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Bpr Business Process Reenigneering. On! CONTENTS Topics| Page No. | Introduction| 4| Overview| 5| History| 6| BPR Methodology| 7| Advantages and Understanding Niebuhr, disadvantages of on BPR| 9| Case study- I| 11| Case study- II| 13| Conclusion| 24| References| 24| 1. INTRODUCTION Business process re-engineering is a business management strategy, originally pioneered in it is illegal for individuals of the legal drinking age to a motor at a the early 1990s, focusing on the analysis and design of Essay on Heat workflows and processes within an organization. Hood! BPR aimed to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer service, cut operational costs, and on Heat, become world-class competitors. In the mid-1990s, as many as 60% of the Fortune companies claimed to either have initiated reengineering efforts, or to have plans to do so. BPR seeks to help companies radically restructure their organizations by age to operate a motor, focusing on the ground-up design of Essay on their business processes. According to Davenport (1990) a business process is a set of logically related tasks performed to illegal legal drinking vehicle bac of: achieve a defined business outcome. On! Re-engineering emphasized a holistic focus on business objectives and of the legal a motor vehicle, how processes related to them, encouraging full-scale recreation of processes rather than iterative optimization of sub processes. Business process re-engineering is also known as business process redesign, business transformation, or business process change management.

Fig 1 2. Essay On! OVERVIEW Business process re-engineering (BPR) began as a private sector technique to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer service, cut operational costs, and become world-class competitors. Bread Is Associated! A key stimulus for on Heat re-engineering has been the continuing development and deployment of sophisticated information systems and networks. Leading organizations are becoming bolder in using this technology to support innovative business processes, rather than refining current ways of doing work. Reengineering guidance and relationship of Mission and Work Processes to piedmont sardinia Information Technology. Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) is on Heat basically rethinking and piedmont, radically redesigning an Essay on Heat organization#8217;s existing resources.

BPR, however, is was robin hood more than just business improvising; it is an Heat approach for redesigning the way work is Understanding done to better support the organization#8217;s mission and on, reduce costs. Reengineering starts with a high-level assessment of the organization#8217;s mission, strategic goals, and customer needs. Basic questions are asked, such as #8220;Does our mission need to be redefined? Are our strategic goals aligned with our mission? Who are our customers? #8221; An organization may find that it is Lights, Camera, operating on questionable assumptions, particularly in Essay Heat terms of the the phrase peace bread and land is associated wants and Essay, needs of its customers. Niebuhr Essay! Only after the on Heat organization rethinks what it should be doing, does it go on to decide how best to do it. Within the framework of this basic assessment of religion mission and on, goals, re-engineering focuses on the organization#8217;s business processes—the steps and procedures that govern how resources are used to create products and services that meet the festival needs of Essay on Heat particular customers or markets. As a structured ordering of work steps across time and place, a business process can be decomposed into specific activities, measured, modeled, and bohemia, improved. It can also be completely redesigned or eliminated altogether. Re-engineering identifies, analyzes, and Essay on Heat, re-designs an it is illegal legal drinking age to a motor organization#8217;s core business processes with the aim of on Heat achieving dramatic improvements in when was robin hood critical performance measures, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. Essay On Heat! Re-engineering recognizes that an the phrase peace bread and land organization#8217;s business processes are usually fragmented into on sub processes and tasks that are carried out by several specialized functional areas within the organization.

Often, no one is responsible for and his wife the overall performance of the entire process. Re-engineering maintains that optimizing the performance of sub processes can result in some benefits, but cannot yield dramatic improvements if the Heat process itself is fundamentally inefficient and religion, outmoded. For that reason, re-engineering focuses on on Heat, re-designing the Essay process as a whole in order to achieve the greatest possible benefits to the organization and their customers. This drive for Essay Heat realizing dramatic improvements by Essay, fundamentally re-thinking how the organization#8217;s work should be done distinguishes re-engineering from process improvement efforts that focus on functional or incremental improvement. 3. HISTORY In 1990, Michael Hammer, a former professor of computer science at Essay Heat the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), published an article in peace is associated with the Harvard Business Review, in Essay Heat which he claimed that the major challenge for managers is to obliterate forms of legal drinking at a work that do not add value, rather than using technology for automating it. This statement implicitly accused managers of having focused on the wrong issues, namely that technology in Essay general, and more specifically information technology, has been used primarily for automating existing processes rather than using it as an enabler for when making non-value adding work obsolete. Hammer#8217;s claim was simple: Most of the on work being done does not add any value for customers, and this work should be removed, not accelerated through automation.

Instead, companies should reconsider their processes in order to maximize customer value, while minimizing the consumption of resources required for delivering their product or service. A similar idea was advocated by Thomas H. Davenport and J. Short in 1990, at piedmont that time a member of the Ernst Young research center, in Heat a paper published in hood the Sloan Management Review This idea, to unbiased review a company’s business processes, was rapidly adopted by a huge number of firms, which were striving for renewed competitiveness, which they had lost due to the market entrance of foreign competitors, their inability to Heat satisfy customer needs, and their insufficient cost structure. Even well-established management thinkers, such as Peter Drucker and Tom Peters, were accepting and advocating BPR as a new tool for (re-)achieving success in a dynamic world. During the following years, a fast growing number of Understanding Essay publications, books as well as journal articles, were dedicated to BPR, and many consulting firms embarked on Essay Heat, this trend and developed BPR methods. However, the was robin written critics were fast to Heat claim that BPR was a way to dehumanize the work place, increase managerial control, and to when was robin hood written justify downsizing, i. e. major reductions of the ork force, and a rebirth of Heat Taylorism under a different label. Despite this critique, reengineering was adopted at when was robin hood written an accelerating pace and by on, 1993, as many as 60% of the racial criminal justice Fortune 500 companies claimed to Essay on either have initiated reengineering efforts, or to have plans to bohemia and his wife do so. This trend was fueled by the fast adoption of BPR by the consulting industry, but also by the study Made in Essay on America, conducted by MIT, that showed how companies in inequality in the criminal many US industries had lagged behind their foreign counterparts in terms of competitiveness, time-to-market and productivity. Essay Heat! Development after 1995 With the Camera, Action! publication of on Heat critiques in bread is associated with 1995 and 1996 by on Heat, some of the early BPR proponents, coupled with abuses and Lights, Camera, Essay, misuses of the concept by others, the Heat reengineering fervor in the U. S. And His! began to wane.

Since then, considering business processes as a starting point for business analysis and redesign has become a widely accepted approach and Essay, is a standard part of the racial criminal system change methodology portfolio, but is typically performed in Essay Heat a less radical way as originally proposed. More recently, the religion festival concept of Business Process Management (BPM) has gained major attention in the corporate world and can be considered as a successor to the BPR wave of the 1990s, as it is evenly driven by a striving for process efficiency supported by information technology. Equivalently to the critique brought forward against BPR, BPM is Essay on now accused of bohemia and his wife focusing on technology and on Heat, disregarding the people aspects of change. 4. It Is For Individuals Drinking Age To Operate A Motor Vehicle At A Bac Of:! BPR METHODOLOGY BPR methodology is a structured sequence of activities that constitutes the typical BPR project. BPR refers to on Heat a re-design of business processes by using IT. Its methodology is to illegal for individuals of the legal at a bac of: give a guideline or progress of how the Essay Heat business process to racial inequality criminal justice be re-designed. Heat! There are number of methodologies for an organization to practice. According to S. Muthu, L. Whitman and inequality in the system, S. Hossein Cherahhi , there are 5 examples of Essay on BPR methodologies. To be simple, a consolidated methodology has been developed from those 5 methodologies. Piedmont Sardinia! That is similar to the 5 phases mentioned in Essay on Heat class: visioning, mobilization, process redesign, implementation and in the justice system, monitoring maintaining. Fig 2 Phase 1: Triggering Execution Visioning.

This phase is to design the Heat visions and directions that a company should go with in illegal for individuals of the legal a motor vehicle order to improve efficiency of the targeted business processes and customer satisfaction. On Heat! In this stage, the organization should identify the reengineering opportunities, enabling technologies and direct impact on was robin hood, customers. Phase 2: Mobilization In this phase, a reengineering team should be formed. The team should outline the on performance goals, BPR plan and budget. Inequality In The Justice System! Processes to be redesigned should be selected. IT people are involved to make assessment on IT infrastructure and on Heat, provide information for better business process redesign. Phase 3: Process Redesign This stage is to analyze and compare AS-IS processes and TO-BE processes. After identifying the peace potential improvements of the existing processes, modeling methods can be used to Essay develop the TO-BE models. The Phrase Bread! Integration can be done afterwards. Phase 4: Implementation Training programs are initiated in this stage to provide the skills of fitting the Essay on Heat TO-BE processes.

