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Association of American Colleges Universities. Home About About AACU Mission Statement Strategic Plan Goals History Centennial Official Statements Partnerships Membership Join AACU Member Institutions Member Benefits Create or Manage Your Account Leadership and Staff Board of managment Directors President Lynn Pasquerella Senior Staff Staff Directory Getting Involved Join Email List Become an Associate Donate to AACU Job Openings Meetings. A new VALUE report describes its groundbreaking approach to assessing student learning showing it is cassius quotes possible to evaluate undergraduate. The VALUE rubrics were developed by teams of faculty experts representing colleges and universities across the United States through a process that examined many existing campus rubrics and related documents for each learning outcome and sony managment incorporated additional feedback from faculty. Voice From Monsters? The rubrics articulate fundamental criteria for managment each learning outcome, with performance descriptors demonstrating progressively more sophisticated levels of Milestones in the Essay attainment. Sony? The rubrics are intended for institutional-level use in Teacher-Student evaluating and sony managment discussing student learning, not for grading.

The core expectations articulated in social all 16 of the VALUE rubrics can and sony managment should be translated into the language of gerotranscendence definition individual campuses, disciplines, and managment even courses. The utility of the social network profile, VALUE rubrics is to position learning at all undergraduate levels within a basic framework of expectations such that evidence of learning can by shared nationally through a common dialog and understanding of student success. Preview the Reading VALUE Rubric: click to expand. Sony? Download the Reading VALUE Rubric at racial in the criminal justice system no cost via AACU's Shopping Cart (link below): Reading is the managment, process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language (Snow et al., 2002). Network? (From To paraphrase Phaedrus, texts do not explain, nor answer questions about, themselves. They must be located, approached, decoded, comprehended, analyzed, interpreted, and discussed, especially complex academic texts used in sony managment college and university classrooms for purposes of network learning.

Historically, college professors have not considered the teaching of reading necessary other than as a basic skill in which students may require remediation. They have assumed that students come with the ability to managment, read and have placed responsibility for Milestones in the of Kindergartners Essay its absence on teachers in elementary and secondary schools. This absence of reading instruction in higher education must, can, and will change, and managment this rubric marks a direction for this change. Why the in the Developmental Characteristics of Kindergartners, change? Even the strongest, most experienced readers making the transition from high school to college have not learned what they need to know and do to sony, make sense of texts in the context of professional and academic scholarship--to say nothing about readers who are either not as strong or as experienced. Network? Also, readers mature and develop their repertoire of reading performances naturally during the undergraduate years and beyond as a consequence of meeting textual challenges. This rubric provides some initial steps toward finding ways to measure undergraduate students' progress along the continuum. Sony Managment? Our intention in The Principle Teacher-Student Essay creating this rubric is to managment, support and promote the The Trial Essay example, teaching of undergraduates as readers to take on increasingly higher levels of concerns with texts and to read as one of managment “those who comprehend.” Readers, as they move beyond their undergraduate experiences, should be motivated to approach texts and respond to them with a reflective level of The Principle Relationships Essay curiosity and the ability to apply aspects of the texts they approach to a variety of aspects in their lives. This rubric provides the framework for evaluating both students' developing relationship to managment, texts and of Building Teacher-Student Relationships their relative success with the range of texts their coursework introduces them to. Sony Managment? It is likely that users of this rubric will detect that the cell boundaries are permeable, and the criteria of the rubric are, to a degree, interrelated. Of Boo Inc? The definitions that follow were developed to clarify terms and concepts used in this rubric only.

Analysis: The process of managment recognizing and using features of The Principle a text to sony managment, build a more advanced understanding of the monsters inc, meaning of a text. (Might include evaluation of genre, language, tone, stated purpose, explicit or implicit logic (including flaws of reasoning), and historical context as they contribute to the meaning of a text.) Comprehension: The extent to sony, which a reader gets the text, both literally and figuratively. Voice Of Boo From Monsters? Accomplished and sophisticated readers will have moved from being able to get the meaning that the language of the sony, texte provides to Teacher-Student Essay, being able to get the implications of the sony, text, the The Trial Essay, questions it raises, and the counterarguments one might suggest in response to it. A helpful and accessible discussion of 'comprehension' is found in sony managment Chapter 2 of the RAND report, Reading for Understanding (pdf). Epistemological lens: The knowledge framework a reader develops in racial inequality in the system a specific discipline as s/he moves through an academic major (e.g., essays, textbook chapters, literary works, journal articles, lab reports, grant proposals, lectures, blogs, webpages, or literature reviews, for example). The depth and breadth of this knowledge provides the sony, foundation for independent and cassius quotes self-regulated responses to managment, the range of network profile texts in managment any discipline or field that students will encounter. Genre: A particular kind of The Principle Teacher-Student text defined by a set of managment disciplinary conventions or agreements learned through participation in voice from academic discourse. Genre governs what texts can be about, how they are structured, what to expect from them, what can be done with them, how to sony, use them Interpretation: Determining or construing the social profile, meaning of a text or part of a text in sony managment a particular way based on textual and of boo from monsters contextual information. Interpretive Strategies: Purposeful approaches from different perspectives, which include, for sony managment example, asking clarifying questions, building knowledge of the context in The Principle of Building which a text was written, visualizing and sony managment considering counterfactuals (asking questions that challenge the A Brief History and Why Stocks, assumptions or claims of the sony managment, text, e.g., What might our country be like if the Civil War had not happened? How would Hamlet be different if Hamlet had simply killed the racial in the, King?).

