice from monsters inc suspend them. Concept? I hypothesize that if you measure male and female blood volumes the adult females would have a larger blood volume when regressed against weight due to their greater tissue surface needs.
Q44: Katherine McGlothlin asks: What was the reason for mr kurtz this cockroach behavior? On Sept.29 around 9:00 pm in my front yard . I observed a large number of cockroaches (maybe 100-200) pouring out of a manhole. They seemed to flap around briefly, and then form a line 2-3 cockroach wide heading . Concept? towards a large tree. Of Boo Monsters? Half way to self concept the tree they grouped into a large mass and continued to flap about. It almost seemed to be a mating frenzy. Wuthering? This sight, . was observed by the light of a full moon, was . interesting and also creepy. I am not particularly a behavioral expert but I have seen such a frenzy in the lab on a smaller scale when I added a bunch of mature adult males to a bowl of virgin adult females who were all ready to mate. What you observed in the wild does sound like a mating frenzy. The population pressure in the utility/sewer was probably pretty high. One or more females were probably sending out sex pheromone signaling that they were ready to self mate and from monsters they were being mobbed by self, males who were ready to mate.
The flapping of wings is the males' signal to mr kurtz the female that they are ready and the males would pursue the females and self occasionally bunch together around what they sense was the source of the pheromone. The females would respond by palpating the abdomen of the male she chose to have sex with and if she was really ready she would copulate with the most 'attractive' male. I do not know how common the mobbing phenomenon is but I expect it often happens down in the sewer as long as the population pressure is not high. I also would assume that it was only adult cockroaches that participated. Look At Jehova's? The larval stages, without wings would have been unaffected by the behavioral cues being offered and would have stayed back in the sewer.
This behavior might have the self, purpose of getting the adults in Foreclosure Essay, a crowded population to disperse before they mate and produce eggs. A close relative, the essay, termite, exhibits this adult mating flight swarming quite frequently. It is interesting that you may have stumbled on observing one of the traits that link the movies, two groups (termites and cockroaches) from a behavioral point of view. Q43: Cressida Mahung asks: How can I tell if a cockroach is breathing? How do I measure the breathing rate? I would like to do project on this for my science fair, but I am stuck! The cockroach's breathing rate, like that of self, most insects, is controlled by accumulation of carbon dioxide, not lack of oxygen. In order to conserve water the average insect closes its spiracles, which are the openings of the insect tracheal system that supplies oxygen to all tissues and removes the carbon dioxide. When the carbon dioxide in the animals system rises to a critical level, the A Solution Essay, spiracles open and then CO 2 leaves the system and oxygen enters.
In most small insects this opening and self concept closing of the spiracles (breathing?) is not perceived from the general insect movement and thus we see insects as rather rigid. Of Boo? We see no obvious breathing. If you however look at breathing as the uptake of oxygen from the available volume of self concept, air you could measure this disappearance of oxygen as volume of gas. I have done this in a student laboratory using an apparatus similar to the diagram below, a small vial with a stopper in its end through which a breathing tube is inserted: You could also restrain the insect under a microscope so that you could watch the spiracles and watch them open and close. However, a restrained insect often struggles and its use of oxygen will go up abnormally. Some minimal restraint might be designed such as gluing the pronotum to mr kurtz a wand and giving the insect a small light ball to walk on. The wand can be maneuvered to allow the abdominal spiracles to be observed by a dissecting microscope, allowing the spiracular opening rate to be counted. Q42: Joe Rowell asks:
I am a illustrator going to Savannah College of Art and Design and I am trying to illustrate a image from a roaches point of view. What would that look like? You would be looking out of concept, a crack at the world during the early morning or during the day in a half stupor because you would be hiding there sleepy or asleep from 2AM to and Machine Intelligence Essay 10PM. At 10 PM when the human household turns off the self concept, lights you would come to A Solution Foreclosure Crisis life and be looking at the world from weird angles since you would be scuttling on the floor or viewing the room in dim light from standing on the wall or the self essay, ceiling. Q41: Alejandro from the Phillipines asks: . Inc? I have observed that cockroaches in my house get wild before any earthquake occurs. Self Concept? They start running and getting out from their niches. . I have the impression that cockroaches can feel some of the very early vibrations of an mr kurtz earthquake, small or big, and can be a very good help to give early warnings of earthquakes. Can you confirm this?
If you have done a careful experiment to demonstrate the phenomenon you should publish it. There have been newspaper articles professing to demonstrate that point (perhaps 20 years old) but I have never seen confirmation of concept essay, earthquake prediction by cockroaches in heights, the scientific journal literature. The type of proof that would be needed is self, a type of Fuzzy Systems and Machine Essay, automated or regular observational record of the cockroaches and the demonstration of how that record changes and predicts future seismic activity. A scientific journal will not accept anecdotal observations but would require a careful experimental design with controls from self essay, periods with no following seismic activity. Reliability would be another issue. Do the cockroaches predict every earthquake? Are there times they produce a false positive, i.e. Wuthering Heights? their activity predicts a quake that does not happen? A better approach would be to build a small chamber that would act as an activity meter which would automatically record the concept essay, cockroach activity. There are several designs for a cockroach activity meter. One that might be useful is a small light plastic pie plate with lid.
It would sit on a metal base that would conduct electricity. The plate would sit on a pin at its center that keeps the pie plate off the metal base except at one point on its rim. Foreclosure Crisis? A large cockroach such as Periplaneta during its normal activity cycle would make the pie plate rotate on the metal plate as it walks around the self, plate. A wire at one or more places on dean heights the rim would make a circuit and that circuit closure could be recorded with its time of occurrence. This activity rhythm (because cockroaches are normally active for 4 hours after lights go out in essay, the evening) recording gives one a record of the normal activity something like the of boo, following: Then your seismic event might look like: . which predicts a seismic event at concept X, about 13:00 or 1PM.
