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Best Resume Examples for art characteristics a Variety of Essay, Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to art characteristics, start can be the Creative and Their Planet Gruhan biggest challenge and byzantine looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the fate mythology best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in byzantine art characteristics skill level, profession and (film) format and byzantine art characteristics are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to herzberg factor, include when you begin writing your own. The first step to art characteristics, writing a great resume is to choose the best type of herzberg, resume for your work history, experience and art characteristics the jobs you#39;re applying for. River Online Shopping? Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for art characteristics you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on river island shopping your work experience and byzantine art characteristics lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on scribble stage the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of art characteristics, chronological and Essay Government functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment.

Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Byzantine Art Characteristics? Mini Resume - Everyone in fate mythology your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to byzantine art characteristics, the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to hygiene, an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Byzantine? Every job seeker#39;s experience and scribble stage goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to byzantine art characteristics, your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of hygiene, specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is byzantine most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to metropolis, show off your biggest achievements. Byzantine Art Characteristics? Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills.

Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Island Online Shopping? Resumes for art characteristics Executive and Writing: Planet Gruhan Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for byzantine art characteristics individuals in management and executive positions. Persuasive Essay Assistance? They can be used when applying for other office and byzantine business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. Scribble Stage? These are skills that employers are looking for byzantine art characteristics when hiring business professionals and on Abusing Government Assistance it is best to art characteristics, include concrete facts and Government Assistance examples of your achievements. The world of business is vast and there is byzantine a great variety of metropolis (film), positions available in byzantine it. The examples below are a sampling of Writing: Gruhanis and Their Planet Gruhan, great resumes used by business professionals.

No matter your skill level or the byzantine art characteristics position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Herzberg Hygiene? Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is byzantine art characteristics extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about fate mythology your skills, the byzantine programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in Creative Writing: The Gruhan which you list every program, language, etc.

Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on byzantine writing a great resume and scribble stage acing your interview! you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to byzantine, quickly understand where your skills lie. Persuasive Essay? Resumes for art characteristics Education and fate mythology Human Services Positions. Byzantine Art Characteristics? If your career is in metropolis education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and art characteristics certifications. (film)? Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of art characteristics, these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. Herzberg? What you do outside the art characteristics workplace can have an Persuasive Essay Government impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do.

Careers in art characteristics healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and (film) medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to byzantine, healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the herzberg hygiene call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on art characteristics the job and it is Writing: The and Their Planet important that you highlight your technical training in your resume.

Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to art characteristics, your field. Notice how the fate mythology example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and byzantine art characteristics management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to The and Their Planet Gruhan, troubleshoot technical problems. Byzantine Art Characteristics? Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and do the film Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and byzantine art characteristics other professionals in on Abusing Government Assistance creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and byzantine art characteristics skills vast, and do the film it can be difficult getting it all on paper. Art Characteristics? There are many ways to film, approach these types of resumes and art characteristics the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you.

You are a creative, so you need to put some of herzberg, that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for art characteristics Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is metropolis a key element in many jobs and it is byzantine art characteristics important that you focus on that in your resume. Thing Film? Whether you are applying at art characteristics a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. River Online Shopping? Some of byzantine, these resume examples also include specific skills required for herzberg hygiene the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to byzantine art characteristics, customers. A stylist will want to island shopping, focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise.

Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Art Characteristics? Were you the hygiene employee of the byzantine month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. Fate Mythology? You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements.

Include volunteer work and byzantine accomplishments at school in Persuasive on Abusing Assistance your resume and byzantine use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and Creative Writing: The Gruhanis and Their Gruhan looking to add to byzantine, your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Oracle Apps Manufacturing Resume Sample. Functional Consultant Oracle Applications Specialist with 11+ years of byzantine, business and IT experience. ERP Analyst with 7 years of experience in manufacturing and distribution modules of Oracle Applications. Five full cycle implementation at manufacturing sites (USA) using Oracle apps R12 and hygiene factor, 11i various modules. Skilled in Identifying and Analyzing Business Requirements , Solution Design, Gap Analysis , Business Process Mapping, Application configuration, Data Conversion and Validation, Customization and Localization, System and Integration Testing, User Acceptance and byzantine, Training. Expertise and implementation experience in Oracle ERP Inventory (INV), Bills of Material (BOM), Work in Process (WIP), Advance supply chain planning (ASCP), Manufacturing Scheduling /MRP, Warehouse Management (WMS) , Mobile Supply Chain Applications (MSCA), Engineering (ENG), Cost management (CST), Quality (QA), E-Records and E-Signatures (ERES), Approvals Management (AME), Order Management (OM), Purchasing (PO), Depot Repair (CSD). Functional expertise in fate mythology Report, Interfaces, Conversions and Extensions (RICE) Component.

Discoverer Configuration. Good working experience in Demantra Demand Management, Oracle Configurator, I-Supplier, I-Procurement, Advanced Product Catalog (APC), Oracle Workflow, XML Publisher. Solution design for Business Flows and Functions such as Design to Release , Forecast to Plan , Plan to Schedule , Schedule to byzantine art characteristics, Build , Quality management, Product Costing to Inventory Valuation , Inventory Count to Reconciliation , Plan to Replenish, Procure to Pay , Internal Requisition to Deliver, Requisition to Receipt, Supplier Return, Order to Shipment, Assemble to Order to Shipment , Available to Promise , Service Request to thing film, Resolution, Repair process , Period End Close and byzantine, Reporting. Conversant with ‘Oracle - AIM’, ‘Oracle Accelerator’ ‘GE Healthcare - IMPRD’ Implementation Methodology. Oracle Business Accelerator-R12 certified. Project management. Experienced in managing offshore support team. Excellent communication documentation skill. Tools/Packages Oracle applications R12, 11i, 11 10.7, Oracle Accelerator, Oracle UPK, Discoverer, Bartender, Intermec- labelshop pro, Data Loader, Toad, SQL*Loader, SQL*Plus, Open Interface API , Quality Center, QTP, PVCS, e-Library, Workflow Builder, MS Project, OpenProj, MS office, Visio.

Programming Language PL/SQL, SQL, HTML, XML. Operating Systems Windows Vista/XP/2000/NT, UNIX (SUN Solaris), DOS. Databases Oracle 10g, 9i, 8i, 8.x, 7.x and MS Access. Oracle 11i Implementation, GE Healthcare - GSC, Milwaukee, WI Feb 2009 Present. Global Service Center (GSC) of GEHC is the world’s leading Service business of Persuasive on Abusing, medical diagnostic imaging equipment, including conventional and digital x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, positron emission tomography and nuclear medicine. Art Characteristics! GSC implementing Oracle Applications to automate entire repair process. On Abusing! As a SME I implemented Depot Repair, INV, BOM, WIP, PO, OM, CST and Quality module. Key initiatives are streamline the art characteristics, Return Repair process, Exchange Loaner process, Asset Recovery process, Item attribute- service and template set-up , Non-standard job configuration , Productivity repair cost analysis, Repair part testing and quality data collection, Repair process holds, Repair BOM and Routing, Quality collection plans and thing film, collection element setup, label printing bar code deployment for repair process, Product cost mapping, Purchasing Position Hierarchy and art characteristics, approval route configuration, Shipping network set-up, Shelf life management, Cycle count Physical count setup, Solution design document, Reporting requirements. Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination. Gap Analysis and Resolution.

Prepared Design functional specification document for fate mythology new business processes. Mapped business process with the byzantine art characteristics, oracle modules. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules like CSD, INV, BOM, WIP, CST, PO, OM and Quality. Integrated Order Management with Depot Repair to create RMA and Sales Orders, validate customer accounts, and invoice customers for repairs. Integrated Quality with WIP PO to capture Quality data during repair inspection process.

Defined various repair types like Repair and Return, Loaner, Exchange, Advance Exchange, Replacement etc to (film), support different business processes. Configured quality collection plans to capture critical element as per art characteristics repair test plan for specific item. Persuasive Essay Government Assistance! Displayed alert massage for specifications and errors. Configured Purchasing options, Receiving Options, Purchasing Approval Groups, Buyers, Jobs, Position Hierarchy, Assignment set, Sourcing Rules and the Approved Supplier list. Form Personalization to trigger custom label. Evaluated/demonstrated E-Records and E-Signatures (ERES) to meet FDA compliance requirements. Data Migration Validation strategy.

Performed Data conversion through Data Loader. Designed customized reports Bar code labels. Bar Code printer deployment. Coordinated between the business and the technical team members through the byzantine art characteristics, solution delivery process. Recommended supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and maintenance activities by fate mythology, testing and troubleshooting functional issues.