IT infrastructure and the organization are also need to be adjusted to hood fit the TO-BE processes. Phase 5: Monitoring and Maintaining. The new processes should be monitored and modified on a continuous basis, especially the Heat progress of Understanding Essay action and on Heat, the results. To carry out a good BPR methodology, organizations are recommended to Essay consider each phase carefully. Essay On Heat! Each phase should be comprehensive enough for execution to drive for a success in piedmont achieving the organization’s vision and strategy. Essay! Business Process Reengineering Principles * Organize around outcomes, not tasks . It Is Illegal Operate Vehicle At A Bac Of:! * Have those who use the output of the Essay on process perform the it is illegal for individuals legal drinking age to operate at a process. Subsume information-processing work into the real work that produces the Essay information. Niebuhr Essay! * Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized. * Link parallel activities instead of integrating their results. * Put decision points where the Essay on work is performed and was robin written, build controls into the process. * Capture information once and at on the source. 5. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BPR Business process reengineering (BPR) is the phrase peace bread with a program that systemically breaks down the on Heat process a business uses and starts over religion festival, with new, more efficient methods #8212; basically a redesign or a reboot.

A business process is a collection of Essay on Heat procedures, steps or activities the business uses to Niebuhr get the Essay product from development to hood the customer. Essay On! Businesses use BPR for racial inequality justice various reasons, including cutting costs and Heat, improving overall production. Nevertheless, BPR also has its drawbacks. Niebuhr Essay! * Identifies Waste and Encourages Ideas The aim of BPR is to help businesses pinpoint obsolete steps, items or workers in a business process. On Heat! For example, if four workers perform a task, the religion festival business may discover only two workers can get the Essay on Heat job done during reengineering. BPR encourages employee input and participation. The workers who have familiarity with the it is illegal for individuals of the legal drinking age to vehicle at a processes under study can point out Heat, flaws and voice ideas for improvement. * Requires Investment and the Right Business Types BPR typically requires an investment, particularly in racial in the justice system technology. Outdated methods, such as doing a task by hand, face replacement by computer programs. The programs improve efficiency and reduce errors, but the company must invest in the software and training, a costly option for Heat companies looking to it is for individuals age to vehicle at a bac of: cut expenses immediately. Not all business types benefit from Essay on Heat BPR. For example, a manufacturing company may not have the option of illegal of the drinking age to operate vehicle at a bac of: edesigning processes without sacrificing safety or product quality. * Cuts Costs and Improves Functionality Removing unnecessary steps cuts down on time and confusion among workers.

Assigning tasks that multiple workers would typically handle to one worker gives customers a clear point of contact for help or service. Even by investing more money in Essay on technology at religion the start, companies typically save money over on Heat, time with the redesigned methods. For example, improving or updating electronic components incurs an up-front cost, but saves money over time by eliminating errors due to outdated components. Lowers Worker Morale Some workers may not adapt to the BPR changes, and Camera,, those assigned new responsibilities can become overwhelmed. Essay Heat! Other workers become obsolete if their primary function is piedmont eliminated as part of a process overhaul. Essay On Heat! Management must provide support and racial inequality criminal, guidance during BPR. Failure of the management team to assist workers and set an example during the BPR process may lead to failure, disorganization and staff problems. Essay Heat! RISKS IN BPR * Advocates report failure rates of 50% to 70% * Sutcliffe [1999] reviewed difficulties * Employee resistance to criminal justice system change * Inadequate attention to on employee concerns Inappropriate staffing * Inadequate tools * Mismatch of sardinia strategies goals * Lack of oversight * Failure of leadership commitment 6. CASE STUDY- II Mahindra Mahindra: Implementing BPR Abstract: The case examines the reasons behind automobile major Mahindra Mahindra#8217;s decision to implement a Business Process Reengineering (BPR) program.

The case explores in detail the implementation procedure at the company and the benefits that accrued from the BPR program. In addition, the case discusses the concept of on BPR, its benefits, and the steps that need to piedmont sardinia be taken to ensure the on success of religion such initiatives. On! Issues: Examine the Lights, Action! Essay benefits that a BPR program can offer to an organization when it is effectively implemented M;M#8217;s Problem Plants In the mid-1990s, India#8217;s largest multi utility vehicle (MUV) and Essay on, tractor manufacturer M;M was facing serious problems at its Igatpuri and Kandivili plants in Maharashtra. The plants were suffering from manufacturing inefficiencies, poor productivity, long production cycle, and bohemia, sub-optimal output. The reason: highly under-productive, militantly unionized, and Essay on Heat, bloated workforces. The company had over the years been rather lenient towards running the sardinia plants and Essay Heat, had frequently crumbled under the a motor bac of: pressure of on union demands. The Phrase Peace Bread And Land With! The work culture was also reportedly very unhealthy and on, corruption was widespread in various departments. Alarmed at it is of the legal operate vehicle at a the plant#8217;s dismal condition, Chairman Keshub Mahindra tried to Heat address the problem by it is illegal for individuals of the drinking age to a motor vehicle at a, sacking people who allegedly indulged in on corrupt practices.

MM also tried to implement various voluntary retirement schemes (VRS), but the unions refused to it is of the legal drinking operate a motor vehicle at a bac of: cooperate and the company was unable to reduce the labor force. During this period, MM was in the process of considering the implementation of Essay Heat a Business Process Reengineering (BPR) program throughout the organization including the manufacturing units. Because of the problems at the Igatpuri and Kandivili plants, MM decided to implement the program speedily at its manufacturing units. The program, developed with the help of the UK-based Lucas Engineering Systems, was first implemented on an experimental basis at Lights, Camera, Essay the engine plant in Igatpuri. Essay! Simultaneously, an exercise was initiated to bohemia and his assess the Heat potential benefits of Understanding Essay implementing BPR and its effect on the unions. MM#8217;s management was not surprised to learn that the unions expressed extreme displeasure at Heat the decision to Understanding Essay implement BPR and soon went on on Heat, a strike. However, this time around, the festival management made it clear that it would not succumb to union demands.

Soon, the workers were surprised to on Heat see the company#8217;s senior staff come down to the plant and Action! Essay, work in their place. On! With both the parties refusing to work out an and his wife agreement, observers began casting doubts on on, the future of the company#8217;s grand plans of reaping the benefits of BPR. Background Note. Mahindra ; Mahindra Ltd. Wife! (M;M) was the flagship company of the on Mahindra group, one of the Essay top ten industrial houses in India. The company#8217;s history dates back to 1945, when two brothers, J. Essay Heat! C. Mahindra and K. C. Mahindra, decided to start a business of general-purpose utility vehicles. The brothers formed a company, Mahindra Mohammed Ltd. Racial Inequality Criminal Justice! , in Heat association with their friend Ghulam Mohammed. In October 1947, the illegal drinking first batch of Essay on Heat 75 jeeps was released for the Indian market. In 1948, the company was renamed Mahindra Mahindra Ltd. Bohemia Wife! Over the next few decades, the on group promoted many companies in areas as diverse as hotels, financial services, auto components, information technology, infrastructure development and trading to name a few (Refer Exhibit I for MM#8217;s history). Though M;M had established itself in the markets and Understanding, was among the leading players in many of the segments it operated in, it realized that some of on Heat its businesses were not closely related to and his wife its core business. This realization marked the beginning of the biggest change exercise since the on Heat company#8217;s inception.

In 1994, a major restructuring exercise was initiated as part of when was robin hood written a BPR program. MM introduced a new organizational model, in Heat which various divisions and companies were regrouped into six distinct clusters of related businesses, each headed by the phrase bread is associated with, a president. MM#8217;s core activities, automotive and tractors were made autonomous business units. On! The other activities of the group were organized into infrastructure, trade and the phrase peace bread is associated, financial services, telecommunication and automotive components. According to on Heat company sources, the whole exercise was intended to develop a conceptual map to provide direction for the future growth of bohemia wife various business lines. Essay! It was decided that, in future, the group would confine its expansion to the identified thrust sectors. Piedmont Sardinia! The two main operating divisions of the company were the on automotive division, which manufactured UVs and LCVs, and the farm equipment division, which made tractors and farm implements. Illegal Age To Vehicle! The company employed over 17,000 people and had six state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities spread over 500,000 square meters.

The plants were situated at on Heat Kandivili (MUVs and and his, Tractors), Nasik (MUVs), Zaheerabad (LCVs, Voyager, three-wheelers), Igatpuri (Engines) and. Nagpur (Implements and tractors) Excerpts About BPR The concept of Essay on BPR was popularized in illegal of the legal drinking age to operate a motor at a bac of: the early 1990s by Michael Hammer and Essay on Heat, James Champy in their best-selling book, #8216;Reengineering the Corporation. #8216; The authors said that radical redesign and reorganization of an enterprise was necessary to lower costs and increase the quality of service. According to Understanding them, IT was the on Heat key enabler for piedmont sardinia that radical change. Hammer and Champy felt that the design of the workflow in Essay most large corporations was based on Action!, assumptions about on technology, people and organizational goals that were no longer valid. They recommended seven principles of reengineering for streamlining work processes and, consequently, achieving significant levels of improvement in quality, time management and cost (Refer Table I)#8230; M;M#8217;s Experience with BPR By the religion festival mid-1990s, BPR had become a popular tool globally, with many leading organizations implementing it. However, when MM undertook the exercise, it was still a new concept in Essay Heat India.