While that is the general design of the experimental setup it can be adapted to several other specific hardware designs. For instance the analog design described above could be changed to a sold state and digital design by using a digital camera or camcorder to take a digital image of the cockroach in its dish which would record if it has moved since the last picture. This would replace the moving-part and analog-electrical-contact design described above. Essay? The digital image would be saved with its time stamp and self essay be preferably analyzed automatically using software or by Fuzzy Systems, visual inspection to self concept determine the roach activity. I understand that these approaches might be beyond your technical capabilities but that is why we have research labs at universities and commercial labs that do this type of sometimes expensive basic and applied research.
Such designs, once proven in the lab, possibly could be commercialized and An Inside Wittnesses be able to concept essay be packaged with computer software as a seismic prediction device which could be located in a local prediction center or police station where a perhaps automated warning could be broadcast to the public. We have not yet developed mechanical sensory devices that are as sensitive to environmental disturbance as many animal or plant sensory organs. This area of research has been dubbed 'biosensors' and grants are available to pursue such questions. Ultimately we would like to learn how the cockroach sensory cells and 'brain' carrys out this delicate sensory task. Perhaps we could then design a digital nano-sensor that would accomplish the same task without having to maintain a stable of competent cockroaches. A former science teacher said that cockroaches glow under black light. Are they flourescent? I have never seen a cockroach glow under black light however another arthropod more common in more tropical or desert regions, the scorpion, does glow fluorescently. How do Cockroaches Digest and what organs do they use to do so? You can look at the diagram at URL: Cockroaches shred food with their mouthparts and then swallow it using their salivary glands (e) and salivary reservoir (f) to moisten their food before it enters their crop (d).
Their gizzard or proventriculus (g) grinds the moist food further and adds it to mr kurtz the stomach (i) into which digestive enzymes are poured from the gastric caeca (h), after which it flows into the intestines (l) which is shown separated from the self concept essay, tubular stomach by a short segment of the peritrophic membrane (k) which is a chitin sac woven by the microvilli of the stomach to contain the bolus of food which passes through the GI track. The hind intestine (lower-l) removes water from the mr kurtz, digestate and self concept essay then the nelly dean wuthering heights, rectum (m) compacts the remains into a roach scat. The digested food is relieved of its nutritive materials by the walls of the stomach and self intestines. Q38: Fischer Ling asks: I read your article on the elusive albino cockroach. Just hope that you can provide me with more insight on the following (3) questions: Q38.1: Is it scientifically possible for a albino cockroach to mutate in the wild naturally? Are there any albino cockroaches or other related insects specimens documented before? A1: Such mutants are possible but the hardness of the cockroach cuticle depends upon the tanning process which cross-links its cuticle with a process that creates a mahogany-like color. Thus an albino cockroach (or other naked insect) would have weakened cuticle which would make it very vulnerable to attack. In insects clothed in colored hairs or scales the color of the scales can become white due to the storage of white substance in the scales.
In this sense the underwing moth, Catocal relicta , has an albino morph which is able to movies hide on birch bark trees based on its ability to hide on the cryptic bark surface, URL: http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/kunkel/catocala.html. Albino examples such as the one above are relatively common in self concept, insects. They were observed by midieval monks who manually transcribed the bible and included the Fuzzy Essay, albino genetic sports as decorations in the margins of illuminated manuscripts. Q38.2: I have personally seen American cockroaches . that are not entirely brown. I have seen one (full grown adult) with partially white wings and my friend claimed to have collected one with white eyes.
Are these rare finds? A2: If injured while molting a cockroach may not fully tan its wings. White eyed Periplaneta cultures are available in self concept essay, some labs but I am not aware of how frequent the gene is in the wild and whether any of them are based on distinct genes. There are dozens of genes for abnormal colored eyes in Blattella germanica , not all are white. It would be interesting to cross the movies in essays, available white eye Periplaneta cultures to see if they complement each other (i.e. Self Essay? are from distinct mutant genes). These albino mutant eyes are mutations of the eye pigments which does not involve the cuticle and thus there are not the limitations to the structural properties of the cuticle as is with the surface integument. Q38.3: I saw a documentary . reputable organization who claims that a cockroach has two brains one in front and one behind. That is why a cockroach . An Inside At Jehova's Essay? continues to function as per self concept, normal (except feeding) when its head is cut off. Is this true? A3: That is true.
The reproductive behavior is somewhat driven by its terminal abdominal ganglion, the VI abdominal ganglion, which is quite large. The preying mantid is in Fuzzy Systems and Machine Intelligence, the same insect Order, Dictyoptera, and it is famous for concept the males prowess in completing sexual behavior after the female has bitten off the male's head. Voice Monsters? In this case the brain (in the head) is thought of inhibiting the reproductive behavior and concept when bitten off the reproductive behavior, released from inhibition and monsters programmed into the VI ganglion, takes over. The cockroach VI ganglion is concept, responsible for coordinating the reknowned escape reflex of the An Inside Look Essay, cockroach. Delicate hairs on the cockroach hind end detect air rushing in front of a predator. The sensory hairs transmit their signals to the VI ganglion, it interprets the signals as an self concept essay attack (or not) and accordingly sends a rapid message to the thoracic legs to start running. This escape reflex does not require the coordination by the (anterior) brain in mr kurtz, the cockroach head.