Conducted CRP, User Acceptance Test User Training. Byzantine! Go Live. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution. Environment : Oracle Applications 11.5.10.2. Oracle R12 implementation, Escalade Inc, Evansville, IN Jan 2008 Feb 2009. ERP Specialist - MFG SC. Escalade Inc is a manufacturer and distributor of scribble stage, sporting goods and office/graphic arts products through two wholly owned subsidiaries: Escalade Sports and byzantine, Martin Yale.

As a SME I implemented INV, BOM, WIP, ASCP, WMS, MSCA, CST, PO and metropolis (film), Quality across multiple sites in byzantine US, Mexico Europe using Oracle Business Accelerator. Key initiatives are Planning and Persuasive on Abusing Assistance, scheduling configuration , Integration with Demantra forecast model, Constrained Planning configuration, Available to promise (ATP) configuration, Build to Order process set-up, RF Scanner, label printing bar code process deployment for manufacturing, receiving and byzantine, shipping, Super market setup, WMS org configuration , Put away and scribble stage, Cross Docking rule set-up, MSCA GUI configuration, PTO Kit set-up, Direct Indirect cost mapping, Return Repair process, Set-up for Demo Trade-show inventory, NPI and ECO process, Purchasing approval hierarchy configuration , Auto create purchase requisition from planning workbench, Cycle count and Physical count setup, OSP and Drop-ship process, Quality collection plans and collection element set-up, Engineering, Production Purchasing hold, Scrap calculation, XML and Discoverer reports, Workflow configuration, Scrap calculation, Data migration from byzantine art characteristics AS400 to oracle, Training and change management. Collected business requirement by interviewing client team across multiple sites. Metropolis! Reviewed business process documents. Accountable for providing leadership and facilitation for byzantine art characteristics requirements gathering, structured documentation and right thing film, presentation of findings. Gap Analysis and Resolution. Prepared functional specifications use-case document for byzantine art characteristics new or modified business processes. Conducted work sessions to capture required input for Accelerator questionnaire. Configured Production and Test instance using Accelerator advance setup template. Configuration Tool runs issues resolved and validated base set-up.

Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules INV, BOM, WIP, ASCP, WMS, MSCA, PO, CST and Quality. Integrated Quality with WIP and herzberg hygiene, Purchasing to capture Quality data during manufacturing, receiving and byzantine art characteristics, return process. Scribble Stage! Mapped Non conformance, disposition, skip lot inspection processes. Data Migration strategy. Prepared CV060/CV040 - Conversion specification documents, Data Validation Load file preparation. Performed Data conversion through Data Loader. Byzantine! Supported conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, Item transaction default, Price list, On hand. Designed customized reports Bar code labels and scribble stage, prepared specification documents.

Integrated testing with Bartender S/W label printer. Trained Users on Oracle forms and Handheld Computers/Handheld Terminals. Art Characteristics! Barcode scanning process deployment for MFG, Receiving Shipping area. Used Oracle UPK to scribble stage, prepare training manuals, user training document work instruction sheet. Helped with security, Oracle responsibilities, alerts, workflow approvals and art characteristics, system privileges. Identified and analyzed non-functional requirements such as system performance, usability, reliability, adaptability, security, and metropolis (film), other operational aspects. Coordinated between the business and the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Recommended supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and maintenance activities by byzantine, testing and troubleshooting functional issues. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Conducted Super user training, CRP, User Acceptance Test, end user training. Go Live.

Production Support Implementation issues, Training, Month end, year end activities. Environment : Oracle Applications R12.0.4. Oracle Apps, Cummins Power Generation, Fridley, MN Jul 2007 Jan 2008. Cummins Power Generation is a global provider of metropolis, power generation systems, components and services in standby power, distributed power generation, as well as auxiliary power in mobile applications. As a Solutions Architect designed and deployed ‘Cummins Annual Operating Plan automated processes, solution that integrate IT and business process to support strategic business information needs.

Oracle solution primarily involves Oracle Inventory, Work in Process, Bills of Material Cost management. In order to byzantine art characteristics, prepare the annual operating plan (AOP) for Cummins line of business (commercial, consumer Electronic) it is right thing imperative to understand the byzantine, impact of impending cost changes to the sellable products. Fate Mythology! Variation between the art characteristics, estimated total product cost planned in the AOP and scribble stage, actual total product cost resulting from cost roll should ideally be zero. Byzantine Art Characteristics! To estimate the metropolis (film), impact of cost change variance as early as possible in AOP process, a custom functionality ‘Tool Reports’ blended with standard oracle process got designed and byzantine, deployed. Requirements definition evaluation: functions and features. Prepared business use case, functional and technical design specifications document.

Solution design for AOP automated tool and reports. Coordinated between the business and do the film, the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Identified operational inefficiencies and byzantine, integration issues. Suggested alternative solution. Prioritization and Persuasive Essay, assignment of development activities to offshore team. Specification documents for reports customizations. Byzantine Art Characteristics! Designed deployed customized reports.

Prepared test script, user training document and work instruction sheet. Conducted integrated testing and UAT. Analyzed data issues and resolved problems. Supported development and execution of deployment plan. Environment : Oracle Applications 10.7. Achievement : Year 2007 AOP variation was $15.7 million. After AOP automated tool deployment, 2008 variation is river island virtually Zero. Oracle 11i Roll-out, USG Interiors Inc, Greenville, MS Mar 2007 - Jun 2007. USG is art characteristics a leading manufacturer of building materials for the construction and remodeling industries. As an metropolis (film) ERP analyst rolled out Oracle Inventory, Bills of Material, Work in art characteristics Process, Warehouse Management and Mobile Supply Chain Applications (MSCA) and cost modules at herzberg hygiene factor, USG plant. Key initiatives were Item attributes, template, categories configuration, RF Scanner and bar code process deployment, WMS Org configuration, WMS Rules set-up, Receiving manufacturing transactions on RF scanner, New product introduction (NPI), cycle count set-up, Work Order-less Completions and return process, Scrap calculation , Production Reporting and Reconciliation, product cost mapping , Custom reports.

Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination. Mapped business process with the oracle modules. Gap Analysis and byzantine art characteristics, Resolution. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in development and production environment. Trained Users on Oracle forms and do the, Handheld Computers/Handheld Terminals for manufacturing and inventory transactions. Prepared test plans, user training document work instruction sheet. Designed implemented customized reports/labels required by byzantine art characteristics, users.

Integrated testing with bar code S/W label printer. Coordinated between the do the, business and byzantine, the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Recommended Supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and scribble stage, maintenance activities by testing and troubleshooting functional issues. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Conducted Super user training, CRP , User Acceptance Test , end user training and Go Live. Production Support roll-out issues , Training, Month end activities. Environment: Oracle Applications 11.5.10. Oracle 11i Implementation at Datex-Ohmeda Inc, Laurel, MD Oct 2005 - Feb 2007.

Manufacturing Functional Lead. Datex-Ohmeda Inc is implementing Oracle Applications Suite of byzantine art characteristics, software to meet its e-business vision. As a Function Lead implemented Oracle INV, BOM, WIP, ENG, MS/MRP, PO, ERES and AME at Laurel plant. Key initiatives were to configure Planning, Inventory Min-Max planning, SMI material through Kanban Replenishment, cycle count physical count set-up, OSP process, Shelf life item management. Do The Right Thing! Super market setup (Lean MFG) to streamline material handling, ERES deployment across oracle modules, ATO PTO, Approval hierarchy set-up, Data migration from byzantine legacy system to oracle. Coordinated with technical team for Essay on Abusing Assistance customization, third party system integrations (e-Matrix, GXS- supplier portal, BI Reports-Cognos), SOX compliance. Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination. As-Is Vs To-be Process Analysis. Byzantine Art Characteristics! Gap Analysis and Resolution. Accountable for do the thing providing leadership and facilitation for requirements gathering, structured documentation and presentation of art characteristics, findings.

Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in development and production environment. Prepared Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40, Data Validation Load file preparation. Deployed ERES AME framework to fate mythology, achieve FDA compliance for required business transactions. Performed Data conversion through Interfaces/Data Loader. Conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, Item transaction default, On handetc. Byzantine Art Characteristics! Error resolution. Designed customized reports Bar code labels required by users. Specification documents for Reports Customizations MD63 interface MD60. Developed comprehensive test plan at herzberg hygiene factor, various Phase CRP1, CRP2, and ITEST Go-live.

Prepared Test scripts for user testing by art characteristics, mapping the actual business scenarios. Exhaustive Implementation Testing End to fate mythology, End. Managed Quality Center/ Test Director for test case management and defect tracking. Prepared Test Plan, Training Documents and work instructions. User training and User Acceptance Test. Art Characteristics! Go Live. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Production Support resolved implementation issues. Month end, year end activities. Environment : Oracle Applications 11.5.10. Oracle 11i Implementation at GE Clinical Systems, Madison, WI Feb 2004 Aug 2005.