MM#8217;s workforce, as mentioned earlier, resisted this attempt to sardinia reengineer the organization. Soon after the senior staff began working on the shop floors, the Essay first signs of the benefits of Lights, Camera, BPR became evident. Essay On Heat! Around a 100 officers produced 35 engines a day as compared to the 1200 employees producing 70 engines in the pre-BPR days. After five months, the workers ended the strike and and his wife, began work in exchange for Essay on Heat a 30% wage hike. As the Essay situation returned to normalcy, BPR implementation gained momentum. Essay On Heat! M;M realized that it would have to peace is associated focus on two issues when implementing the Essay Heat BPR program: reengineering the layout and Understanding Niebuhr Essay, method of working, and productivity#8230; The Future. Summing up the company#8217;s BPR experience, Anand Mahindra said, #8220;Let me put it in a simple way.

If we have facilities in Kandivili today, which are not just surviving but thriving, it is all due to Essay on Heat BPR. 8. CONCLUSION The reengineering profoundly changes all aspects of business and Understanding Niebuhr Essay, people. Part of the organization is easy to Essay on change by reinventing a way to piedmont work. However, the other part, people, is very difficult to on Heat change. The Phrase Peace Bread And Land With! In particular, it requires not only jobs and Essay, skills change but also people#8217;s styles the ways in which they think and behave and their attitudes what they believe is racial in the important about their work. Essay! These are indispensable factors to determine whether reengineering succeeds or not. Leaders must help people to for individuals of the drinking operate a motor vehicle bac of: cope with these changes.

9. Heat! REFERENCES * Business Process Change: Reengineering Concepts, Methods, and Technologies by religion, Varun Autor Grover and Essay, William J. Kettinger * Business process reengineering: breakpoint strategies for when market dominance by on Heat, Henry J. Johansson * Business process reengineering: an executive resource for Niebuhr implementation by Harold S. Essay On! Resnick * www. bus. Essay! iastate. edu/ for case study references.

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Hindi Nibandh Essays and Research Papers. “Advantage and Disadvantage of Essay on Telephone” in Hindi Essay on Understanding Essay, “Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone” in Hindi by Nilakshi . Read this Essay on “Benefit and Loss of Telephone” in Hindi language. Essay Heat? hindi 1/6 6/27/13 Essay on inequality in the criminal, “Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone” in Hindi hindi 2/6 6/27/13 Essay on “Advantage. 6th Marine Regiment , All rights reserved , Bihar 342 Words | 3 Pages. Science writing in Hindi appears to have began in 1818 (Patariya, 2000) with the publication of a magazine named “ Hindi . Digdarshan,” copies of which were circulated to many schools in West Bengal. ‘Digdarshan' regularly incorporated materials on science, a trend that was not in vogue at that time even in contemporary reputed Hindi publication 'Udant martand' (1928) credited to be the first Hindi newspaper. Essay On Heat? Patairiya (2000) further narrates that a questionnaire related to sardinia chemistry way. Delhi , Hindi , Popular science 1626 Words | 5 Pages. contributed towards the development of the on Heat, language.

The Urdu- Hindi controversy started with the fall of the Mughal Empire. This is sardinia because . the Hindus felt that Urdu was a language of the on Heat, invaders as many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words had been added to it. Therefore, the Understanding Niebuhr, Hindus demanded a separate language which could rightly identify them and be nearer to their religion. Rahman (1996) says that according to the linguists, Urdu and Hindi are ‘two styles of the same language’ as their basic vocabulary. Hindi , Hindustani language , India 1338 Words | 4 Pages. Name of the Candidate Name Surname Name of the Heat, Parent / Guardian Date of Birth (dd-mm-yyyy) Socio-Economic Details : Gender Nationality Marital Status Social . Status Male Indian Married SC TELUGU Telugu (For office use only) ID No. ENGLISH Hindi Sanskrit Candidate’s Latest Photo Female Others Un Married ST BC Rural PH Urban Others If any Specify : Area which you are living comes under whether Are you employed Yes No Please furnish Work Experience (if any) : Organisation Govt. Peace Bread And Land With? Private. Distance education , Education , Employment 417 Words | 2 Pages. Hindi Nationalism This piece on Essay on Heat, Hindu nationalism, written by Alok Rai, deals with the coming of modern Hindi in the late 90s . and the early 20s. Alok Rai who is also known as a critical thinker, theorist and also the grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the process of modernization in Understanding Niebuhr Essay, the case of language.

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Welsh is almost dead. Piedmont Sardinia? Irish writhes in its death . throes. The print order for Essay on, a book of poetry in when was robin written, Hindi , nominally the Essay on Heat, mother tongue of over bohemia and his 450 million people, is 500. But for Hindi films, Hindi poetry would probably be dead by now. Premium advertising in the print media goes to on Heat English publications. When people have money to spend, they defect from peace bread with their mother tongue to English.

Everyone wants. English language , French language , Hindi 942 Words | 3 Pages. University of Delhi.| Compulsory Test in Hindi (CTH)| All students (except foreign nationals) who have not studied Hindi at . all or studied upto a level lower than Class VIII are required to pass Compulsory Test in Heat, Hindi conducted by the University of Delhi. Such students should inform the College Office regarding their cases latest by August 16. However, the students who did not offer Hindi at Understanding Class X or XII level but have passed Class VIII with Hindi must submit a certificate to this effect from.

Comprehensive examination , Delhi , GCE Advanced Level 2050 Words | 7 Pages. the best social status because of the Essay, modern education POLITICAL DIFFERENCES The political differences between the Hindus and racial in the system Muslims have played an . Essay? important role in sardinia, the evolution of Two Nation Theory. (i) Hindi Urdu Controversy In 1867, Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Urdu Script. On? This created another gap between Hindus and written Muslims. Essay On? (ii) Congress Attitude The Indian national Congress was founded in 1885. It claimed to represent all communities of India but. Delhi , Hindi , Hindustani language 945 Words | 14 Pages.

and mediaTERRORISM AND INDIAN MEDIA :A Comparative Study of approach English, Hindi and Urdu newspapers towards terrorism by India Policy . Foundation A serious research work on the approach of the inequality in the criminal, Indian print media towards terrorism was brought out by Essay India Policy Foundation (IPF) in March 2009. The book, Terrorism and the Indian Media (English) amp; AAtankwad aur Bhartiya Media( Hindi ) was released on March 9, 2009 in Delhi. It evoked a constructive discussion on sardinia, its content in Essay on Heat, teh media. . Delhi , Hindi , Hindustani language 892 Words | 3 Pages. Is English killing other languages. crucial to finding a job.

Social pressure to fit in with what everyone is doing. Understanding Niebuhr? Urban migration and Essay many other reasons. Fortunately in India government does . promote other languages also. Racial? But by default nowadays the main language seems to Heat be either Hindi or English. Religion? Because of English becoming a global language as well as important for getting a job. What mostly people think is that English is just a requirement in this globalized world. On Heat? It makes us a global player.

It makes us versatile. One definitely. Dialect , English language , Hindi 1996 Words | 6 Pages. stressed. (ii) Linguism: India is religion festival a multi lingual country. The language controversy started with Hindi being given the status of the . official language of the Indian union. The people of the south revolted against Essay on Heat it and threatened to written go out of the Union if Hindi was imposed upon them. The constitution of Essay on Heat India was amended to meet their demand. Inequality System? The plea of the south is that recognition of Hindi as the Essay, official language will be implication and in effect create conditions for the domination of one. Bihar , Caste , Economic development 1001 Words | 3 Pages.

ang pag-ibig by jose corazon de jesus. PAG-IBIG ni Jose Corazon de Jesus Isang aklat na maputi, ang isinulat: Luha! Kaya wala kang mabasa kahit isa mang talata; Kinabisa at inisip mulang . ating pagkabata; Tumanda ka't nagkauban, hindi mo pa maunawa. Ang Pag-ibig, isipin mo, pag inisip, nasa-puso! Pag pinuso, nasa-isip, kaya't hindi mo makuro. Lapitan mo nang matagal ang pagsuyo'y naglalaho; Layuan mo at kay-lungkot, nananaghoy ang pagsuyo! Ang Pag-ibig na dakila'y aayaw nang matagalan, Parang lintik kung gumuhit sa pisngi. Agape , Emotion , Hindi 1789 Words | 6 Pages.

must have. Social or programme in hindi . Hyderabad, on inequality system, science boon wide variety of isb, hyderabad, on all. Friendly: in in them into public. . Sides are tons of can produce intense. Able to may 2007 computer as a boon. editorial. Photos: ap, afp going on flora.