Q37: Kunal Patel writes: (Does) the presence of an exoskeleton (in cockroaches) increase the efficiency of locomotion in concept essay, comparison with the nelly dean wuthering heights, hydrostatic skeleton of worms? I assume you are referring to annelid and polychaete worms and self not the larvae of insects (e.g. Fuzzy Systems Intelligence Essay? loopers and maggots) which do depend somewhat on hydrostatic mechanisms. Self Essay? Given that spiders, like worms, have a partial hydrostatic skeleton I am not sure that there is any difference in efficiency unless you say that the success of insects vs spiders shows that the insect design is Essay, more successful. I would say that the self concept, variety of motion shown by insects is an indication of the benefits of the opposing-muscle approach to design. Insects have established several mechanisms of Foreclosure Crisis Essay, flight while spiders have only been able to do it by parachuting. Perhaps this is an indication of the self, limits of a hydrostatic skeleton. I am not sure that it says anything about the Fuzzy Systems and Machine Intelligence, efficiency of comparable motion in a biophysical sense. Self? When a hydraulic system is more efficient, the insect uses it. The spider is limited to of boo from monsters using blood pressure to extend limbs, perhaps because they have not developed an easy local sclerotization of structures by concept, which to create the fulcrum and movies in essays levers for extensor muscles to work. Again this does not speak to whether the blood pressure extension is more or less efficient.
I would think that controlling localized pressure differences allowing dexterious extension of one limb but retraction of another would seem to be less efficient. The tubular worms on the other hand do not in general have the problem of multiple appendages needing separate control; however they can extend different segments of their body by concept, resisting extension in select regions by mr kurtz, using their retractor muscles in those regions. I am doing a report on cockroaches and was wondering what are cockroach's support system(s)? This is clearly an assignment from someone who knows the essay, type of answer they want. I am not sure what the mr kurtz, questioner wants. I imagine that the majority of the approximate 3000 cockroach species are largely on their own in self, the environment. Their support is based on their membership and place in the food web. Movies? They are omnivores and thus eat almost any organic matter that does not fight back. They are eaten by many small lizards, amphibians, mammals, and self birds. Domesticated cockroaches (about 10 species throughout the world) have found it easy to live with humans and mr kurtz get their food, water and shelter from the self, human shelters in which they live. We have become their support system despite our development of pesticides to fight against them.
Q35: Diane Wilson writes: I am a graduate students at UAlbany (NY). Right now I am working with undergraduates who are doing extracellular recordings of cockroach hind leg mechanoreceptors. We are having a hard time keeping our roaches alive and Fuzzy Essay have resorted to trying to catch them around the building with limited success. Self Essay? Our orders from Carolina biological supply company arrive half dead and live only 24-48 hours. I was hoping you have some suggestions as to nelly dean heights a good source, trapping tactics and stratigies for maintenance. Cockroaches should be kept and reared at a temperature close to 30C. If you allow them to chill they will die of cold shock. That is most likely the reason for your roach deaths after shipments made during the winter in your latitude. 25C-30C is the recommended growing temperature for self concept essay Periplaneta . You can catch them in animal rooms or botanical greenhouses using a large jar or bowl with steep sides that has a very light rimming with real petroleum jelly (Vaseline).
Bait the trap with banana or potatoes and voice of boo from carrots and place it in a warm moist area overnight. There is no excuse for failure! Also, how big is a cockroach baby or nymph? Occasionally I have seen very tiny (about the size of two fruit flys) beetle creatures in self concept, our apartment. (Are these baby cockroaches?) I can not identify things I can not see. An Inside Essay? The size you mention is about the size of a first instar cockroach. You can see an example of a recently hatched first instar American cockroach on essay a dime at URL: . a German cockroach newly hatched larva is of boo from monsters inc, half that size and black.
Other beetle like creatures (such as carpet beetles and self concept flower beetles) can invade a house also. Also, My roommate says that, if you have previously never seen any cockroaches in your room, but one day you see a huge one, then it is a scout, and is not really indicative of the size or amount of cockroaches which might be living within your walls. Is this true? The large roaches are more likely to travel than a small roach. They do not have a social network that would include scouts.
Bigger stride and wings allow adult cockroaches to Fuzzy Essay travel further. Some male cockroaches can even gain altitude when they fly, most only use their wings to essay glide. My roommate believes that cockroaches don't like air conditioning. A Solution Foreclosure Crisis Essay? . we live in Hawaii, and air conditioning makes the self concept, temperature around us liveable, plus it can cause droplets of water to voice from monsters form, . Essay? What is your opinion? Cockroaches will move to a preferred temperature range but also toward a source of moisture. They prefer a temperature between 25-30C. Foreclosure Crisis? If your air conditioner creates a temperature below 25C then they will tend to self essay move to a warmer location. 25C is (25x9/5 +32) = 77F so your air conditioner is probably set to cool below 77F and tend to repel them. Mr Kurtz? If you turn your AC off occasionally, the water the AC has dripped outside may have attracted cockroaches and provide a local source of self concept, cockroaches to dean move into your temporarily unconditioned space.
It is not a simple question. Q31: Pam Pollister writes: What color is the blood of a cockroach? The long answer: Cockroach blood is not red because they do not use hemoglobin to carry oxygen. In fact their bloodstream is self essay, not used to carry oxygen either. They use a system of pipes called tracheae to bring the oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from their tissues. As a result other factors determine the blood color. Male cockroaches have relatively colorless blood. Larval females have colorless blood.
Only adult females which are producing eggs have a slightly orange blood because of the protein vitellogenin which is made in movies in essays, the cockroach liver (its fat body) and transported through the blood to the ovary. This protein like chicken yolk is orange because it carries a carotenoid, which is a vitamin A like molecule needed by embryos to develop normally. The short answer: Cockroach female adult blood is occasionally orange. Self Concept? All other cockroach blood is colorless. Are cockroaches really members of the Carp (fish) Family? A cockroach and a carp are in two different Phyla.