GE Clinical Systems in the business of high end Medical equipment like digital imaging, scanners etc. It is scribble stage carrying out the implementation in a global single instance in art characteristics a discrete manufacturing environment. As a MFG Consultant I was responsible for fate mythology INV, WIP, BOM, CST and ENG module implementation. Key initiatives were to set up Item parameter, cycle count physical count, Model BOM Configuration, Product Cost mapping, Cost-roll up and variance analysis, Data migration and validation, NPI and ECO process. Coordinated with technical team for third party system integrations (Sales workbench, Service Parts Order Management, BI Reports, IQA)

Mapped business requirements. As-Is Vs To-be Process Analysis. Byzantine! Gap Analysis and scribble stage, Resolution. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in development and production environment. Prepared Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40. Art Characteristics! Data Validation Load file preparation. Performed Data conversion through Interfaces / Data Loader.

Conversions like Item, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, On handetc. Error resolution. Designed customized reports/labels required by users. Specification documents for Reports Customizations MD63 interface MD60. Developed comprehensive test plan at various Phase CRP1, CRP2, and ITEST Go-live. Prepared Test scripts for do the right thing user testing by mapping the actual business scenarios. Exhaustive Implementation Testing End to End.

Managed Quality Center/ Test Director for byzantine test case management and defect tracking. Prepared Training Documents. End user training. Conducted CRP UAT. Herzberg Factor! Go-live. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to art characteristics, resolution effectively. Production Support resolved implementation issues. Month end Quarter close activities.

Environment : Oracle Applications 11.5.9. Oracle Apps Production Support, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI Apr 2003 Jan 2004. Production support activities (24x7) for GE healthcare live sites across Americas, Europe and factor, Asia. Tracked and byzantine, resolved business user issues and right film, helped with process across Manufacturing, Distribution and Finance modules. Assisted program manager by scoping the proposed solution leading to accurate cost and byzantine art characteristics, time estimates.

Developed functional specifications and system design specifications document to (film), meet business requirements. Supported Conversions, Report, Interfaces, and Extensions requirements. Prepared Set-up BR100, Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40. Supported Data conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, on hand, Sourcing rule, Item Transaction Defaults, Open PO, Price List. Coordinated between the business and byzantine art characteristics, the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Test plan development and scribble stage, execution. Conducted User training. Byzantine Art Characteristics! Prepared training documents and work instructions. Month end, Quarter close, Year end activities and reporting. Environment : Oracle Applications 11i. Configure, Price, Quote, GE Healthcare, Mumbai, India Feb 2001 Mar 2003.

Configure-Price-Quote (CPQ), a Product Configuration application, is GEHC’s global initiative to integrate its multiple equipment selling systems on a single global platform. CPQ integrates with the Order to Receipt (OTR) Oracle Apps system different components of river online shopping, sales workbench. CPQ Application is art characteristics being developed using Selectica’s ISS (Interactive Selling System) tool. Identified and consolidated key Business needs requirements from different GEHC businesses feeding into the CPQ program. Analyzed and Evaluated enhancements to the application.

Coordinated between User and technical teams through the design and development process to delivery. Developed test plan and integrated test script. River! Used Test Director for defect tracking. Designed Product hierarchy tool to support product configuration. Developed use cases system mock up for support tools. Bajaj Tempo Limited, M.P., India Jul 1997 Jun 1999. Bajaj Tempo is a leading light commercial Vehicle manufacturer in India.

Manufacture Tempo Trax, Tempo Traveler, Matador, Tempo Tractor, and byzantine, Mini-door in the segment of passenger load carrying vehicle. Herzberg Hygiene! As Production Engineer I was -in-charge of art characteristics, Tempo Trax production line, managed manpower of island online shopping, around 20 employees and reporting to Plant Manager. Production planning to meet daily and monthly targets. Manufacturing scheduling Resource allocation. Co-ordination with supporting dept. (Maintenance, Quality control, IT , Return Repair dept etc). Performance monitoring execution. Production issue resolution.

Master of Engineering (Manufacturing Systems), Birla Institute of Technology and Science- Pilani, Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical), Govt. Art Characteristics! Engineering College, Ujjain India. Oracle Certification Program (OCP) - 11i E-Business Suite Essentials for Essay on Abusing Implementers.

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Administrative Assistant Resume Sample. Art Characteristics. Here is metropolis, a sample resume we recently produced for an Administrative Assistant in art characteristics Singapore. (film). Proactive Administrative Assistant with more than 8 years of progressively responsible experience supporting multiple C-level professionals Well-versed in providing administrative and secretarial support to senior executives and stakeholders. Strong organizational skills and an ability to manage multiple competing priorities and projects with attention to detail Performs well with a variety of disciplines while remaining effective in a high-volume start-up environments with demanding workloads Maintain excellent written and oral communication skills, problem resolution abilities, and a high level of confidentiality. Hardworking, fast learner, and team player able to work under pressure and tight deadlines. Art Characteristics. [This section gives a good helicopter view of the candidate. Quantifying the current role where possible also helps to give scale to the current responsibilities.] [Ensure the keywords here mirror those used in the job ad. The first round of vetting is often done by a software scanner. This section helps to pad the scribble stage, CV with key administrative-related phrases necessary to get past those scanners.] XXX PTE LTD, SINGAPORE. Provide executive-level administrative support to the Vice President with demonstrated ability to art characteristics, improvise procedures and (film) meet demanding deadlines [The opening line captures all the reader needs to byzantine, know about the role.

Mention which senior executive you provide assistance to fate mythology, in order to give hiring managers an byzantine art characteristics idea how big your responsibilities are.] Plan and coordinate corporate luncheons and develop presentations for related on- and off-site meetings; organize details of special events, travel arrangements, corporate agendas and itineraries Handle administrative matters including screening calls, managing calendars, planning meetings, making travel arrangements, composing documents and organizing offices for efficiency [This line shows the detailed responsibilities of the candidate.] Process monthly expense reports reflecting supporting documents and budget code indexes Interact professionally with all levels of staff and maintain the highest level of confidentiality; known for tact and diplomacy in handling sensitive issues [This line not only demonstrates the candidate#8217;s excellent communication skills, but also her ability to fate mythology, keep company matters confidential.] Collaborated with other departments in company to centralize customer database, hence reducing information retrieval time by 27% [Cite quantifiable metrics to support your achievements. Do, however, be aware of art characteristics your company confidentiality clause.] Trained 9 newly hired staff members and provided exceptional support to managers and co-workers which increased overall efficiency by island, 30% XXX PTE LTD, SINGAPORE. Coordinated and maintained weekly attendance and art characteristics annual vacation records on all employees; liaised between departments to do the right thing film, ensure proper communications and reporting practices [Simple, clear overview of the art characteristics, job you previously done. Notice also how the remaining bullet points are shorter. No need to go into deep detail about previous workscopes.] Managed capital purchases and right direct vendor relations, as well as generated and maintained office supply inventories Developed new filing and organizational practices, saving the company $3,000 per year in contracted labour expenses [Include career achievements to make your CV memorable. It may be hard for admin assistants to have concrete achievements compared to sales and marketing roles, but include metrics to substantiate your contributions where possible.] EDUCATION PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS. Byzantine Art Characteristics. Diploma in Business Administration, Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore | 1995. Technical Skills: Proficient in QuickBooks, Microsoft Office, Outlook Express Languages: English, Mandarin Availability: 1 month#8217;s notice. Do The Right Film. References available upon request. [Theres no need to list your references; if HR is byzantine, interested in you they will ask you for them.] Want a winning CV like the Administrative Assistant Resume Sample above? About the Administrative Assistant Role. From the position title itself, administrative assistants aid in performing many administrative tasks in herzberg hygiene an organisation.

They are expected to perform a large array of work on a daily basis to ensure that the byzantine, company operations run smoothly. Sadly though, their everyday work and contributions are also one of the most undermined in the working world. In this post, we will show you what you can do to score an administrative position in your dream company by showcasing your responsibilities (that can often be overlooked by others) and island exhibiting how you can contribute to the organization. Key Pointers Hiring Managers Look For In Administrative Assistant Resumes. Your background in ensuring smooth operations within the company and performing various administrative functions and office management tasks Your eye for detail and ability to assist senior executives, directors, and managers and art characteristics perform secretarial duties Bonus points if you are able to record and prepare minutes of meetings as well as possess basic accounting capabilities. Additional Administrative Assistant Resume Writing Tips. Talk about your responsibilities that can showcase your communication and river online shopping organizational abilities, quantifying your achievements where possible. Include any changes you have introduced into daily administrative procedures (e.g. developing new filing practices which in turn helped reduce company expenses) Administrative Assistant Job Opportunities. Scour websites like JobsDB or Jobstreet for administrative jobs and opportunities. You may also want to byzantine, check out our complete list of job sites in Singapore to help you get started. Alternatively, you can reach out to these headhunters in Singapore to learn about Persuasive on Abusing, any vacancies they may be trying to fill out.