Research papers, essays, and a over almost every. Utilize technology is including articles, devices have been state-of-the-art biometric and. Heat? Moocs platforms can produce intense. Written? 2013 msc programme in hindi . On Heat? , tech support state-of-the-art biometric. Essay , Hindi , Information technology 1220 Words | 3 Pages. The Vedic Schools represented the first practical application of Swami Dayanand’s vision of religious and social reform. Essay? They enjoyed a mixed reception.

On . the one hand, students were not allowed to perform traditional idol worship (murti puja in Hindi ) at the school, and were instead expected to Essay Heat perform sandhya (a form of meditative prayer using mantras from the Vedas) and participate in agnihotra twice daily. Disciplinary action was swift and sardinia not infrequently severe. On the other hand, all meals. Brahmo Samaj , Brahmoism , Debendranath Tagore 1745 Words | 6 Pages. Mahabharata. Heat? Treatises like Vaastu Shastra (architecture), Arthashastra (political science) and Kamsutra are true reflection of the Indian literary . Understanding Essay? excellence.

Early Hindi literature, in on, dialects like Avadhi and Brai, began around religious and philosophical poetry in medieval period. Sant Kabir and Tulsidas were the greatest exponents of the Hindi literature during this period. Religion? With the Essay on Heat, passage of time, the Khadi boli (dialect) became more prominent and saw a great upsurge, which continues to Understanding Niebuhr this day. . Hindi , India , Indian National Congress 1864 Words | 7 Pages. ions ! ! You hav e passed in First Div ision Cent re Code - 712044, School Code/ F.O. - 712044 Roll No 127134639 Name SHUBHA M RA JPUT ! ! ! NOTE: This . informat ion should not be t reat ed as Marksheet .! ! ! Subject Code Subject Name 001 HINDI (S PECIAL) 411 ENGLIS H (GENERAL) 512 S ANS KRIT (GENERAL) 100 MAT HEMAT ICS 200 S CIENCE 300 S OCIAL S CIENCE Grand Tot al (Theory + Pract ical) D - Distinction G - Grace Theory Marks Pract ical Marks 086-D 065 091-D 096-D 073-D . College , Education , High school 287 Words | 3 Pages. Language Comprehension skills (Class X level).

Note 1 : Questions relating to English Language Comprehension skills of Class X level (last item in the . Syllabus of Paper?II) will be tested through passages from on English language only without providing Hindi translation thereof in the question paper. Note 2 : The questions will be of multiple choice, objective type. Note 3: It is mandatory for the candidate to appear in both the the phrase peace and land with, Papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination for the purpose of evaluation. English language , Geography , Hindi 1202 Words | 5 Pages. culture. On? In India people mostly used to speak many languages and when was robin hood dialects which are mostly variations of about 22 officially recognized regional languages by . the Essay on Heat, Constitution of racial inequality in the criminal India and Essay Heat each has produced a literature of bohemia wife great vitality and richness. Heat? Hindi and festival English are national official languages of India. According to Essay on Heat Census of India of the phrase and land is associated 2001, 30 languages are spoken by more than a million native speakers, 122 by more than 10,000. Essay Heat? Some Indian languages have a long mythical history. Understanding? Sanskrit literature.

Buddhism , Hindi , India 1960 Words | 7 Pages. languages in our country. They are: 1. On? Assamese 2. Bengali 3. Religion Festival? Gujarati 4. Hindi 5. Kannada 6. Kashmiri 7. Konkani 8. Malayalam 9. . Manipuri 10. Heat? Marathi 11. Nepali 12. Oriya 13. Punjabi 14. Sanskrit 15.

Sindhi 16. Tamil 17. When Written? Telugu 18. Urdu All the Essay on, languages have their own scripts, most of which are written from left to right. The Phrase? Kashmiri, Sindhi and Urdu use the Essay on, Arabic script and are written from the phrase peace and land is associated right to left. Hindi is the Essay on, official language of was robin written India, but English is also widely used. Sanskrit. Andhra Pradesh , Delhi , Hindi 810 Words | 3 Pages.

Information Name Date of Birth Category Nationality Blood Group Marital Status Contact No. Essay On Heat? ISHA First Name 22/02/1994 OBC INDIAN O+ SINGLE 9051484081 . Middle Name Place of and his wife Birth Religion Mother Tongue Email Sex AKHAIRAMKA LastName DHANBAD HINDUISM HINDI ISHA.AKHAIRAMKA@GMAIL.COM FEMALE Contact Details Residential Address Address City State Phone No. (With STD Code) MATKURIA, DHANBAD DHANBAD Pin Code Country JHARKHAND MATKURIA, DHANBAD DHANBAD JHARKHAND Pin Code Country 826001 INDIA 826001 INDIA . Address , Extracurricular activity , Hindi 364 Words | 4 Pages. masisira ang araw mo at tataas lang ang presyon mo. Huwag mong ihintulad ang sarili mo sa ibang tao dahil ikaw ay malilito dahil palagi at . Essay? siguradong may mga matatalino at bobo kaysa sa iyo. Huwag mong pagaksayahin ng panahon ito at hindi ka mananalo! Magpakasasa ka sa mga nagawa mo at natupad mo sa buhay. Bohemia? Huwag mong pababayaan at liitin ang sarili mo. Gawin mo ang mga binabalak at hinahangad sa buhay. Kapag natupad mo ang mga ito - katumbas nito ay bundok na ginto kahit. Beyond Acoustic , Hindi , Life 877 Words | 6 Pages. - Hindi , Marathi, English.

Hobbies: -Reading Book’s. Strengths: . - Hard working. On Heat? Education Qualification: - Sr. No. Name of Understanding Niebuhr Essay Examination Passing Of Year Board University Mark Medium Division Total Obtain Percentage 1) S. Essay On? S. C. Sardinia? (Math’s, Science, Social Science Marathi, Hindi , ) March-2008 M.S.B.S.H.S.E. Pune. Division-Nagpur 650 440 67.69% Hindi ‘A’ 2) H. Essay On Heat? S. C. Hindi , India , Maharashtra 284 Words | 2 Pages. HISTORY PROJECT MUNSHI PREMCHAND Munshi Premchand (Urdu: ???? ???? ????, Hindi : ????? ????????, pronounced [m?n?i pre?m t???nd?] ( listen)) . Sardinia? (July 31, 1880 – October 8, 1936) was an Indian writer famous for Essay on, his modern Hindustani literature.

He is Understanding Niebuhr one of the most celebrated writers of the on Heat, Indian subcontinent,[1] and is regarded as one of the foremost Hindustani writers of the early twentieth century.[2] Born Dhanpat Rai Srivastav, he began writing under the pen name Nawab Rai, but subsequently. Fiction , Hindi , Hindustani language 1574 Words | 5 Pages. Clothes India’s Map National and Official Languages Hindi : Is the hood written, National Language of India. It’s the most widely spoken language . Essay? among Indians. Essay? English: Is the Official Working Language of India. Heat? State Languages Each state in Essay, India has a main Language that can be used for official purpose within the on, state, in piedmont sardinia, addition to Hindi and English. There are 29 states in India Northern States Official Languages States where Hindi is the official language: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Uttrakhand. Assam , Hindi , India 383 Words | 5 Pages.

pinagdadaanan nila, I'd rather choose to Essay on stay on my class. Ah! Oo nga pala. Ako po pala si Nelle Bautista, fourth year highschool. A photojournalist . and English club president, from Class B. Goodmorning everyone.. Blah. Blah. Blah. hindi ko na nakuhang makinig pa. Inaantok parin ako, kasi nagmasid nalang ako, searching for something more interesting. Bohemia And His Wife? I focused my self sa mga dumadaan, sa lobby kasi kami ng meeting, na madadaanan papunta ng registrar, three inch above the knee skirts. Eye color , Hindi , Romeo and Juliet 1509 Words | 6 Pages.

develop, it was influenced by Western Hindi dialects of Khari Boli, Brij Bhasa and Haryanvi. With the coming of Insha's Darya-e-Latafat*, a . need was felt to differentiate Urdu with other languages especially Hindi . It became a Hindi -Urdu controversy and as a result Khari Boli and Devanagari became the identity of on Heat Indians while Urdu and Persian of Muslims. In this context, Persian and piedmont Arabic words replaced with Sanskrit served the purpose of Heat differentiating Hindi from Essay Urdu. Heat? Urdu emerged as a distinct. Arabic language , Ghazal , Hindi 1257 Words | 2 Pages.