The cockroach is an Arthropod and of boo inc the carp is a Vertebrate. The closest traditional link is that they are both in the Animal Kingdom. Some have been confused perhaps by the close spelling of the Stick Insect's scientific name, Carausius morosus , URL: Me and my friends wanna know if the self concept essay, myth is true or its just an Systems urban legend that cockroachs' eggs spread when u squish them with your shoe and you can spread them around where you walk? You and you friends are possibly responding to concept the urban paranoia about contracting and Intelligence Essay spreading cockroaches in essay, ones work and home environments. It seems that they are everywhere and if your apartment or home gets infested one can begin to speculate on how those buggers got into your 'space'.
You have correctly identified it as an urban legend. It is wuthering heights, highly unlikely that a cockroach egg case (ootheca) would survive a classic smooth leather soled shoe. But who wears smooth soled shoes these days? If an ootheca was lucky enough to lodge itself into the honeycomb of a sport shoe tread and the person took off the shoe in concept essay, disgust and threw it in the corner, I could imagine the eggs surviving and the brutal attempt to mr kurtz end their young lives might have failed. However the ootheca and contained eggs are huge and mechanically fairly fragile. Any good mashing should kill them all. I am sorry if I have started another urban legend about the paranoia of passing cockroaches with improper footgear!
I am not recommending going back to smooth soled shoes but I would recommend looking at the size of the waffle holes in your sport/walking/running shoes to essay see how they compare to A Solution to the Foreclosure Crisis Essay the size of an ootheca which is about the size of a pea. Q28: Lynn Gant writes: What do cockroaches eat? Cockroaches are omnivores, like us. Essay? For the most part they will eat anything organic. Mostly they eat dead or immobile things. As indicated elesewhere in nelly, the FAQ, they rarely bite a human but might nibble on self a sore in the middle of the night when an animal is sleeping. They will eat the Look at Jehova's, glue off the back of postage stamps and concept the glue bindings off the backs of books, traditional glue being derived from animal protein. Do cockroaches live in cold climates. Or put it another way.
Can cockroaches live in Canada? withstanding long cold winters? Please settle an argument! I have been told cockroaches can not live in movies, Edmonton Alberta. Is this True? or False? Domestic pests certainly can live in houses in Canada but not outside, the concept essay, way they do in Florida or the Gulf coast. There are numerous wild cockroach species which can live in in essays, Canada as they do in concept, the northern USA. The adults or larvae over-winter in the ground litter and dean wuthering effectively hibernate. There are some of these species that I have reared in the lab which queue up at a particular larval stage and refuse to proceed with their development toward the concept essay, adult stage until you give them an artificial winter. Q26: Felicity West writes: I would like to Fuzzy Systems and Machine Essay know why this is called a German cockroach please? There are apparently no cockroaches in self concept, Germany so where does the name originate from?
The chief biologist at the Munich TierPark (zoo) said they had no German cockroaches in their zoo and in essays gave me three tropical species that they knew were living in various environments they maintained in the park. Self Concept Essay? But I knew better. Essay? I went to the reptile house which is kept hot and self concept humid and saw loads of Blattella germanica (Linnaeus,1767) in the space of nelly wuthering, a half hour, and during the self concept, day at that! B. germanica , the German cockroach, probably entered Europe with Marco Polo or along early trade routes. Southeast Asia is its most likely origin. There are several sibling species that are very close to B. germanica ; some even cross breed with it. Its relatives are common around pig stys in the outer islands of Hong Kong. Live pigs were often kept on exploration ships during long trips.
It became associated with man and traveled around the world. In Essays? It was formally named by Linnaeus and probably was around in Germany for quite a while before the name was applied. Self Concept Essay? In Germany it is sometimes called Die russische Schabe, The Russian Roach. In Russia it is called the Polish Roach. In America it was called the Crotton Bug because it came to NY about the time the Crotton Aqueduct was built which was pilloried in the papers because it took so much land by eminent domain. The American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus 1758) likewise is a misnomer since it probably originated in North Africa before becoming a world traveler. Nelly Dean Heights? It most likely reached the Americas during the early slave trade. There are thousands of self, species of cockroach and only about 10 have become cosmopolitan pests of man. To The Essay? Most of the others do not even have a common name.
Q25: Luke Alphonse writes: I need information on whether or not roaches hibernate ? The wild cockroaches in the northern USA do hibernate. They go into a suspended state of development in late fall and then they must go through a dormancy phase in the winter before they will resume development in the spring. If you keep them in self concept essay, a warm environment during the winter they will not develop any further and Foreclosure Essay remain in self concept essay, a suspended state for Fuzzy Intelligence Essay more than a year. This phenomenon has not been published on as far as I know. Concept Essay? The species I know this about through my unpublished research are Parcoblatta pensylvanicus and Parcoblatta virginica . It would be interesting to know if these species go through this hibernation in the southern reaches of An Inside at Jehova's Wittnesses Essay, their range where a hard winter is self concept, not experienced.
My daughter told me she was at a friends house and they had WHITE cockroaches. UGH. I have never heard of them. Look Wittnesses? Is there a such creature? I am deathly afraid of cockroaches and it may soothe my fear a little if I knew they had a purpose. What are cockroaches good for? Fear of domestic cockroach pests is self concept, perhaps warranted because they have been associated with the nelly wuthering, development of childhood asthma and thus it is better not to have them in concept essay, your home environment. Cockroaches as a group are part of the worldwide food web. Movies? They are omnivore scavengers which clean up our environment and help recycle the organic litter that would accumulate if it were not decomposed by organisms which include cockroaches. Furthermore they serve as food for small mammals, birds, amphibians and lizards. There are over 3000 species of cockroaches and only 10 species are on the World Health Organization list of human pests.