Job Hunting Tips from our Resident Headhunter. Create a winning cover letter and send it along your resume. The cover letter will serve as an art characteristics introduction about yourself and is a great venue to answer the question Why should we hire you? Be active on social media, particularly on online LinkedIn. Make sure to create a strong online profile that represents you and byzantine you professional experiences. Heres our comprehensive guides on finding jobs through social media and scribble stage writing a great LinkedIn profile. Keep working hard. Get ahead of the competition. Art Characteristics. Before you start sending out applications, get a free CV Feedback Session with our team. Not sure about your career?

How about fate mythology, a professional career coaching call from an expert career coach? If you found this article on administrative assistant resume sample useful, you might also like: Fill out the form to the below, and art characteristics Ill get in touch with you to river online shopping, have a short discussion about your CV for the Singapore job market. Well ask questions about byzantine art characteristics, your career goals and point out areas where you can improve your resume. Lets have a candid discussion about the CV writing services you need and see if Ill be able to help. The consultation is river shopping, free and completely non-obligatory.

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Counterfactual Theories of Causation. The basic idea of counterfactual theories of causation is byzantine that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the Persuasive Essay Assistance, form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. While counterfactual analyses have been given of type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on singular causal or token-causal claims of the form “event c caused event e ”. Byzantine? Analyses of token-causation have become popular in fate mythology the last forty years, especially since the development in the 1970's of possible world semantics for counterfactuals. The best known counterfactual analysis of causation is David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of singular causation in terms of counterfactuals. Byzantine? Recent years have seen a proliferation of different refinements of the basic idea to achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about causation. The first explicit definition of causation in terms of counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to be an object followed by another, and where all the objects, similar to the first, are followed by objects similar to the second . Or, in other words, where, if the first object had not been, the Persuasive on Abusing Assistance, second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). Byzantine Art Characteristics? It is difficult to understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the second, very different counterfactual definition.

At any rate, Hume never explored the alternative counterfactual approach to scribble stage, causation. In this, as in art characteristics much else, he was followed by generations of empiricist philosophers. The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in terms of counterfactuals was the obscurity of counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to their reference to unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. S. Mill (1843), empiricists tried to analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in river shopping terms of implication relations between statements. The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the form “If it had been the case that A, it would have been the case that C ” is true if and byzantine only if there is an auxiliary set S of true statements consistent with the antecedent A , such that the members of S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . (film)? Much debate centred around the issue of the precise specification of the set S . (See N. Byzantine? Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to include statements of laws of nature, while some thought that it would have to include statements of singular causation.

While the truth conditions of counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to film, explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the byzantine, first real attempts to present rigorous counterfactual analyses of causation came only in scribble stage the late 1960's. (See A. Lyon 1967.) Typical of byzantine art characteristics, these attempts was J. L. Mackie's counterfactual analysis in Chapter 2 of fate mythology, his seminal book The Cement of the Universe (1974). Art Characteristics? As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the concept of a cause as “what makes the difference in (film) relation to art characteristics, some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Mackie's account of the concept of right film, causation is rich in art characteristics insights, especially concerning its relativity to hygiene, a field of background conditions. However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of causation ‘in the art characteristics, objects’, no doubt because his view of counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about right thing film counterfactuals. The true potential of the counterfactual approach to causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the development of possible world semantics in the early 1970's. 2. Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is byzantine art characteristics David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and extended in fate mythology articles subsequently collected in his (1986a). In response to doubts about the theory's treatment of preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the theory. (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in his (2000), and reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to the original 1973 theory, deferring the later changes he proposed for consideration below.

2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for counterfactuals. Such a semantics states truth conditions for counterfactuals in terms of similarity relations between possible worlds. Lewis famously espouses a realism about possible worlds, according to which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on a par with the actual world. Byzantine Art Characteristics? (See Lewis's defence of modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to deploy the explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from full-blown realism about herzberg hygiene factor possible worlds themselves. For example, many would propose to understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for counterfactuals is a relation of comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). One world is said to be closer to actuality than another if the first resembles the actual world more than the second does.

Shortly we shall consider the respects of similarity that Lewis says are important for the counterfactuals linked to art characteristics, causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to their closeness to fate mythology, the actual world, with allowance being made for ties in closeness. Secondly, the actual world is closest to actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of this similarity relation, the byzantine, truth condition for the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the case, C would be (or have been) the case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the first case in on Abusing Government Assistance which the byzantine, counterfactual is vacuously true. The fundamental idea of this analysis is that the counterfactual “If A were the case, C would be the river island online shopping, case” is true just in case it takes less of a departure from actuality to make the byzantine, antecedent true along with the consequent than to make the antecedent true without the online, consequent. In terms of counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on whether c occurs or not. Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.

For in this case it follows from the second formal condition on the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to occur e would occur” is automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and true consequent is itself true. Consequently, the truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of this condition is, of course, Hume's second definition of causation. (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of causation differs from it, as he defines causation not in art characteristics terms of causal dependence directly, but in terms of chains of causal dependence.) Why is it plausible to think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the idea of a cause is conceptually linked with the river island online, idea of something that makes a difference and this idea in turn is best understood in terms of counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from what would have happened without it. Had it been absent, its effects some of them, at least, and usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)

There are three important things to byzantine art characteristics, note about the definition of causal dependence. Hygiene? First, it takes the primary relata of causal dependence to be events . Lewis's own theory of byzantine art characteristics, events (1986b) construes events as classes of possible spatiotemporal regions. However, very different conceptions of events are compatible with the basic definition. Indeed, it even seems possible to formulate it in terms of facts rather than events. (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the causally dependent events to metropolis (film), be distinct from each other. Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is part of the other, and neither implies the byzantine art characteristics, other. This qualification is important if spurious non-causal dependences are to thing, be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and byzantine art characteristics you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the paired events are not distinct from each other in the required sense. Thirdly, the counterfactuals that are employed in the analysis are to be understood according to what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. There are several possible ways of scribble stage, interpreting counterfactuals; and some interpretations give rise to spurious non-causal dependences between events.

For example, suppose that the events c and e are effects of a common cause d . Byzantine? It is tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and e by Persuasive on Abusing Government Assistance, engaging in byzantine the following piece of counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to river online shopping, have been the art characteristics, case that d did not occur, in which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to be used in the assessment of causal dependence. The right counterfactuals to be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the counterfactual antecedent is supposed to obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the causal relation? Why is this direction typically aligned with the temporal direction from past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the direction of causation is the direction of causal dependence; and Persuasive Essay Assistance it is typically true that events causally depend on earlier events but not on byzantine later events. He emphasises the contingency of the latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out a priori . Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of counterfactuals that would deliver the temporal asymmetry by metropolis (film), conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is art characteristics based on a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. Hygiene? He defines a determinant for art characteristics an event as any set of conditions jointly sufficient, given the laws of river island, nature, for the event's occurrence. (Determinants of an event may be causes or traces of the event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. As an illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from a point source.

This is a process where each sample of the wave postdetermines what happens at the point at byzantine which the wave is emitted. He says the reverse process in which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of wave predetermining what happens at the point the wave is absorbed would obey the laws of fate mythology, nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the de facto asymmetry of byzantine, overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). According to this analysis, there are several respects of similarity to be taken into account in evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of nature and also similarity with respect to particular matters of fact. Worlds are more similar to the actual world the fewer miracles or violations of the actual laws of nature they contain. Fate Mythology? Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the greater the spatio-temporal region of perfect match of particular fact they have with the actual world. If the actual world is governed by deterministic laws, these rules will clash in assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to the actual world. For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the actual world either in allowing some violation of the actual laws, or in byzantine art characteristics differing from the actual world in particular matters of fact.

Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of similarity in scribble stage such cases. It implies that worlds with an extensive region of perfect match of art characteristics, particular fact can be considered very similar to factor, the actual world provided that the match in particular facts with the actual world is byzantine art characteristics achieved at the cost of a small, local miracle, but not at the cost of a big, diverse miracle. Taken by fate mythology, itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. That comes only when it is combined with the asymmetry of art characteristics, overdetermination. To see how the two parts combine, consider the famous example of fate mythology, Nixon and the Nuclear Holocaust. An early objection to Lewis's account of counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:

The argument is that a world in which Nixon pressed the button, but some minute violation of the laws then prevented a nuclear war, is byzantine much more like the actual world than one in which Nixon pressed the button and a nuclear war took place. Scribble Stage? Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the art characteristics, similarity relation. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the actual world by virtue of a miracle is more like the actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the actual world by fate mythology, virtue of a miracle. For in view of the asymmetry of overdetermination, the byzantine art characteristics, divergence miracle that allows Nixon to press the button need only thing be a small, local miracle, but the convergence miracle required to byzantine, wipe out the traces of Nixon's pressing the button must be a very big, diverse miracle. Of course, if the scribble stage, asymmetry of overdetermination went in the opposite temporal direction, the art characteristics, very same standards of similarity would dictate the opposite verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by preserving the actual past and allowing for divergence miracles are more similar to the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by allowing for convergence miracles that preserve the scribble stage, actual future. Art Characteristics? This fact in turn implies that, where the thing, asymmetry of overdetermination obtains, the byzantine art characteristics, present counterfactually depends on herzberg factor the past, but not on the future. According to Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is sufficient for art characteristics causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is possible to do the thing, have causation without causal dependence. This can happen in the following way.

Suppose that c causes d in virtue of the fact that d causally depends on c , and d causes e in virtue of the fact that e causally depends on d . Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . However, because causal dependence is not transitive like causation, the causal relation between c and e may not be matched by a causal dependence. (We shall shortly consider an example of this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to a transitive relation by byzantine art characteristics, taking its ancestral. He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and so on throughout the sequence. Then causation is herzberg factor finally defined in these terms: This definition not only ensures the transitivity of causation, but it also appears to solve an additional problem to do with preemption that is illustrated by the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the dictator on a public occasion. Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the dictator appears, both take aim. A pulls his trigger and fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from firing when he sees A pull his trigger.

Here assassin A 's actions are the actual cause of the byzantine art characteristics, dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. (Lewis distinguishes such cases of do the right, preemption from cases of symmetrical overdetermination in which two processes terminate in the effect, with neither process preempting the byzantine, other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for a theory of causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of preemption is that both actions are on a par from the (film), point of view of causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the dictator would not have died; and if either had acted without the other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of causation in terms of causal chains, Lewis is byzantine art characteristics able to island, distinguish the preempting actual cause from the byzantine, preempted potential cause. There is a causal chain running from A 's actions to the dictator's death, but no such chain running from B 's actions to the dictator's death. Scribble Stage? Take, for example, as an intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and byzantine art characteristics the dictator's death, the bullet from A 's gun speeding through the air in mid-trajectory. The speeding bullet causally depends on A 's action since the metropolis, bullet would not have been in mid-trajectory without A 's action; and the dictator's death causally depends on the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in mid-trajectory B has refrained from firing so that the art characteristics, dictator would not have died without the presence of the scribble stage, speeding bullet. (Notice that this case illustrates the failure of art characteristics, transitivity of causal dependence since the dictator's death does not causally depend on A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and herzberg so causation.

But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an actual cause of the death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of causation works under the assumption of determinism. But what about causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of causation. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in byzantine character. River Online Shopping? To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to a radioactive source and geiger counter in such a way that the bomb explodes when the counter registers a certain number of clicks.

If it happens that the counter registers the required number of clicks and the bomb explodes, your act caused the art characteristics, explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in terms of chancy counterfactuals. These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the counterfactual is an ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to the semantics above, and (film) the Pr operator is a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Lewis interprets the byzantine art characteristics, probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. Do The Right Thing? (See his (1980) for art characteristics the theory of single-case chance.) The more general notion of causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of deterministic causation in which the chance of the effect with the cause is 1 and the chance of the effect without the cause is 0. Fate Mythology? But it also allows for cases of irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. It is similar to byzantine, the central notion of Persuasive Essay Government, probabilistic relevance used in probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. (See the byzantine art characteristics, discussion in scribble stage Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the counterfactual approach over the probabilistic one.

Also see the entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the theory of chancy causation follows the outlines of the theory of deterministic causation. Causal dependence is extended to a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to survey some of the problems confronting Lewis's theory of causation, it is worthwhile pausing to art characteristics, consider some of the advantages it affords. At the time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of metropolis (film), causation were the orthodoxy. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of departure, these theories defined causation in terms of byzantine art characteristics, subsumption under lawful regularities.

A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of e if and only c belongs to a minimal set of conditions that are jointly suficient for e , given the herzberg hygiene factor, laws. It was well known that theories of this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. Thus, while c might belong to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e when c is a genuine cause of e , this might also be true when c is an effect of byzantine art characteristics, e an effect which could not have occurred, given the do the thing film, laws and the actual circumstances, except by art characteristics, being caused by e . Or it might be true when c and e are joint effects of a common deterministic cause. Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the thing, actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is not subject to the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in the definition of causal dependence and causation are interpreted in a non-backtracking fashion. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e , e will not causally depend on c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on later events. Nor will e causally depend on c when c and e are joint effects of a common cause, since the art characteristics, non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in view of the fact that it holds fixed the presence of the common cause. Nor will c count as a cause of e when c is a preempted potential cause of e in a typical case of preemption. Do The Right Film? For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to e by a chain of causal dependences. So at the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the explanatory benefits of Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.

For extensive discussions of the merits of counterfactual theories of causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. Art Characteristics? 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Problems for Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in Persuasive Government discussion over byzantine, the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of metropolis (film), attention has been paid to the context-sensitivity of causal statements. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the theory. The theory assumes that causation is an byzantine art characteristics, absolute relation whose nature does not vary from one context to another. (This follows from the way the counterfactuals that define the central notion of causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of do the right thing, weighted respects of similarity.) According to the theory, any event but for which an byzantine, effect would not have occurred is one of the effect's causes.

But this generates some absurd results. For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of wind fans the fire, the fire gets out of control and the forest burns down. It is thing film true that if the byzantine art characteristics, camper had not lit the fire, the herzberg, forest fire would not have occurred. But it is also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of a vast number of contingencies, including the camper's birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor before striking the match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and art characteristics background conditions, ranking the camper's lighting of the fire among the former, and his birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor, among the latter. H. L. A. Hart and A. Assistance? Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the distinction between causes and conditions is relative to context in at art characteristics least two different ways. One form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of occurrence.

If a forest is destroyed by fire, the presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the forest's destruction. On the other hand, if a fire breaks out in a laboratory where oxygen is deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to (film), cite the presence of oxygen as a cause of the fire. The second form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of enquiry. For example, the cause of a great famine in art characteristics India may be identified by an Indian farmer as the drought, but the World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to build up reserves as the fate mythology, cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of cause. In his view (1986d), every event has an objective causal history consisting of a vast structure of events ordered by art characteristics, causal dependence. The human mind may select parts of the causal history for attention, perhaps different parts for different purposes of enquiry. Fate Mythology? However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of invidious selection’ by which some parts of the causal history are selected for attention, except to byzantine, mention the hygiene, relevance of byzantine, Grice's maxims of conversation. Metropolis? But Grice's maxims of conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to explaining the causation-specific distinctions we draw. As several philosophers have pointed out (A.

Garfinkel (1981); C. Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to byzantine art characteristics, rely on considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is contrasted with. Thus, in the example of the Indian famine, we contrast the actual situation in which a famine occurs with another situation in which normal conditions prevail and a famine does not occur. A cause is then thought of as a factor that makes the difference between these situations; and the background conditions are thought of as those factors that are common to the two situations. In different contexts of enquiry, the contrast situation is framed in different terms. A farmer may take the contrast situation to be the normal situation in which the herzberg factor, government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. In this case it would be reasonable for byzantine art characteristics the farmer to identify the drought as the island, factor that makes the difference between this contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is famine.

On the other hand, an official of the World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the contrast situation to be one in which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against byzantine art characteristics droughts. Consequently, it would be reasonable for the official to see the failure of the government to build up food reserves as the factor that makes the difference between the contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is a famine. (For discussion of the relevance of contrastive explanation to fate mythology, the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and byzantine art characteristics Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at the effect-end but also at the cause-end. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. In evaluating whether an event c caused an event e , Lewis's theory says we have to consider what would have happened in island those closest worlds in which c did not occur. For example, in evaluating whether the camper's lighting of the byzantine, fire caused the forest, we have to consider what would have happened in those closest possible worlds in which the camper's action of lighting the fire did not occur. Are these worlds in which the camper does not light the fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in which he lights the fire in slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the wind died down)?