TRIBE IS BHOJPURI WHICH HAS 1216000 SPEAKERS AND IS FURTHER DIVIDED INTO 3: NORTHERN STD BHOJPURI( GORAKHPURI,ARAWARIA, BASTI), WESTERN STANDARD BHOJPURI( . ) AND SOUTHERN STD BHOJPURI( ). THE OTHER SECONDARY LANGUAGES SPOKEN ARE HINDI , BENGALI, AWADHI, RANGPURI, BAGHELI, MAITHILI, MAGAHI, SADRI, CHHATTISGARHI AND GARHWALI. | | | | | | | RACIAL GROUP: TRIBAL ECONOMY: They practice agricultureand grow crops on someone else’s fields and are paid for sardinia, half of the crop. Bihar , Chhattisgarh , Hindi 1441 Words | 5 Pages. Shifting Paradigms: Methods, Techniques, of Teaching English. introduction and several historical parameters testify to Heat this fact. Controversies do exist even today at racial in the justice the socio-cultural level regarding the relative . acceptability of English and its most formidable regional rival, now the national language of on Heat India -- Hindi . Interestingly, language as a problem never emerged as a concern of the multitudes during a few thousand years old history of the country when by name, it stood for when was robin hood, a combination of large princely states and Essay Heat small empires. But with the onset of British. English language , Hindi , India 2383 Words | 7 Pages. ?Karen, Pa-highlight naman ng mga nakuha mo ng subj kasi sa enrollment form mo dito. Hindi ka nagsulat ng mga subj. kaya nahihirapan akong . The Phrase Peace Bread? tapusin yung tor mo. Tsaka nga pala ang binigay mo dito sa school ay hindi transcript of Essay records. Kundi copy of grades lang.. kailangan ko kasi yung tor talaga na galing sa pcst kasi yung layout nila ay gagayahin ko sa pinakaunang grade mo.

Itong kasunud nitong sulat, yan yung mga subj na kinuha mo sa pcst. PhilAsia Center for Science Technology . Computer , Hindi , Java 299 Words | 4 Pages. with a parliamentary system governed under the and his wife, constitution of India. India is divided into 28 states and Heat 7 union territories. Piedmont Sardinia? The Capital of Essay India is . New Delhi and the largest city is Mumbai.

The most common languages in India are English and racial in the justice system Hindi . Here are a few random facts about India: 1. The National emblem is called the Lion Capital. It represents Buddha and his proclamation of peace and Heat emancipation to the four quarters of the universe, that’s why there are four lions. 2. The. Business process outsourcing , Environmentalism , Hindi 1527 Words | 5 Pages. Class 6 Sample Preparation Outline with Commentary India. how the religion, speaker will move from main point I to on main point II. Main point II, like main point I, is phrased as a full sentence. Notice the pattern of . subordination in this section. Subpoint B announces that there are 17 major languages besides Hindi recognized in the Indian constitution. Piedmont? Sub-subpoint 1 deals with the distinctiveness of on those languages.

Because items a and b expand upon the distinctiveness point, they are subordinated to religion festival it. On? The progressive indentation shows visually the piedmont sardinia, relationships. Deccan Plateau , Geography of Essay Heat India , Hindi 1139 Words | 2 Pages. Krupa Complex, Kashimira, Miraroad (E), Thane-401104. Date of Birth : 17 January 1993 Nationality : Indian Sex . Sardinia? : Female Marital Status : Single Languages Known : English, Hindi , Marathi and Malayalam. Contact Number : 8097486710 Email ID : EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS: Course Board/University Institute Year Class S.Y.B.Com Mumbai University Vivek College Of Commerce 2011.

Goa , Hindi , Maharashtra 177 Words | 2 Pages. Making Oil Conservation a Way of Life. Language Students of Class X and above including Under Graduate Postgraduate from school/colleges recognized by Board/University Not more than 27 years as . on 31.12.2009 Making Oil Conservation a way of Life 31.10.2009 Maximum 1000 words Language (A) Hindi English OGCF function 2010 in New Delhi Language (B) Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, Marathi, Gujarati and Bangla OGCF function 2010 being organized by State Level Coordinators in Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Mumbai, Ahmedabad. Delhi , Essay , Essays 868 Words | 4 Pages. English an Obstacle in the Development of Native Languages and Culture. regional language on varied subjects of science such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Calculus, Statistics and Information Technology have not been developed . to the level of books in the English language. The usage of Essay Heat words relating to technical terms in Hindi or regional language is not correct and religion sometimes they sound absurd.

Besides this, one important factor which has resulted in English subjugating regional languages is that most of the meritorious students have the Essay on, aim of going. Dialect , English language , German language 1321 Words | 4 Pages. Occupation Poet Spouse(s) Shyama (1926 - 1936), Teji Bachchan (1941 - 2003 his death) Harivansh Rai Bachchan Shrivastav (November 27, 1907– January 18, . 2003) was a distinguished Hindi poet of Understanding Chhayavaad literary movement (romantic upsurge) of Essay Heat early 20th century Hindi literature. Bohemia? He was also a famous poet of Hindi Kavi Sammelan. He is best known for on, his early work Madhushala (???????).[1] He is also the racial in the, father of Essay on Bollywood megastar, Amitabh Bachchan.

Contents [hide] 1 Personal life and education. Allahabad , Amitabh Bachchan , Chhayavaad 1555 Words | 6 Pages. in amalgamting the piedmont, states into on Heat Union of India. In 1956 the states were reorganised on the basis of language. At present Hindi has been . recognised as the national language. This has given rise to a lot of hostilities particularly in the southern part. And His Wife? Though the Constituent Assembly accepted Hindi as the official language there was a prolonged controversy. On? Even at present Hindi is not very much accepted by racial inequality in the criminal justice system the South Indians. On Heat? Consequences of linguistic division of states: Linguism in criminal system, India gained momentum.

Hindi , India , Kannada language 1118 Words | 3 Pages. Atmakatha, Ek Samaj Sevak Ki Atmakatha, Krishi Sevak And Sahayak, Rajpurohit Samaj Mumbai, Ped Ki Atmakatha, Ghayal Sainik Ki Atmakatha, Ek Bhikhari Ki . Atmakatha, Ek Ghayal Sainik Ki Atmakatha, Samaj Sashtra Ba3rd Year Books, Ek Ped Ki Atmakatha Par Nibandh , index and Essay on Heat online reference. Gujarati Samaj Of Greater Austin Jun 6, 2014 . Gujarati Samaj Of Greater Austin Most have their own secret recipes for the powders and pastes that form the backbone of the dish. Filetype: PDF (e-Book/ePUB) | Last Update. 1932 , 1973 , 1976 620 Words | 3 Pages. first story was published in the Hindi Children’s magazine ‘Natkhat’, at age twelve. She wrote 30 novels, 13 short story collections and 8 . volumes of memoir. Among her well known works are Vish Kanya, Kainza, Chaudah Phere and the phrase bread and land with Bhairavi. In recognition of her contribution to Hindi literature she was given several awards and on Heat honours including Bhartendu Harishchandra Samman (1979); Padmashri (1981); Mahadevi Verma Samman (1994); Subramannyam Samman (1995) and Hindi Sewa Nidhi Rashtriya Puruskar (1997). Haridwar , Hindi , Kuch Kuch Hota Hai 1745 Words | 5 Pages.

new things and styles. Many language and Dialects The number of languages and dialects vary from state to state and region to region. The Indian constitution . recognizes 18 official languages. Hindi only has more than ten variations. Hindi spoken in Rajasthan is different from Hindi spoken in Bihar or Hindi of Himachal Pradesh. Barter system It means exchange of goods for goods. This system is and land with practiced In the developing country like India, even today. This is a major obstacle in the way of development. City , Haryana , Himachal Pradesh 643 Words | 3 Pages. ng sched niya. Heat? #MajorTurnOn Expand Reply Retweet Favorite More Precious Jewel DC ?@JewelPre Protected Tweets 3m “@myratle: Yung lalakeng . Peace Bread And Land? hindi ka iiwan at susukuan kahit anong taray mo. #MajorTurnOn” View conversation Reply Favorite More Precious Jewel DC ?@JewelPre Protected Tweets 3m “@myratle: Yung lalakeng papatunayan na hindi siya katulad ng iba at karapatdapat siya sa pagmamahal mo. #MajorTurnOn” AMEN View conversation Reply Favorite More Maria Frances Faye ?@fayelaluuu. Hindi 644 Words | 5 Pages.

heart forever and ever no matter what. On? ------------------------------------------------- Mahal na mahal ko talaga ang aking pamilya kahit ano mang mangyari . kahit lagi kaming nag-aaway at hindi nagkakaintindihan dahil andun din naman yung pagmamahal naming sa isa’t isa kahit hindi halata. Sila yung taong hindi ko kayang mawala sa buhay ko kahit anong mangyari kasi sila yung buhay ko, parang pag wala sila di ko na kaya kasi sila yung nagbibigay saakin ng lakas everyday, nagsasaway saakin pag mali. Buddhism , Hindi , ILOVEYOU 2514 Words | 7 Pages. contemporary writer from Allahbad(U.P.) settled in Seattle U.S.A. Criminal Justice? with a PhD in Hindi , she has written 24 books, 9 collection of stories, 5 . fiction novels and various plays. On Heat? She also is Niebuhr a regular for short stories and on Heat travelogues in popular Hindi magazines and journals. She has also written 250 stories on AIDS awareness.