The other 3000 species are welcome members of the biodiversity on this planet. Is the cockroach's brain spread around its body? Insects as a group are said to think in their periphery. This is because many of their innate behaviors are hardwired in peripheral ganglions more so than vertebrates. For instance flying behavior is controlled in the thoracic ganglia and some reproductive behavior such as copulation is concept essay, controlled in the last abdominal ganglion. Whenever sexual behavior or flying behavior has to be coordinated with the visual system the behavior includes what you might call the brain (head ganglion). The standard cockroach escape mechanism involves the tail (cerci) sensory signals that impinge on the terminal abdominal ganglion (A6) and giant fibers that communicate an escape signal from A6 to the 3 thoracic ganglia (T1-T3) which control the legs in A Solution Foreclosure Essay, running behavior. So people might say that the cockroach's brain is spread around the body in abdominal ganglia A1-A6 and thoracic ganglia T1-T3 and concept essay head ganglia (brain, frontal and suboesophageal ganglion). Could You please let me know how do cockroaches breath? Cockroaches, like all insects, breathe through a system of tubes called tracheae, a word similar to the name of the An Inside at Jehova's Wittnesses Essay, tube leading to concept our lungs. The tracheae of insects are attached to the spiracles which are small valved openings on the side of each body segment, excluding the A Solution to the Crisis Essay, head.
Thus the cockroach can breathe without its head! The valves open when the CO 2 level in the insect rises to an unacceptable level; then the concept essay, CO 2 diffuses out of the tracheae to Systems and Machine the outside and fresh oxygen diffuses in. The tracheal system brings the air directly to cells because they branch continually like a tree until their finest divisions tracheoles are associated with each cell allowing gaseous oxygen to concept essay disolve in An Inside Look Essay, the cytoplasm lying across the fine cuticle lining of the tracheole. CO 2 diffuses out of the concept essay, cell into the tracheole. Most insects do not have muscular lungs and thus do not actively breathe in the vertebrate lung manner. Movies In Essays? However in some very large insects the diffusion process may not be sufficient to provide oxygen at the necessary rate and body musculature may contract rhythmically to concept essay forceably move air out and in Look Wittnesses, the spiracles and one can actually call this breathing. This might be associated with such activities as the energetic flight of the migratory locust. . a story (is) reputed to have aired on self concept CNN about a woman, who while licking an envelope, got a paper cut from the Fuzzy and Machine, flap on her tongue and was exposed to a cockroach egg which incubated inside her tongue. Self Concept? The woman later had the alive roach removed by dean wuthering heights, a doctor. Is this possible?
This item is utter trash. The cockroach egg is huge. Most eggs are 2 mm long and are closely packed side by side and 2 by 2 like franks in a dozen package. They do not survive outside of the oothecae or egg case, which contains 12-40 of the eggs, and I can not imagine them being associated with the lickable surface of an concept essay envelope in any way such that they were transferred into Crisis Essay a paper cut tongue. You just have to sit back and self concept laugh at the gullible nature of the CNN producer/director who did not have enough biology in his education to know when he/she was out of her depth and needed to consult with someone who knew better. The producer/director of that program should be fired for mr kurtz promoting misinformation. I almost doubt that it ever aired. Thanks for playing the self essay, skeptic! Q19: Rachele Besley writes:
I am a . student from New Zealand doing a study on Cockroaches and was wondering whether you could tell me something on their response to light, whether they are attracted to it or not and whether it affects their behaviour. I did a quick search on cockroach circadian behavior and found the following references . of papers. I understand that you . may not be aware of some of the technical language in these (titles) but perhaps some of it will be useful. Circadian rhythms are activity rhythms that correlate with the light/dark cycle of the day (ie. the normal 24 hour day/night light rhythm). When organisms are put into constant dark they continue to behave as if the normal light/dark cycle was still there; that is of boo from monsters, they anticipate being awake when they normally would, during the 4 hours after lights go off at concept night. This internal clock can be reset by an artificially imposed lights off that a researcher imposes in a research arena. Nelly Dean Heights? This demonstrates that the cockroaches respond to light and can reset their internal clock to a new rhythm as they should be able to since dusk changes its time of onset gradually during the year. Q18: Sean McGurn writes: could you please let me know if cockroaches fly. if so, have you heard of a species that flies in the palm springs area. If you are in Palm Springs FL you could be seeing _Blattella asahinae_ the recent import from SE Asia which is a very close relative to the German cockroach. The import can fly and interbreeds with _B. germanica_ which leads people to think that _B. asahinae_ was the wild species from self essay, which the non-flying domesticated species was derived. Q17: Alex Stegemann writes:
My father was drinking a Bud Light and on the last swig he discovered something in his mouth. After he spit it out we discovered it was (what we think is) a cockroach. About 6 minutes later, the cockroach began to move and tried to walk. Fuzzy Systems? We killed it! Was this event some kind of miracle that a cockroach survived a 2 month journey in a beer bottle?
Sorry, My conclusion is concept, that your father left his beer sit for a brief while and the roach decided to take a swig itself. No roach could have survived the bottling process. Q16: Larry and Jennifer Jeffery write: I'm a Marine at Camp Lejuene down in North Carolina. I have heard many rumors about a very large roach being found at Camp Johnson which is part of Lejuene. I have heard that this roach was supposed to have been upwards of twenty pounds. I was wondering if you maybe knew anything about this? If it was at all possible I would like to get confirmation on mr kurtz this rumor and maybe a picture. A: Larry and Jennifer, Someone is pulling your leg. There is no roach even approaching a quarter of a pound.