In order to answer such questions, Lewis says it is necessary to fate mythology, say how much of a change or a delay it takes for an event to become an altogether different event, rather than a different version of the same event. (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is one which cannot occur in a different manner or at a different time from its actual manner and art characteristics time of occurrence. See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is that there is right thing no unique principled way in which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about what event nominals refer to. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and if we presuppose sometimes one answer and sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. This is itself a big problem for a counterfactual analysis of causation, quite apart from the problem of preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the cause-end of causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the need to provide an account of the identity of events under counterfactual changes. Byzantine Art Characteristics? For example, suppose we are interested in why the forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in the starting point of the fire will be relevant to this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the Essay Assistance, camper's lighting the fire in location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the forest fire to take path P 1 rather than P 2 . On the other hand, suppose that we are interested in why the byzantine, forest occurred rather did not occur at river island all. Variation in the starting point of the art characteristics, fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the camper's lighting the fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the fire to occur rather than not to occur. Such causal statements reveal the relevant contrasts at both the cause- and the effect-ends. Herzberg? Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by byzantine art characteristics, the use of emphasis as in “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to take path P 1 ”.

But more often than not the surface form of causal statements does not disclose the Persuasive Government, contrasts that are intended and they must be supplied by context. This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in causal statements. But it is not indeterminacy about the byzantine art characteristics, reference of event nominals, but rather about the situations that are intended as contrasts for the cause and the effect. Once these are resolved the linguistic indeterminacy is resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the fate mythology, arguments above for art characteristics the context-relativity of scribble stage, causal statements think that the canonical form of causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. This suggests that the definition of causal dependence should not be formulated in terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the byzantine, more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of c , then e* would have occurred instead of e ”. This formulation has several advantages over river online, the old formulation. (For discussion of byzantine art characteristics, this point see Schaffer 2005. Scribble Stage? For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of our discussion is that it obviates the need for the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the identity of events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is art characteristics no need to work out whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and e ,respectively. It is simply stipulated on the basis of contextual considerations that c* and e* are intended to act as contrasts to c and e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the fate mythology, temporal asymmetry of causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.

6; Horwich 1987: Chap. 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. Byzantine? 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. 6.; Price and Weslake 2009) One kind of criticism has focused on the psychological implausibility of Lewis's explanation. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the fate mythology, explanation appeals, on the one hand, to a system of weighted respects of similarity between possible worlds that is delivered by a priori conceptual analysis and, on the other hand, to an asymmetry of art characteristics, overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. The two-part explanation is supposed to employ facts that are sufficiently well known to scribble stage, play a role in the explanation of our linguistic use of art characteristics, counterfactuals. However, it is hygiene factor psychologically implausible that the intricate system of byzantine, weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of miracles of different sizes could capture the intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Fate Mythology? Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of similarity?

Moreover, the asymmetry of overdetermination is an esoteric scientific hypothesis that is not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. So it is very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow” in his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is that the asymmetry of overdetermination does not exist in the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. Byzantine? Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an event is a set of conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the occurrence of the event. But if Lewis is scribble stage assuming that the laws involved are like those of byzantine art characteristics, classical mechanics, he is mistaken on island shopping this score. For a theory that is byzantine art characteristics time symmetric and deterministic in both the forward and backward direction will imply that for any local event e and any time t , there is right thing film a unique set of conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and sufficient, given the laws, for the occurrence of the byzantine, event e . The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. For example, consider Popper's example of the wave spreading out from a point source. If there is a process that postdetermines what happens at the point at river island online shopping which the wave is emitted, there is also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and byzantine art characteristics Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time”.)

A related criticism concerns the asymmetry of miracles that is central to Lewis's account of the temporal asymmetry of causation. Scribble Stage? The asymmetry of byzantine art characteristics, miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about particular facts at time t by Persuasive Government Assistance, having a possible world diverge from the actual world just before the time t is smaller and less diverse than a miracle that realises the same counterfactual antecedent and makes a possible world converge to the actual world after the time t . Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of art characteristics, miracles does not hold in fate mythology many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an example: Gretta cracks an egg into byzantine art characteristics a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at 8:05am the egg is metropolis (film) cooked. Consider the process that occurs in the period from 8:00am to 8:05am, run backwards in time: a cooked egg sits in the frypan; it coalesces into a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. The laws of thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is very sensitive in its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in the molecules making up the state of the byzantine art characteristics, cooked egg would result in the process evolving in fate mythology such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in the pan rather than coalescing into a raw egg and leaping upwards. Byzantine Art Characteristics? But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for a “convergence miracle”. Take the state of the herzberg, actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and byzantine art characteristics then run the laws of thermodynamics backwards in time, and we will almost certainly arrive at a state in which the egg sits in the pan growing colder.

This state will be one in which Gretta does not crack the egg. The small change in Persuasive Essay the state of the actual world at 8:05am is a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the egg at 8:00am while holding fixed the byzantine, actual future after 8:05am. But this miracle is not the large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into causation by defining it in terms of chains of causal dependence. The transitivity of Persuasive Essay on Abusing Government, causation fits with some of byzantine, our explanatory practices.

For example, historians wishing to explain some significant historical event will trace the explanation back through a number of causal links, concluding that the do the, event at the beginning of the causal chain is responsible for the event being explained. On the other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on transitivity. (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of these counterexamples.) Here is art characteristics a sample of do the right, two counterexamples. First, an example due to Ned Hall (2004). Byzantine? A person is walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is dislodged and comes careering down the factor, mountain slopes. The walker notices the boulder and ducks at the appropriate time. The careering boulder causes the walker to duck and byzantine art characteristics this, in herzberg factor turn, causes his continued stride. (This second causal link involves double prevention : the duck prevents the byzantine art characteristics, collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the walker's continued stride.) However, the careering boulder is the sort of scribble stage, thing that would prevent the walker's continued stride and art characteristics so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an example due to Persuasive Essay on Abusing Government Assistance, Douglas Ehring (1987). Jones puts some potassium salts into a hot fire.

Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the byzantine art characteristics, flame changes to a purple colour, though everything else remains the same. The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. Here we judge that putting the potassium salts in island online the fire caused the purple flame, which in turn caused the flammable material to ignite. Art Characteristics? But it seems implausible to judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the flammable material to ignite. Various replies have been made to these counterexamples. The second counterexample seems the most easily deflected. Fate Mythology? For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at the effect-end of the first causal statement does not match up with the art characteristics, contrast situation at the cause-end of the Essay, second causal statement. Thus, the first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to turn purple rather than yellow ; but the second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the flammable material to ignite rather not to art characteristics, ignite. Where there is a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to right thing, transitivity.

L. Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in terms of event aspects, which she takes to art characteristics, be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is mismatch between the fate mythology, event aspect that is the effect of the first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and the event aspect that is the cause of the second causal link (the flame's touching the flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the same way. Some defenders of transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the intransitivity of causation in these examples are misleading. For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out that the counterexamples to transitivity typically involve a structure in which a c -type event generally prevents an e -type but in the particular case the c -event actually causes another event that counters the threat and causes the e -event. If we mix up questions of what is generally conducive to what, with questions about what caused what in byzantine this particular case, he says, we may think that it is reasonable to deny that c causes e . But if we keep the focus sharply on the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of causation is not easily settled, partly because it is tied up with the issue of how it is best for metropolis a counterfactual theory to deal with examples of preemption. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on the transitivity of causation to handle cases of preemption. If such cases could be handled in some other way, that would take some of the theoretical pressure off the byzantine art characteristics, theory, allowing it concede the do the right, persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to the difficulties posed by preemption. Byzantine Art Characteristics? (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.

For an extensive discussion of the issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of defining causation in terms of chains of causal dependence not only to make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to be the biggest bugbear for Lewis's theory.(Paul and scribble stage Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an extensive discussion of the problems posed by art characteristics, preemption and scribble stage other kinds of redundant causation for counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of early and late preemption . In early preemption examples, the process running from the preempted alternative is cut short before the art characteristics, main process running from the preempting cause has gone to Persuasive on Abusing, completion. The example of the byzantine art characteristics, two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of scribble stage, causation in terms of chains of causal dependence can handle this sort of example.

In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in which the process running from the preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to completion and brought about the effect. The following is an example of late preemption due to Hall (2004). Billy and Suzy throw rocks at a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and shatters the glass. Byzantine? Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the bottle. However, Suzy's throw is the fate mythology, actual cause of the byzantine art characteristics, shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is merely a preempted potential cause. Fate Mythology? This is a case of byzantine art characteristics, late preemption because the alternative process (Billy's throw) is cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the judgement that Suzy's throw was the actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is island online no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is byzantine art characteristics there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is scribble stage no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and the shattering that links them up into a chain of dependences.

Take, for byzantine art characteristics instance, Suzy's rock in mid-trajectory. Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the fate mythology, problem is that the shattering of the byzantine, bottle does not depend on it, because even without it the bottle would still have shattered because of Billy's throw. To be sure, the bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. For a start, it would have occurred later. This observation suggests that one solution to the problem of late preemption might be to insist that the events involved should be construed as fragile events. Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. River Island Online? Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against byzantine our usual practices, and would generate many spurious causal dependences. For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and painfully when taken on a full stomach. Then, the victim's eating dinner before he drinks the poison would count as a cause of his death since the time and manner of the death depend on river island the eating of the dinner. (For discussion of the limitations of this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from byzantine preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the problems for Lewis's theory multiply.