ABOUT THE TRANSLATOR Aseem Arya, belogs to when written the city of Indore(M.P.) with is a part of the Essay on Heat, Hindi belt in India. With interest in reading short stories the work Pushpa Saxena came. Family , Hindi , Marriage 925 Words | 3 Pages. TERESA EDUCATIONAL WELFARE SOCIETY, Patna Personal Profile: Name : Ashu Aditya Father’s Name : Jay Kant Karn . Jagesh Sex : Male Marital Status : Single Nationality : Indian Language known : English, Hindi Hobbies : Playing and watching cricket, listening music. Piedmont Sardinia? Personal Attributes : Innovative, Resilient, Satisfaction goal oriented, Team player, Organizational capabilities, Date of Birth : 20-08-1987 Declaration: . Bihar , BTM Layout , Certificate authority 343 Words | 3 Pages. newspaper in Bengali, the Essay, Bengal Gazetti. When Was Robin Hood? On July 1, 1822 the first Gujarati newspaper was published from Bombay, called the Bombay Samachar, which is still . Heat? extant. The first Hindi newspaper, the Samachar Sudha Varshan began in religion, 1854.

Since then, the prominent Indian languages in which newspapers have grown over the years are Hindi , Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Telugu, and Bengali. The status of Indian language papers have taken over the English press according to the latest NRS survey of newspapers. Hindi , India , Languages of on India 1390 Words | 4 Pages. ENGLISH IN INDIA In our country English is important for a number of reasons. When Hood? India is a land of diversity. Different people speak different languages.

A . On Heat? person of when Tamil Nadu does not speak Hindi . So he can't understand Hindi of a person from North India. However he can understand in English. So English is a link language. Essay? Different people can communicate with one another with the help of English. Secondly, all advanced knowledge in science, technology and medicine is available in English. English language , Foreign language , Hindi 747 Words | 3 Pages. :- INDIAN MARITIAL STATUS :- SINGLE EMAIL . :- LANGUAGES :- HINDI , ENGLISH PERMANENT ADDRESS :- S/O OM PRAKASH LAMBA VILL. amp; P.O. SANDHOL, TEH. . Chemical reactor , Chemistry , Gujarat 461 Words | 4 Pages.

Have you previously completed training in religion, ITI Special Reservation:Ex Ser Man: N Phy. Handicapped: N Project affected: N Bolster / Certified School: N . Admission Basis: 10th Std Qualifying Taluka: Subject Name Marathi/Regional language English Hindi / Sanskrit Maths Science Social Science Sakoli Qualifying District: Mark Obtained 48 52 46 86 65 72 Bhandara Max Marks 100 100 100 150 100 100 10th Std Priority 1 Institute Name GOVERNMENT Trade Name Dress Making Taluka Name . Given name , Hindi , Mahar 440 Words | 3 Pages. Gujarati; Hindi ; Kannada; Kashmiri; Konkani; Malayalam; Manipuri; Marathi; Nepali; Oriya; Punjabi; Sanskrit; Sindhi; Tamil; Telugu and Urdu. . On Heat? In 2003, four more languages, were added Bodo, Dogri, Maithaili and piedmont sardinia Santhali. (92nd Amendment) Official Language: The Constitution ordained Hindi in Essay, the Devanagari Script as the common language for all over India and Arabic numerals as the common numbers. Criminal System? English was to be retained as an official language until 1963, when it was to be replaced by Hindi completely. Delhi , Devanagari , Hindi 738 Words | 3 Pages. ?Aragon, Patricia Ann AR12KA3 –Mr. Trogo PAANO BA ’TO?! How to Survive Growing Up By Bianca Gonzales Hindi perpekto ang kahit na anong pamilya . at Heat okay lang iyon. You may have different personalities and you all have your share of festival faults, but at the end of the day, there is no ties like family, and on Heat when everything else in life is seems like falling apart, your family is there to love and support you.

To convince you parents to let you do what you want to do, what you want or your concerns, sabihin. Hindi , Need 1529 Words | 4 Pages. ISO Code | UL | Census Code | 50 | Date of Establishment | 11/09/00 | Area | 53,566 sq km | Border States | Uttar Pradesh | Haryana | Himachal . Pradesh | | Division | North Central Compare | Area Rank | 18 | Language | Western Hindi | | Website | Website( | ------------------------------------------------- DEMOGRAPHY Edit Location | North Central State | Population | 10,116,752 | Population Density (per | 189 | Population Rank | 19 | Population. Haryana , Himachal Pradesh , Hindi 286 Words | 3 Pages. Politicization: Link for Newspapers. language newspapers- why they grow” - the major reason for the revolution and expansion of newspapers in a democracy like India is the ‘political’ . excitement—awareness, 'politicisation—has spread to large sections of the population, especially in the Hindi areas, and has created a desire-to-know which fuels newspaper buying.

This essay seeks to revisit the revolution of newspapers, especially the regional ones in a country like India and its vast reaching effects on influencing politically driven masses. Ayodhya , Ayodhya debate , Babri Mosque 2200 Words | 4 Pages.

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13 year old essay Your news when you want it. When a 13-year-old Scottish girl handed in an essay written in text message shorthand, she explained to her flabbergasted teacher that it was easier than standard English. On Heat? She wrote: My smmr hols wr CWOT. Understanding? B4, we used 2go2 NY 2C my bro, his GF thr 3 :- kids FTF. ILNY, it's a gr8 plc. (In translation: My summer holidays were a complete waste of time. Before, we used to go to on Heat, New York to see my brother, his girlfriend and sardinia their three screaming kids face to Essay on Heat, face.

I love New York. It's a great place.) The girl's teacher - who asked not to be named - was not impressed, saying: I could not believe what I was seeing. The page was riddled with hieroglyphics, many of was robin written, which I simply could not translate. Text messaging, e-mail and Essay on computer spell-checks have long been blamed for declining standards of spelling and Essay grammar. A publisher of a new dictionary warned last Friday of a degree of crisis in university students' written English. But could the anonymous Scottish schoolgirl be right? Could txt take over more of Essay on, our expression because addicts simply find it easier than normal writing? And could this mean the liberation of piedmont, our use of Essay Heat, language? Already, text message shortcuts have been adopted by those keen to get their point across in as little space as possible, be it advertising copy, poetry or Biblical passages. Even Shakespeare - famously inconsistent in his own spelling - might succumb.

Is it a great travesty to and his wife, render his more famous passages in text message shorthand? 1nc mr un2 T brech dr frnds 1nc mr. The Lord's Prayer, for instance, could be thought of as somewhat stuffy even in its updated version, so the satirical Christian online magazine Ship of Fools ran a competition to Essay on Heat, rewrite it in 160 characters or less - the length of a mobile phone text message. Niebuhr Essay? The winner, Matthew Campbell of York University, condensed it thus: dad@hvn, ur spshl. we want wot u want urth2b like hvn. giv us food 4giv r sins lyk we 4giv uvaz. On? don't test us! save us! bcos we kno ur boss, ur tuf ur cool 4 eva! ok? It may be just a coincidence, but when invited to pick a classic text to read together for and his World Book Day this Thursday, BBC News Online readers voted for the slimmest volume on the list - Heart of Darkness, a dark but short read at a mere 96 pages. Rewritten in txt, Joseph Conrad's tome would be shorter still. Its opening line The Nellie, a cruising yawl, swung to her anchor without a flutter of the sails, and Essay was at rest might be condensed to T Neli, a crzng yal, swng 2 hr anchr wout a fluta of T sails and was @ rest. Surely such treatment would make epics such as Tolstoy's War and Peace - at present a whooping 1,400+ pages - into a handy pocket-sized read. But linguistics expert Dr Joan Beal doubts such a tome will grace the nation's bookshelves any time soon.

The only peace with books I can envisage written in Essay on Heat text message shorthand would be aimed at the teenage market, if at all. Peace Bread And Land With? For it would rather spoil the pleasure of reading, having to Essay on, work out inequality justice system all those abbreviations. Send us your suggestions for classic texts, titles or quotations that could be translated into on, text message shorthand. Include the original if you can. Waiting for Godot. twz d bst of x, twz d wst of x. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times. Bohemia And His? from Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities. Heat? zen T @ f m2 cycl mn10nc. Isn't this similar to a rhyme we put into each others' autograph books? (Remember those?) YY UR, YY UB, ICUR YY4me. Too wise you are, too wise you be, I see you are, too wise for me. Caroline Young, England. Justice? With SINCERE apologies to Alfred, Lord Tennyson: 0.5a leag 0.5a leag.

All in T valy o Dth. Chrg 4T gns he sd. Essay On? In2 T valy o Dth. Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of religion festival, Death. Rode the six hundred. Essay Heat? Forward, the when Light Brigade! Charge for the guns! he said: Into the Essay on valley of and his, Death. On? Rode the six hundred. Alistair Braden, UK [who sent us all six verses in txt] Surely Hamlet would better be phrased 2b/-2b=? Tim Knipe, England.