Perhaps they are refering to a lobster which is known as the cockroach of the self, sea since it is a scavenger: Q15: Machelle Broschart writes: I am trying to write a paper on a type of roach that I found in my home. . I . cannot locate anything on flourecent green roaches. I was told that it is mr kurtz, rare, but I would like more info . I have the roach in a jar, thinking to preserve it due to its rare type. Please send more info . Q: Kathryn White also writes: I have a beautiful green cockroach in a jar on my desk. I have lived in Louisiana all my life and have never seen one like this. I saw your web page about the cockroaches shedding their mantle and found that amazing, but I am afraid that that is not what I have here. It has been in my jar for 2 days and there is no color change. A: Machelle -and- Kathryn, The green roach is the Cuban immigrant Panchlora nivea . It is not rare on the mainland any more. It is found mainly in Florida to self Texas along the Gulf coast.
It can fly out of its container so be warned that if you rear them, they can get out of any container that does not have a lid. You can find out more info by searching the and Machine, WWW for Panchlora. Q14: Elaine and self concept essay son write: We're trying to find out if common cockroaches (say American) verbalize or make sounds. And Machine Essay? . No where we've looked has anyone addressed this topic, except to include the sounds of roaches running. A: Elaine and son, The common household cockroaches do not communicate much with each other via sound as far as I know. Concept Essay? Of course there are several thousand species and I am only familiar with about 35 species first hand. Q13: Lara Beatty of voice of boo inc, Calgary, Canada writes: A friend and I were discussing cockroaches the other day, and she claims that a cockroach can live for about 6 years without it's head.
Is this a true fact? (1) We breath through our mouth or nose and the breathing rhythm is controlled in our brain. Cutting off our head would interphere with breathing although that could be maintained with a respirator. (2) Cutting off our head could lead to blood loss and a drop in blood pressure which would result in death due to lack of concept essay, blood transport of oxygen and nutrition to and Machine Intelligence Essay our tissues. (3) Cutting off our head would prevent us from concept essay, eating and we would die of starvation pretty quickly. (1) Cockroaches breath through spiracles which are in each body segment and the blood does not carry oxygen to the tissues. The spiracles deliver air to movies each cell of the body through a set of tubes called tracheae.
The brain does not control the breathing through the spiracles. (2) The cockroach does not have blood pressure the way a mammal does and so cutting off the head does not lead to essay uncontrolled bleeding. (3) The cockroach is a poikilotherm or cold blooded animal. They need much less food and a one day meal would be enough to last them a whole month as long as they were not extremely active. Without a head the cockroach would just sit around without doing anything much. Q12: BIRGER HORSBRO writes: I heard a rumor that if you find a cockroach in your house, it means that you have a clean house and are they actually clean animals? Q11: Terri Lamb asks: I was told that lobsters are the roaches of the sea. Therefore, I was under the A Solution to the Crisis Essay, impression that roaches are crustaceans. Is this at all true? And if it is not true, what is the relationship between a roach and a lobster?
As both a lobster and roach lover I can give you a reasonably authoritative answer. Self Concept Essay? If you go to the Tree of Life WWW page at the level Arthropod (Phylum), you will see that cockroaches are insects (Class Hexapoda) and lobsters are decapod crustaceans (Class Crustacea); they are two groups in the same phylum, URL: Q10: I aquired a colony of to the Crisis Essay, B.discoidalis recently and was wondering if you might know the essay, lifespan of these beauties. Mr Kurtz? . Bob. You probably reached the concept essay, right person because I did extensive culturing of Blaberus discoidalis many years ago and I can give you some good advice on and Machine Essay their longevity. Of course, my intention in those days was growing as many B. discoidalis as I could in self concept essay, as short a time as possible.
If you want your animals to Systems Essay last longer as pets you should use a different tactic than mine. My whole approach to rearing cockroaches was to provide large numbers of self, animals of a uniform stage as well as age and therefore I also introduced the method of regulating food availability to keep the larval stages developing synchronously as I had published on for Blattella germanica at URL: If you can read this graph which represents the length of each stadium from time of first feeding until the actual ecdysis (sheding of the mr kurtz, old cuticle), you can add up the days it would take to get from hatching to adult. Thus, as an example, 9% of essay, females take 8 molting cycles to get to the adult stage and mr kurtz that represents 153 days. Such an adult female could live perhaps a year longer as an adult.
All of this takes place at 30C the optimum temperature for growth and reproduction. Concept Essay? If you wanted to slow it down you could lower the temp to 25C and you would double all the times (approximately). Q9: I am graduating in Assumption University (Thailand) . Systems And Machine? I am making a research about American cockroach life cycle. I would like to know more information about: (1.) how long the female cockroach takes to be pregnant; how long it can pregnant again after it produces the first egg case; and how many cases that can be produced per time; (2.) how many eggs in each case; (3.) how many times that the nymph can shed the skeleton; how long it takes for essay sheding at the first time; and to the Essay how long it can shed again after the first sheding; (4.) what is the size and weight of nymph when its age is 6 months and 8 months; (5.) how old is the female cockroach can mate with the concept, male at the first time. Ms. In Essays? Raevadee Nopsuwanchai. You have asked a question a bit more detailed than the average. The information you ask for depends on details of the American cockroach, _Periplaneta americana_ life cycle which are not published in one place.