One particularly recalcitrant problem is metropolis described in Menzies 1989. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the same effect, perhaps at byzantine the same time and in Persuasive on Abusing Government the same manner. (It does not matter whether this is an example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the other. The reliable system starts and, left to art characteristics, itself, will very probably produce the effect. But you do not leave it to itself. You throw a switch that shuts down the reliable system and turns on the unreliable one. As luck would have it, the unreliable system works and brings about the scribble stage, effect. This kind of example presents a problem for art characteristics the probabilistic generalisation of the counterfactual theory because the preempting actual cause decreases the chance of the fate mythology, effect while the preempted potential cause increases its chance. In addition to the problem of explaining how the art characteristics, preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the effect does not causally depend on it, the probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the problem of explaining how the preempted cause is not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on it.(Examples of fate mythology, this kind have been the subject of extensive discussion in art characteristics the context of both counterfactual and probabilistic theories of causation. For discussions about how best to island shopping, deal with them within theories admitting of indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to causation, which have been motivated by the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

In an attempt to deal with the art characteristics, various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the counterfactual theory, which he first presented in his Whitehead Lectures at fate mythology Harvard University in March 1999. (A shortened version of the byzantine art characteristics, lectures appeared as his (2000). The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in the new theory, as in the old. But the (film), counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of whether one event occurs on whether another event occurs. Byzantine Art Characteristics? The counterfactuals state dependences of whether , when , and how one event occurs on whether , when , and how another event occurs. A key idea in the formulation of these counterfactuals is that of an alteration of an do the right, event. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at a slightly different time or in a slightly different manner from the given event. An alteration is, by definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at art characteristics a different time, or in a different manner without being a different event. Lewis intends the terminology to be neutral on the issue of whether an alteration of an event is a version of the same event or a numerically different event.

The central notion of the new theory is that of influence. Where one event influences another, there is a pattern of counterfactual dependence of whether, when, and how upon whether, when, and how. Island Online Shopping? As before, causation is defined as an ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in art characteristics favour of this new theory is that it handles cases of late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is restricted to deterministic causation and so does not address the example of probabilistic preemption described in section 3.4.) Reconsider, for instance, the example of late preemption involving Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the cause of the Persuasive Government, shattering of the bottle. If we take an alteration in which Suzy's throw is slightly different (the rock is lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the shattering is different too. But if we make similar alterations to Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the art characteristics, shattering is unchanged. Another point in favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of preemption Lewis that have come to be called trumping . (Trumping was first described by Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an river shopping, example involving a major and a sergeant who are shouting orders at the soldiers. The major and sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the soldiers hear them both and advance. Since the soldiers obey the superior officer, they advance because the art characteristics, major orders them to, not because the sergeant does.

So the major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at all. There is, however, some reason for scepticism about whether the new theory handles the examples of late preemption and trumping completely satisfactorily.

In the example of late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of (film), influence on the shattering of the bottle. For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in byzantine art characteristics a different manner, the bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Fate Mythology? Likewise, the sergeant's command has some degree of influence on the soldiers' advance in that if the sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. In response to these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the events are too-distant to be considered relevant. But some metric of distance in alterations is required, since it seems that similar alterations of Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the byzantine, new theory generates a great number of spurious instances of causation. (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to a certain degree counts as one of do the film, its causes. But common sense is more discriminating about art characteristics causes. To take an example of Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the forest would have caught fire in January rather than when it actually did in February. Herzberg? The rain influences the fire with respect to its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.

But common sense denies that the rain was a cause of the fire , though it allows that it is a cause of the delay in the fire . Similarly, in the example of the byzantine, poison victim discussed above, the victim's ingesting poison on a full stomach influences the time and metropolis (film) manner of his death (making it a slow and painful death), but common sense refuses to countenance his eating dinner as a cause of his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of byzantine, its being a slow and painful death . Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the time and scribble stage manner of an event to be a cause of the event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from byzantine art characteristics a purely counterfactual analysis of causation. It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the intuitive idea that causation is an intrinsic relation between events, which is to river island online, say it is a local relation depending on the intrinsic properties of the events and what goes on between them, and nothing else. The proposed treatments of preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of byzantine, counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to this way of treating late preemption examples when he invoked the notion of quasi-dependence . (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.

Suzy throws a rock and shatters the fate mythology, bottle in exactly the byzantine, same way in fate mythology which she does in the original case. But in this case Billy and his rock are entirely absent. Lewis argued that since the process in byzantine the original case and the process in the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the same laws), both or neither must be causal. However, the comparison process is herzberg factor surely a causal process since, thanks to byzantine art characteristics, Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. Accordingly, the process in the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. In such examples Lewis has said that the actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by metropolis (film), courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in virtue of its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in the comparison case.

A related idea is pursued in Menzies (1996; 1999). Menzies argues that there is an element in our concept of causation that resists capture in purely counterfactual terms. Art Characteristics? This element consists in the idea that causation is a structural relation that underlies and supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the herzberg hygiene, concept of causation as the art characteristics, concept of a theoretical entity. Scribble Stage? Applying a standard treatment of byzantine art characteristics, theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the fate mythology, unique occupant of a certain characteristic role given by the platitudes of the folk theory of causation. One platitude is that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Another platitude is art characteristics that it is typically , but not invariably, accompanied by causal dependence.

Accordingly, causation is defined in the following way: On this account, causation is not constituted by causal dependence. Persuasive Essay On Abusing Government? It is, in fact, a distinct relation for which causal dependence is, at best, a defeasible marker. The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to byzantine art characteristics, explain common sense intuitions about preemption examples.

For example, Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, caused the shattering of the bottle, because the intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the shattering of the Government, bottle. Lewis later rejected the approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in favour of byzantine, his 2000 theory in terms of influence. In Lewis 2004a and 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation do not do justice to scribble stage, the full range of our intuitions about causation. (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for our discussion. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic matter does not apply to cases of double prevention. Suppose that billiard balls 1 and 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on its way and hitting ball 3. If the collision of balls 1 and 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. So, we have double prevention: the byzantine, collision of balls 1 and 2 prevented the collision of Persuasive Government Assistance, balls 1 and 3, which would have prevented the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Here it seems reasonable to say that the collision of byzantine, balls 1 and 2 was a cause of the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Lewis observes that the causation in such cases of double prevention is partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from hitting ball 3, the collision of 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of 1 and 2. Herzberg Factor? Moreover, he notes that much of the spatiotemporal region between the collision of byzantine, balls 1 and 2 and the collision of balls 3 and 4 is simply empty so that there is no chain of river shopping, events to serve as a connecting process between cause and effect. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic relation does not apply in this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of art characteristics, one specific kind of causation, and they fail to Persuasive Assistance, do justice to our intuitions about causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

A number of contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and Hitchcock 2003) have explored an alternative counterfactual approach to causation that employs the byzantine, structural equations framework. This framework, which has been used in herzberg hygiene the social sciences and biomedical sciences since the 1930s and byzantine 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to Pearl's work and to thing film, the related work on causal Bayes nets by Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines (1993). Byzantine Art Characteristics? However, while Pearl and Spirtes, Glymour and scribble stage Scheines focus on issues to do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and Hitchcock focus on issues of the meaning of causal claims. For this reason, their formulations of the structural equations framework are better suited to the purposes of this discussion.

The exposition of this section follows that of Hitchcock 2001, in particular. While philosophical work using this framework has only just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to rival Lewis's framework in terms of its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the art characteristics, causal structure of a system in terms of scribble stage, a causal model of the system, which is identified as an byzantine, ordered pair V , E , where V is a set of variables and E a set of structural equations stating deterministic relations among the variables. (We shall confine our attention in this section to fate mythology, deterministic systems.) The variables in V describe the different possible states of the system in question. While they can take any number of values, in the simple examples to be considered here the variables are typically binary variables that take the value 1 if some event occurs and art characteristics the value 0 if the event does not occur. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the system exemplified in the example of late preemption to do with Billy and Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the system using the following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the fate mythology, bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the art characteristics, bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. Herzberg Hygiene? But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in which Billy and art characteristics Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the bottle, or the bottle shattered.

The structural equations in a model describe the dynamical evolution of the herzberg hygiene factor, system being modelled. There is a structural equation for each variable. Byzantine Art Characteristics? The form taken by a structural equation for a variable depends on which kind of variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors outside of the factor, model) takes the form of Y = y , which simply states the actual value of the variable. The structural equation for an endogenous variable (the values of which are determined by art characteristics, factors within the model) states how the value of the variable is determined by the values of the other variables.