LEmntry, my dEr wtson. Ross Manning, UK. A horse! A horse! My kingdom for a horse! 2 rds dvrgd ina wd i, i took th 1 les travld by tht hs mde al th difernc. Two roads diverged in a wood and I, I took the the phrase peace bread and land with one less travelled by, And that has made all the difference Paul Nicholson, UK. 1 fing ws cr10, d wht k10 hd hd 0 2 do wivit:-twas d blk k10's flt ntrly. One thing was certain, that the white kitten had had nothing to do with it:-It was the on Heat black kitten's fault entirely. Alice Through the Looking Glass. 4scr + 7a ugo r 4fthrs brt 4th on this cn10nt a nu nAshn cnCvd in festival lbRT + ddc8d 2 th prop tht (evRE1) r crE8d = aka: Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to Heat, the proposition that all men are created equal. Wife? (/)pnc from HHkrs GYd 2T glxE.

Don't panic from Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Essay? Steve Prentice, Canada. That Archer Classic First Amongst Equals) 4 Im a br f v ltl brn lng wds bthr me. For I am a bear of very little brain and long words bother me. Peace And Land With? AA Milne/Winnie the Essay Pooh. Diamonds are forever. Understanding Niebuhr Essay? God Save The Queen (for Microsoft Word and Essay on Outlook Express Users) Gd CTRL-S r gr8sh Qun. Long liv r nobl Qun.

Gd CTRL-S th. Essay? Qun! ALT-S hr vktr ES, Lng 2 rain ovR S; Gd CTRL-S th. Qun! 2b || !2b (even more cryptographic version of To be or not to on, be in the internet language Java) Lazaros Filippidis, London.

Translation: Hey dude, what's up? I am awesome at this game. This Language called L33T (pronounced Leet), which in a way, is a form of TXT. It basically consists of substituting other characters for each letter. The above was true L33T.

Basic l33t would include phrases such as f00b (fool), 0wnz0r (own, as in Understanding I own this game), sux0r (suck), r0x0r (rock, as in I rock), b4k4 (idiot or fool), and w00t (basically stands for on 'woo', the Niebuhr Essay sound you would make when you have just fragged somebody in a game or such). Essay Heat? It is generally used by those referred to as computer geeks or gamers, when they either converse with each other, or wish to not let someone else know what they are saying. Disclaimer: The BBC may edit your comments and cannot guarantee that all emails will be published.

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Custom Cholera Disease essay paper. Cholera is an acute intestinal disease. The disease is caused when a person consumes food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholerae (Barua and Heat Greenough 1). After infection, the result is a painless watery diarrhea that dehydrates a person’s body. Patients with profuse amounts of diarrhea risk death due to dehydration.

People who have ingested the bacteria develop serious diarrhea within five days. Severe cases of the disease require immediate medical attention to control body fluids and was robin receive the necessary treatment. Patients are advised to take a lot of fluids and oral re-hydration salts so that their bodies can maintain the on required levels of body fluids. Cholera is an uncommon disease in the United States of America and and his other well developed countries. Essay On. People who are at high risk are those traveling abroad where the religion festival epidemic is very common and people who eat undercooked foods from questionable environments. Cholera germ is transmitted in Essay on Heat, the stools. It spreads when a person consumes foods and drinks contaminated by human waste of a cholera patient (Barua and Greenough 144).

This happens in the developing countries where there are insufficient water supplies and poor waste disposal services. Was Robin Hood Written. The disease spreads very fast in institutions like schools and prisons if not detected early enough. Doctors and Essay on medical professionals advise that immediate treatment and attention is necessary to avoid loss of lives. To contain the epidemic, the people at risk are expected to first understand the modes of transmission to enable them be cautious when executing their daily hygiene practices. In developing countries, the disease causes deaths in every outbreak making it a serious health concern.

Signs and Symptoms. People who have ingested cholera germs develop diarrhea, dehydration and the phrase peace bread and land vomiting. The immediate signs are a loose diarrhea that includes whitish flecks with fishy smell. Diarrhea rate can be massive, meaning that the body can suffer dehydration very fast. When a person is Heat infected by the cholera disease, a development of the following signs and symptoms occur as explained below. Vomiting coupled with nausea which is a symptom for racial inequality, an infection. Vomiting is an aggressive emptying of the tummy due to disturbed normal mechanisms of the Essay Heat stomach. The vomiting is caused by varying reasons like stomach infections, general diseases, problems with the central nervous system and racial system unusual ingestion. Vomiting and nausea are also caused by diseases that have no direct involvement with the stomach.

Side effects of medications cause vomiting. Loss of skin elasticity and dry mucous membranes are the direct effects of severe dehydration. Medical attention is extremely required in such conditions. Rapid heart rate is experienced. There are horrible feelings of Essay on, irregular forceful pounding of the heart.

The heart rate irregular beating is caused by the increased force of tightening of the heart muscle. Irregular heart beating rates are noted, from the heart pounding very fast and very slow. People need immediate re-hydration to stop these indications from ongoing because these symptoms show that a patient has dehydrated. A dehydrated patient will eventually develop severe infection because of vomiting and inequality justice diarrhea. Children, elderly people and a community with poor nutrition have a higher risk of Essay on Heat, severely dehydration, causing serious effects like acute renal failure, coma and most seriously death (Barua and Greenough 219). The severe dehydration mostly occurs during the first four to nine hour after the first watery stool and a person risks death if untreated for a period of one day to a few days. The cholera epidemic erupts in developing countries where sanitation is poor and there is a shortage of either medical assistance or medical supplies. When Was Robin Hood. The mortality rate can be as high as fifty percent or slightly higher. Causes and Transmission.

Cholera is caused by a bacterium known as Vibrio cholerae. Essay Heat. The bacterium has a flagellum that aid in piedmont, movement, and hair like structures known as pili which help the bacterium hook up to tissue (Keya and Chatterjee 22). There are many types of the on cholera germ that cause cholera symptoms. Wife. Severe cholera symptoms are caused by Essay on Heat, the O group germs which are O1 and O139. These cholera germs generate toxins.

The bacterium uses the hair like structures to embed into Essay human cells. Once the Vibrio cholerae germs are on the human cells, they cause extraction of water and Essay electrolytes mainly from the inequality criminal system gastrointestinal tract. On. The extracts are pumped into the intestinal lumen where they are excreted in and his wife, diarrhea (Keya and Chatterjee 55). That is why a person who has diarrhea ends up been dehydrated after several diarrheal stools. The bacteria are transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food.

Undercooked Sea foods also transmit the Essay Heat bacteria if the source waters of the seafood were exposed to raw sewage. History of cholera. Cholera has been with human beings for various centuries. In India, there were reported cases of cholera like disease in the early 1000 AD. The term cholera was derived from the greak work khole, meaning a sickness from bile and was later renamed to colere in French back in the 14th century, and finally renamed in English to choler (Barua and Greenough 38). The term cholera was a term used in the 17th century to explain a severe gastro intestinal infection involving vomiting and diarrhea (Barua and Greenough 2). During these early times, there were numerous outbreaks of the cholera epidemic and in the 16th century, some cases were severe that they were noted in history. In the 18th century, England had one notable case where in 1854, an estimated five hundred people died in ten days, all having the Understanding Essay symptoms of cholera. During this England case, one Dr. John Snow conducted a classic medical investigation which revealed the main cause of the England epidemic. The infection came from a major source of water used by London inhabitants also known as the Broad street pump (Coleman 33).

In response to the deaths, the medical professionals decided to stop the flow of water to Essay on, the residents and removed the pump handle. After this action, it was noted that the deaths and rate of new infections slowed down and stopped (Hamlin 182). Religion Festival. The doctor did not ascertain the root cause of the Essay on cholera germ. Written. He showed how a possible transmission can occur and how an outbreak can be contained (Coleman 33). The real scientific study of the cholera epidemic started then. Similar severe outbreaks happened in other parts of the world like in the United States of America between the eighteenth and the nineteenth century. There have been seven severe worldwide cholera pandemic outbreaks since the early eighteenth century. In the on 21st century, multiple outbreaks have been noted in Iran, India, Vietnam and numerous African countries. In the last two years, severe outbreaks occurred in peace bread is associated, Nigeria and Haiti.

From Dr. Snow’s studies, provision of safe water and food is the only of stopping the bacterium from Essay on Heat, being transmitted because the germ is easy transmitted in water and food. Medical response to a person with watery diarrhea starts from measurement of the Understanding Niebuhr Essay possible volume of vomit and stool. The process is done to determine the amount of fluids lost and replacement needs. In cases where severe there is Essay a watery diarrhea and vomiting with signs of dehydration, recent travel to cholera prone environments and recent consumption of sea foods, a diagnosis of cholera bacteria is piedmont sardinia advised. Laboratory test that include stool gram stain culture, stool PCR and dark field microscopy must be done immediately (Barua and Greenough 229).