You could probably find bits and pieces for self concept your answer in the voluminous literature published on this species in the entomology literature. However, I did some reseach on this species in the early 1970's which I can share with you. My intention was growing as many _P. americana_ as I could in as short a time as possible. If the ambient temperature differs from 30 C then your calculations will be different. Movies? My approach to rearing cockroaches was to provide large numbers of animals of a uniform stage as well as age and therefore I introduced the method of regulating food availability to keep the larval stages developing synchronously as I had published on for _Blattella germanica_ at URL: Using a similar approach I obtained the following information about _P. americana_ stadium length (i.e. Self Concept Essay? length of each molting cycle). If you can read this graph which represents the length of mr kurtz, each stadium from time of first feeding until the actual ecdysis (sheding of the self concept essay, old cuticle), you can add up the days it would take to get from hatching to adult. Fuzzy Systems Essay? Thus, as an example, 70% of self concept, females take 9 molting cycles to get to the adult stage and that represents (8+8+8.5+9+9.5+10+12+16+23) = 104 days. Of Boo From Inc? Such an self concept essay adult female could live perhaps a year longer as an adult. All of this takes place at 30 C, the optimum temperature for growth and reproduction.
If you wanted to slow it down you could lower the A Solution to the Foreclosure Crisis Essay, temp to 25 C and concept essay you would double all the times (approximately). The adult female would take about 9 days to produce an ootheca containing about mr kurtz 12-16 eggs. If the essay, female had continuous food availability it could produce an ootheca every 2-3 days ot 30 C. The newly hatched larva weighs about 2 mg and doubles its weight at each larva-larva molt. So after molt 1 the larva weighs 4 mg, after molt 2 . 8 mg and so on. Weight for a typical adult female is given in the Kunkel (1966) paper. You should refer to voice inc it for your research paper.
Weight gain subsides at the larva-to-nymph and nymph-to-adult molts as more energy is put into transformation toward the self concept essay, adult form. You can make all your necessary calculations from the above data but it would not be simple addition since most cockroach species do not metamorphose to the adult at one particular instar. Some calculations would require using the percentages that metamorphose at each molt. Good luck! Q8: What is the best, non-toxic way to kill cockroaches?
I have a five-year-old boy and An Inside Look Wittnesses a pet rat that get into everything. A: I often tell people that I am not interested in self concept essay, killing cockroaches but rather learning about their life style and physiology. I realize however that most people are more interested in killing them since they are pests in their houses and can contribute to spreading disease in hospitals and childhood asthma in the home. Beware of most commercial preparations, even those that depend upon the 'natural' insect juvenile hormone. Since these are relatively slow acting, the manufacturers often add a 'knock-down' additive poison which gratifies the user since it provides visual proof that the treatment works when it comes in direct contact with the pest. Read the label of whatever poison you use.
I have come across several methods of killing cockroaches that are non-toxic to humans: (1) Boric Acid. An Inside Look Wittnesses Essay? The crystals of boric acid are sharp and get between the joints of an insect's exoskeleton. The sharp crystals abrade the cuticle and self essay make the cockroach lose water and die of dehydration. This is a simple and mr kurtz cheap method. Dust the boric acid (which is relatively non-toxic) around the corners of rooms and in self concept, hiding places frequented by the roaches. A more expensive industrial version of this method is called Permadust. It is finely ground ruby dust which performs the same function as boric acid crystals but is more permanent.
Boric acid washes away when you want to get rid of it. You will find the dried carcasses of in essays, cockroaches in concept, various hiding places as well as out in the open where they marched their last step searching for water. (2) Live Traps. Take a bowl or wide mouth bottle with steep sides; lightly Vaseline the inside wall up to the lip so that a cockroach can not climb up the slippery surface; place the heights, bowl in self, a typical hiding place such as under your kitchen sink; place some food (bread, carrots, etc.) in the bowl as well as some toweling dampened with water; build some ramps up to movies the lip on the outside with paper toweling to encourage the cockroaches to easily enter the bowl. This trap will quickly overnight accumulate a good sample of your household cockroach population.
Flush them down the toilet each morning for sanitary disposal. Self Concept Essay? Soon the cockroach population will be quite low and perhaps undetectable by you. This later method would also provide your pet rat a non-toxic feeding station and your son a place to dean wuthering learn about the local fauna. I would not be suprised if the pet rat ate some of the captives which are good sources of protein and self essay vitamins. Q7: I read a newspaper article about children taken to the hospital with cockroach bites. Do cockroaches bite humans? A: The cockroach is an omnivore, that is, it eats everything edible, animal and vegetable. So if we do not move around too much while sleeping they might be inclined to voice monsters nibble on our earlobes at night. They are rarely aggressive enough to attack us while we are awake. Essay? When visiting Tulane University in voice monsters inc, New Orleans many years ago I slept in a dormitory room and cockroaches were flying down from the ceiling onto my head.
I would guess that these large American cockroaches, _Periplaneta americana_, would be capable of taking a good bite out of me. Concept? Only the Crisis, larger species could take a bite through our skin. Of course the skin of children is much more tender and vulnerable to a roach bite. Q6: Why do cockroaches die on concept their backs? A: First, few cockroaches die on A Solution to the Foreclosure Crisis their backs in the wild. Natural death of self, cockroaches probably occurs in An Inside at Jehova's, the stomach of a bird, bat or other small animal. Second, Cockroaches are not used to living on a polished marble or vinyl floor. They are more used to a ruguous living plane including leaves and sticks and other vegetable debris. Thus when a cockroach finds itself on its back (by some mistake in its orienteering) it may have trouble righting itself if there is concept essay, not debris around to of boo monsters grab hold of self essay, with its legs. (Try it, put a cockroach on movies its back on a polished floor with and self essay without some crinkled paper.) Third, often we come across dead cockroaches in buildings that have died of insecticide. Most of these insecticides are organophosphate nerve poisons.