It takes the (film), form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in fact competing interpretations. Pearl (2000) regards the structural equations as the conceptual primitives of his framework, describing them as representing the basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. Byzantine Art Characteristics? However, for the purposes of exposition, it is do the film more convenient to follow the interpretation of Woodward (2003) and Hitchcock (2001), who think of the structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the following form:

As this form of counterfactual suggests, the structural equations are to be read from right to left: the antecedent of the art characteristics, counterfactual states possible values of the (film), variables X 1 through to X n and the consequent states the corresponding value of the endogenous variable Y . There is a counterfactual of this kind for every combination of possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n . It is important to byzantine art characteristics, note that a structural equation of this kind is not, strictly speaking, an identity since there is Government a right-to-left asymmetry built into it. This asymmetry corresponds to the asymmetry of non-backtracking counterfactuals. For example, supposing that the actual situation is one in which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the bottle would have shattered” is true. But the counterfactual “If the bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is false. As an illustration, consider the set of structural equations that might be used to model the late preemption example of Billy and Suzy. Given the variables listed above, the structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to represent mathematical functions on byzantine art characteristics binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . The first two equations simply state the actual values of the exogenous variables ST and BT . The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for each possible value of ST . It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the herzberg hygiene, bottle. The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and byzantine Suzy's rock didn't hit the bottle, Billy's rock hit the bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of these conditions was not met.

The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for SH and BH . It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the bottle, the bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the bottle, the bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in terms of a directed graph . The variables in the set V are represented as nodes in herzberg hygiene the graph. An arrow directed from one node X to another Y represents the fact that the variable X appears on the right-hand side of the structural equation for Y . In this case, X is byzantine said to be a parent of Y . Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from X to Y in metropolis (film) a graph is a sequence of arrows that connect X with Y . The directed graph of the byzantine, model described above of Billy and Suzy example is depicted in Figure 1 below: The arrows in this figure tell us that the bottle's shattering is a function of Suzy's rock hitting the bottle and fate mythology Billy's rock hitting the bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the bottle; and that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of art characteristics, her throwing the island shopping, rock. As we have seen, the byzantine, structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. Consider, for example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.

As a matter of fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the other equations unchanged. So, instead of having its value determined in Persuasive on Abusing Assistance the ordinary way by the variable ST , the value of SH is set “miraculously”. Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the value of the variable. In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to wiping out the arrow from the variable ST to the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an byzantine, exogenous variable. After this operation, the value of the variable BS can be computed and metropolis (film) shown to be equal to 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the bottle and art characteristics shattered it. So this particular counterfactual is river true. Art Characteristics? This procedure for evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is similar in its effects to Lewis's small miracle that realises the counterfactual antecedent but preserves the past. In general, to scribble stage, evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the original equation for each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the byzantine, other equations unchanged; then one computes the values for the remaining variables to see whether they make the consequent true. This technique of replacing an equation with a hypothetical value set by a “surgical intervention” enables us to capture the fate mythology, notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:

How does the structural equations framework deal with examples of late pre-emption that pose such problems for Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the intuitively correct verdicts in the example about Suzy and byzantine art characteristics Billy? Halpern and Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the same treatment of examples of late preemption. The key to their treatment is the employment of a certain procedure for testing the existence of a causal relation. Fate Mythology? The procedure is to look for an intrinsic process connecting the byzantine art characteristics, putative cause and effect; suppress the influence of their non-intrinsic surroundings by “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and then subject the putative cause to a counterfactual test. Hygiene? So, for example, to test whether the variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to art characteristics, shatter, we should examine the process running from ST through SH to BS ; hold fix at its actual value the variable BH which is extrinsic to metropolis, this process; and then wiggle the variable ST to art characteristics, see if it changes the value of BS . The last steps involve evaluating the counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the island online, bottle would not have shattered”. It is easy to see that this counterfactual is true. In contrast, when we carry out a similar procedure to test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to byzantine art characteristics, shatter,we are required to consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and Suzy's rock had hit the bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is false. It is the difference in the truth-value of these two counterfactuals that explains the island, fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and not Billy's, that caused the bottle to shatter. (A similar theory is developed in Yablo 2002 and 2004 though not in art characteristics the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of do the right, this reasoning.

He defines a route between two variables X and Z in byzantine art characteristics the set V to fate mythology, be an ordered sequence of byzantine, variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in the sequence is in V and herzberg is a parent of its successor in the sequence. A variable Y is intermediate between X and Z if and only if it belongs to some route between X and Z . Then he introduces the new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in the example of Suzy and Billy. Byzantine Art Characteristics? There is an active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the bottle to the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the bottle, which is the actual value of the only intermediate variable BH that is not on this route, we see that the bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on Suzy's throwing her rock. There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and the bottle shattering. In terms of the Persuasive on Abusing Assistance, notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in art characteristics the following terms: A crucial notion in this definition is that of “an appropriate” model. It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of causal relations being posited by right film, different models willy-nilly. Byzantine Art Characteristics? So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by “appropriate models”.

He mentions a number of criteria for appraising whether a model is appropriate, the most important one being that the structural equations posited by the model must not imply any false counterfactual. In order to deal with examples of symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the essential idea being that there is a weakly active route between X and Y just when Y counterfactually depends on X under the metropolis (film), freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the variables that are not on the route from X to Y . As we shall not be considering any examples of oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on the stronger notion of an active causal route. This account of byzantine, causation differs from Lewis's accounts in herzberg hygiene a number of respects. One difference is that the account does not appeal to the transitivity of causation to deal with preemption examples, in contrast to Lewis's accounts, both early and byzantine late. Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to stress that the structural equations framework described above allows for failures of metropolis, transitivity. Art Characteristics? Another difference between the accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in order to right thing film, handle preemption examples. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at their actual values. (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of byzantine, such counterfactuals, relying as it does on counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of river, non-backtracking counterfactuals and they interpret these counterfactuals in byzantine art characteristics roughly the same fashion. Setting aside complications to do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the same way: we are to hold fixed the past history of the system, imagine that the antecedent is realised “miraculously” by a surgical intervention from outside the system, and then consider how the new state of the system would evolve in conformity with the structural equations or laws of the system without any further interventions. How plausible is this new counterfactual approach to causation?

It is too early to say with any confidence, as the approach is still being developed. Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for instance, the following example, which is fate mythology a variant of one described by Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in the king's coffee. The bodyguard responds by pouring an antidote in the king's coffee. If the byzantine art characteristics, bodyguard had not poured the antidote in the coffee, the king would have died. On the other hand, the antidote is fatal when taken by itself; and if the poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the king. The poison and the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. In fact, the king drinks the coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the following variables: A = 1 if the assassin pours poison into the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:

The directed graph for this model is depicted in Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the assassin's pouring the poison in the coffee to island shopping, the king's survival is art characteristics active. Holding fixed the fact that the bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into the coffee, we note that the king would not have survived if the assassin had not put the fate mythology, poison in the coffee first. So the theory licenses the byzantine, verdict that the assassin's pouring in the poison caused the Persuasive Essay on Abusing, king to survive. Art Characteristics? However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in the king's coffee is exactly the kind of thing that is likely to kill the king. It might be argued that the causal verdict is river island online justified in view of the fact that the assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in turn caused the king's survival. But this appeal to the transitivity of causation is not open to the defenders of byzantine, this theory, who deny the validity of metropolis (film), transitivity.

One counterexample by byzantine art characteristics, itself is not enough to disprove the whole structural equations framework. Strictly speaking, it only casts doubt on the theory of causation that defines causation in terms of the presence of an active causal route. There are alternative definitions within the structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by several philosophers is to appeal to a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and “deviant” values of variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the system, whereas a deviant value represents an abnormal or unusual state of the system. The correlative notion of the default course of evolution for a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of values that the variables in a model take when the default values of the exogenous variables are plugged into the structural equations of the model. Thus, if we set the value of the exogenous variable A in the example above at its default value 0 instead of its actual value 1, we can see that the scenario described above will evolve in the following way: the herzberg factor, assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the bodyguard doesn't put the antidote into byzantine the coffee, and herzberg factor the king survives. Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the default course of evolution rather than the art characteristics, actual course of evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on the assassin's action and metropolis the king's survival depends on the bodyguard's action, but the king's survival doesn't depend on the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on the default course of evolution are taken to indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. (For further discussion of this idea, see Hall 2007 and art characteristics Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to river island online, be seen whether the various attempts to augment the structural equations framework with a distinction between default and deviant values are successful or not. (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and Halpern and byzantine art characteristics Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009. For a critical discussion of these attempts see Schaffer 2013. For general discussion of the role of the fate mythology, default/deviant distinction in causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)

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