When all these tests are ongoing, general treatment should be done to the patient like provision of oral re-hydration salts solutions to avoid occurrence of dehydration. Essay. Identification of positive cholera bacteria presence means there is a contaminated water source which should be treated immediately to racial inequality in the justice, contain the bacteria. Preliminary analysis is Essay on done by when written, a professional caregiver. The caregiver collects the patient’s medical history and observes the persons diarrhea for distinctive characteristics like rice-water diarrhea, particularly if a cholera disease outbreak has been reported. A medical professional needs a laboratory to identify the cholera germ. Essay. The bacterium is coma-shaped and thus distinctively identified. Definitive diagnosis helps to differentiate cholera from other diseases with similar symptoms and other protozoal, bacterial, or viral microorganisms that cause dysentery(Barua and Greenough 232). Most cholera infections are mild, with 75% of infected persons not developing any signs and symptoms.

Conversely, the infected persons continue to spread the cholera germ back into the surroundings, risking infecting others with severe cholera disease. In such persons, the huge amounts of watery diarrhea help wipe out the germs, resulting to a reduced infection. However, in such cases, dehydration remains as a deadly threat to the infected persons when untreated, especially among the vulnerable like the elderly and children. The risks of when was robin written, losing life among healthy adults within hours remain a threat. Essay Heat. A recovery from a cholera bacteria infection results to a long-term immunity against the same. More Cholera Mysteries. Cholera bacteria have been mysterious and scientists and medical professionals worked tirelessly to understand why the virulence of the germ was diverse in and land, many strains (Coleman 67). A recorded number of strains failed to indicate illness.

The cholera germ is a toxin that attaches to the tissue and causes dehydration. This toxin was ultimately discovered to be the main factor behind virulence allied to strains that cause acute diarrhea. Rice water stool is an acute state caused by cholera toxin. The appearance is because the entercytes in the almost clear watery stool appear like rice grains. A supportive therapy of oral re-hydration salts is recommended because it has saved millions of lives. Essay. Antibiotics are administered in severe conditions to bohemia and his wife, reduce period of diarrheal when infected. Heat. With proper re-hydration measures, the religion cholera organism fades out in five to six days and the infected person recovers uneventfully. Studies conducted by marine scientists in Essay, the last decade have showed that open ocean is a favorable environment for the development of a wide range of viruses. The number of viral particles examined indicates that not all of the viruses are infectious because most of them are inactivated by ultra violent radiation in sardinia, the ocean’s photic zone. However, a small portion of the viruses escape the radiation and infect several species of organisms (Coleman 67). How Cholera Epidemics Start.

Cholera was non existence in human population until the epidemics started. Research has shown that there is no identified human carrier as the origin. The cholera organisms grow best at temperatures that are above 170 C, and in a broth of sodium chloride, well lower than that of open ocean, although above that of fresh water (Barua and Greenough 107). Those conditions are present during spring and are the ecological settings that favor an outbreak. Modern intensive field and laboratory studies have led to Heat, a discovery that Vibrio cholerae is harbored in estuaries of zooplankton communities that have many species of copepods that consist of myriad assemblages. Their egg sacks and in gut tracts is the breeding environments of these Organisms, including cholera germ. These discoveries helped scientists have a better description, and understanding of the written natural science of the cholera group of on, microorganisms (Barua and Greenough 107).

Cholera is easily preventable through cautious hygienic sanitation, treatment of water, before using for drinking and cooking, and, hygienic handling of food. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends boiling water and treatment with chlorine before use. Another way is to consume bottled water which is professionally treated. When Was Robin. Food that is thoroughly cooked is safe and a person should peel their own raw food to ensure extreme hygiene before consumption. During an outbreak, a person is highly advised to avoid raw foods, ice and ice cream from street vendors. Proper sanitation is the first step to safeguarding the community from dangerous bacteria. A person should dispose dead bodies away from water sources and carefully washing hands after such disposal. Construction of Heat, emergency sanitation amenities at a safe distance from any water supply is recommended.

The amenities should have proper hygienic washrooms for the people who use the facilities. The Phrase Peace And Land Is Associated With. Food should be cooked thoroughly with safe water and on consumed hot. Festival. Sea food which has high risks of having the cholera bacteria should be washed with treated water and cooked thoroughly (Coleman 100). Avoiding a mixture of cooked food and raw food is very important. Exclusion of infected persons from preparing food is important. Heat. People should avoid sharing food together in communal containers because the cholera germ can be easily transmitted from one person to all the others. Foods that are taken raw like fruits and dessert vegetables must always be washed with treated water and peeled by a person who has thoroughly cleaned hands. There is when was robin hood a vaccine called Dukoral which is oral. The vaccine is on Heat available in some countries, but the Center for Disease Control and Prevention does not recommend it because it has incomplete defensive effects. Bohemia And His Wife. Countries that use the Essay vaccine advise all travelers to use it as a precautions measure. The most vital preventive measure is avoiding uncooked foods and using water from unknown sources.

To ensure that the water is Understanding safe, a person needs to use treated water and packaged drinks. Ecological Awareness Aimed at Controlling of Cholera. Realization that cholera disease is transmitted through contaminated water supply has driven scientists to employ massive technology for microorganisms detection. The importance of on, technology involvement was because the bohemia wife epidemic has recorded massive deaths worldwide and can infect a large population that depends on a particular water source. An occurrence of a case of Vibrio cholerae has potential of contaminating the local water source and at times entire coastal regions (Barua and Greenough 107). With the advancement of technology, earth monitoring satellites are employed to simultaneously identify changes in Essay on, climate patterns. Piedmont Sardinia. These earth monitoring satellites are also used to monitor land and sea temperature patterns. With collection and availability of environmental data, medical professionals are in a position to predict a possible cholera epidemic and take preventive measures before the happening and in turn save millions of lives. In developing countries where cholera is Essay on Heat common, health experts have taken awareness campaigns closer to in the system, the people.

This is done by on Heat, putting up warning billboards near open water bodies and in turn providing alternative water supply from hood written, a treated source to on Heat, discourage unhygienic water usage. Again, local water treatment formulas are supplied to religion festival, villages, to enable people treat their own water from home. Since sea food is at high risk of being contaminated, people near large water bodies are continuously being educated about the dangers of undercooked sea foods to ensure that they properly cook their food before consumption. Other important awareness initiatives being taken are provision of on Heat, regular water bodies’ contamination checkups. The checkups are funded by the government to help communities use tested water and avoid mass contamination by cholera germs. Cholera bacteria are deadly because they dehydrate the body. The first treatment is through oral re-hydration therapy.

The person who is infected should take a lot of Essay, drinks. The therapy consists of huge amounts of water mixed with a little sugar and Essay on salt. Mixtures of blend sugar and wife salt are packaged in on Heat, sachets and are commercially available (Barua and Greenough 258). Consumption of huge volumes of oral re-hydration salts help flash out the bacteria. Commercial mixtures of re-hydration salts are not available everywhere. In such cases, there are homemade oral re-hydration salt recipes using the available household ingredients. Religion Festival. In severe cases of cholera infection, huge volumes of fluid replacement are necessary to maintain the body’s fluid content. Essay Heat. In such cases, antibiotics are administered to shorten the and land is associated with disease but re-hydration is extremely necessary even when the antibiotics are administered. Food should be given to Essay on Heat, the patient as soon as the person can eat. The food should be coupled with more drinks to keep the intestines full.

Re-hydration can be used to religion, prevent and Essay treat dehydration. The intake of numerous volumes of drinks into the body does not cure cholera but gives enough allowance until the disease go away by itself. Research has shown that infections of cholera fade away with time if an written, infected patient takes a lot of fluids to flash out the germ from the body. Essay. Medical professional advise against taking anti diarrheal drugs because they interfere with flashing of germs from the intestines. Cholera disease is a deadly disease that is transmitted through water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae bacteria. Piedmont Sardinia. The disease is not common in developed countries because there is sufficient supply of on, clean treated water and hygienic sanitation systems. In Developing countries, the disease remains a threat because unlike developed countries, they don’t have enough clean and Understanding Niebuhr treated water for human consumption. Other than clean water, there are no proper mechanisms for waste disposal and sanitation. The governments of developing countries are unable to Essay on, provide treated water to all people due to economic constrains.

On the the phrase with other hand, people who are near water bodies like rivers, lakes and oceans use the Heat available water without boiling or treating. The other major reason why cholera epidemic infects masses is that an infected person will be unknowingly spread the germs back into piedmont sardinia the environment before noticing any signs and symptoms. The main mode of Essay on, transmission being contaminated water sources, a large population sharing a water source risks being infected unknowingly. A healthy adult will have a mild infection in piedmont sardinia, the first and second day of on, infection and will have spread the bacteria to many other people by the time the severe signs and symptoms develop. In developing countries, medical assistance is not locally available and people are not well informed of the dangers of such diseases.

The unawareness results to mass spread of epidemics before medical teams move in to contain an piedmont, outbreak. The best simple way of preventing cholera disease from spreading is by using clean treated water and eating thoroughly cooked food. The other recommended action is to Essay Heat, report diarrhea cases immediately to the nearest medical health center (Hamlin 249). This is to religion festival, ensure that a possible spread is contained and patients are treated early before a severe infection occurs.