The nerve poison often inhibits cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetyl choline (ACh), a neurotransmitter. With extra ACh in the nervous system, the cockroach has muscular spasms which often result in nelly wuthering heights, the cockroach flipping on concept essay its back. Without muscular coordination the mr kurtz, cockroach cannot right itself and eventually dies in its upside down-position. Q5: Are cockroaches resistant to radiation? A: I have been told that cockroaches are more resistant to radiation and in self concept, a world nuclear war, only the cockroaches would survive. But I have not seen any publication that discusses it with any credibility. I can give only an opinion of my own. I have irradiated cockroaches and constructed killing curves for them using gamma irradiation. I have not compared their resistance to radiation with any other organism using the movies in essays, same equipment and thus can not comment on any relative resistance based on hard data. My opinion is essay, that insects in general would be relatively resistant to of boo monsters inc radiation compared to non-insects, or non-arthropods more strictly.
The lives of self, insects and other arthropods revolve around their molting cycles. During a molting cycle the cells of the voice of boo monsters, insect divide usually only once. This is encoded in Dyar's Rule, i.e. Concept? insects double their weight at each molt and thus their cells need divide only once per molting cycle. Now it just so happens that cells are most sensitive to Look at Jehova's Wittnesses Essay radiation when they are dividing. Essay? That is the Systems and Machine Essay, basis on which radiation is used to kill cancer cells. Cancer cells tend to divide more often than the other cells of our body.
For a given dose of radiation you will kill more cancer cells than normal cells. Essay? With the voice of boo, right dose with the right cancer you can kill all the cancer cells while only killing some of the most rapidly dividing normal cells (i.e. bone marrow cells of our immune system and red blood cell generating tissue). Now if a typical cockroach molts at most once a week, its cells usually divide within a 48 hour period within that week. That means that about 3/4 of the concept, cockroaches would not have cells that are particularly radiation sensitive at any one time. If a killing radiation is endured by a cockroach and human population, then 3/4 of the cockroaches might survive while none of the humans might survive since our blood stem-cells and immune stem-cells are dividing all the time. If a constant killing radiation were endured, all living animals with dividing cells would die. Q4: Do cockroaches sleep? A: Yes, cockroaches do sleep, if you define it that way. Cockroaches have activity rhythms, i.e. regular times in nelly dean wuthering, the day when they are quiet and hide away from the rest of the world as well as wakeful times when they are active, seeking food, water and a mate.
The subject of cockroach activity rhythms is well represented in the scientific literature (see my cockroach bibliography). In general, most pest species of cockroaches are active (i.e. Self Concept? awake) during the A Solution Foreclosure Crisis Essay, four hours after lights-out. Concept Essay? That is why they are often visible when you go to Fuzzy Intelligence the refrigerator for essay that midnight snack or come home late from the movies. They cue on mr kurtz that time when you normally shut off all the lights and go to essay bed. To The Foreclosure Essay? That ensuing four hours of activity is essay, enough for them to get all their important business done without the high probability of running into mr kurtz you. I showed, in my first published paper, that one four hour stretch of food availability was enough to get them through an entire molting cycle of about 6 days.
In a high density cockroach infestation the population may be forced to come out at other times to find food. If you have lowered the population down by using insecticides, whether that is concept, a commercial insecticide or your boric acid application, the remaining few cockroaches will be satisfied with the four hour stretch after lights-out and Look at Jehova's Wittnesses you will rarely see them. While we sleep they are active; while they sleep we are active. Q3: I am desperately seeking information on self obtaining ( Blaberus ) giganteus . A: I collected Blaberus giganteus in the garbage dump in mr kurtz, Key West, Florida, 25 years ago. I am told by my son that the self, garbage dump is no longer accessible. To The Crisis? Basically, in Florida or the essay, Caribbean, you should look for some Palm trees with a lot of An Inside Look at Jehova's Essay, leaf litter below and look under the litter. A Blattaria Culture Society exists centered in Europe, but with NA memberships, which will supply starter cultures to club members.
Beware, regulations prohibit import of cockroaches into some countries without special (USDA and/or state in the USA) permits; so arrangements for transport of the live specimens might be difficult. Finding a local enthusiast willing to share is your best bet. Q2: . how do you sex the Blaberus , I have a hard time sexing them, and many people would like some adult pairs. A: Count the concept, segments on the ventral surface of the mr kurtz, male and female abdomen. The number of essay, visible segments is higher in the male than the female.
Also the Fuzzy Systems and Machine, females posterior abdomen is broader and more rounded than the male. Q1: I am sort of interested in why wildtype males have shorter wings than wildtype females. Self? Could u tell me why. A: Wild type male cockroaches, in general, do not have shorter wings than females in proportion to their bodies. In general cockroach females are more robust than males to dean allow for producing and carrying their large clutches of concept, eggs. At Jehova's? Thus the females tend to be larger, for example in my illustration of Blaberus giganteus , AND THE FEMALE'S WINGS ARE THUS LARGER THAN THE MALE WINGS IN AN ABSOLUTE SENSE ONLY. Some of this larger size is because females undergo more molts to self concept essay get to the adult stage. This largeness in females is Systems and Machine Essay, associated with their reproductive role and is a general phenomenon in insects. There is another phenomenon called brachyptery (short wingedness) which is associated with some cockroach species as a sexual dimorphism. The females of some species have strongly reduced wings which are useless for concept essay the gliding type of flight that cockroaches do. (Actually, one domicilary cockroach, the Kuchenschabe, Blatta orientalis , is a non-wildtype species that exhibits the female brachyptery dimorphism phenomenon.) This phenomenon is A Solution to the, also related to reproduction in my reading of the literature.
The more robust female, with her large egg clutch developing in her abdomen, would drop like a rock as a glider; thus her wings have atrophied over evolutionary time (see Byrsotria fumigata example). The female contents herself with staying at home in a good feeding location and calls the male by emitting pheromones to attract a mate. It is the concept essay, more gracile males' function to be attracted to voice of boo inc the female over long distances and use its wings to glide down to her from the height of some bush or tree.