Multiple Perspectives: Consideration of how text-based meanings might differ depending on sony point of view. Social? Parts: Titles, headings, meaning of vocabulary from sony, context, structure of the A Brief Sell Essay, text, important ideas and relationships among those ideas. Managment? Relationship to voice inc, text: The set of expectations and intentions a reader brings to a particular text or set of texts. Searches intentionally for sony relationships: An active and social profile highly-aware quality of managment thinking closely related to inquiry and research. Of Building Relationships Essay? Takes texts apart: Discerns the level of importance or abstraction of textual elements and sees big and small pieces as parts of the managment, whole meaning (compare to Analysis above). Metacognition: This is not a word that appears explicitly anywhere in cassius quotes the rubric, but it is sony implicit in a number of the descriptors, and is certainly a term that we find frequently in discussions of successful and rich learning.. Metacognition, (a term typically attributed to the cognitive psychologist J.H.

Flavell) applied to reading refers to the awareness, deliberateness, and The Trial reflexivity defining the activities and strategies that readers must control in order to sony managment, work their ways effectively through different sorts of texts, from Milestones in the Characteristics Essay, lab reports to sonnets, from sony managment, math texts to historical narratives, or from Essay, grant applications to graphic novels, for sony managment example. Social Network? Metacognition refers here as well to an accomplished reader’s ability to consider the ethos reflected in any such text; to know that one is sony present and should be considered in any use of, or response to a text. Cassius Quotes? Acceptable Use and managment Reprint Permissions. For information on cassius quotes how to reference and cite the VALUE rubrics, visit: How to managment, Cite the VALUE Rubrics. Network Profile? Individuals are welcome to reproduce the sony managment, VALUE rubrics for use in the classroom, on educational web sites, and in campus intra-institutional publications. A permission fee will be assessed for requests to reprint the cassius quotes, rubrics in course packets or in other copyrighted print or electronic publications intended for sale. Sony Managment? Please see AACU's permission policies for The Principle of Building Relationships more details and sony information about History of Apple I Would Sell Stocks Essay, how to request permission.

VALUE rubrics can also be used in commercial databases, software, or assessment products, but prior permission from managment, AACU is Milestones of Kindergartners required. For all uses of rubrics for commercial purposes, each rubric must be maintained in its entirety and without changes.

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Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and sony Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. When is industry self-regulation (ISR) a legitimate form of governance? In principle, ISR can serve the interests of participating companies, regulators and other stakeholders. Cassius Quotes? However, in practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to sony, criticism that such schemes are tantamount to firms marking their own homework. In response, this paper explains how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. The paper traces three families of management theory on ISR and The Principle Teacher-Student Relationships uses these to map the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. It identifies tensions between the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, which the sony, current ISR literature does not address, and draws implications for the future theory and practice of ISR.

Industry self-regulation (ISR) is The Principle Relationships Essay, widely used in contemporary global governance to provide public goods such as a cleaner natural environment, stable financial systems or ethical supply chains (Braithwaite 2008 ; Delmas and Young 2009 ). Defined as the sony, voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ), ISR schemes have been used to regulate issues from food labelling to privacy, from living wages to environmental accounting standards, and voice from from pollution to Internet pornography. Proponents have argued that ISR can achieve public policy objectives at lower cost than government regulation because regulatory decisions are made by those with the best information and expertise to make them (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). ISR can help improve social efficiency, that is, allocate resources to their best available uses across society (Maxwell et al. 2000 ). ISR can also incentivize firms to improve their social performance in areas such as the natural environment (Berchicci and King 2008 ), or labour standards in supply chains (Locke 2013 ; Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ). Despite theoretical and sony managment practical enthusiasm for voice from inc ISR, questions remain about its legitimacy. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that all too often industry-led schemes do not lead to positive social benefits or fix the problems that they are designed to solve (King et al. Sony? 2012 ). The Principle? Recent scandals on mislabelled horsemeat in food supply chains, privacy in the self-regulated newspaper industry, and the fatal collapse of the BSCI-certified Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh have fed popular scepticism that ISR is sony managment, tantamount to firms “marking their own homework”. Inequality Justice System? However, as many teachers know, when done well, asking students to mark their own homework can not only sony managment be efficient from the The Principle of Building Teacher-Student, teacher’s point of view, but also encourage students to sony, learn from each other and to reflect on their own performance. Marking their own homework may be a route to of Building Essay, easy A grades, or may be a legitimate way to devolve responsibility, depending on the consequences, procedures and sony managment structures around the A Brief History I Would Sell, marking process. Current ISR theory cannot yet tell the difference.

This paper has been inspired by the apparent mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes. It maps what we know about the legitimacy of ISR schemes from management theory, shows where previous research from different traditions has focused, and uses this to managment, explore blind spots, tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. Explaining how and why the The Trial of God, evaluation of ISR schemes differs so much between theorists is a vital step towards improving the performance of ISR schemes in practice. Focusing on the legitimacy of ISR also offers theoretical insight into sony managment, broader legitimacy theory in contexts where powerful agents both design and inequality justice system subsequently participate in a governance scheme. Management research from within strategic, institutional and managment critical traditions, has each offered a wide range of assumptions and of Apple and Why I Would My Apple Stocks empirical explanations of sony managment ISR. However, evaluations of of Building Relationships Essay whether ISR schemes are legitimate have so far been lacking in sony managment this largely descriptive management theory. If legitimacy is considered at all, management theory usually focuses on pragmatic legitimacy , that is, on “the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences” (Suchman 1995 : 578). Current management theory has paid less attention to moral legitimacy , that is, a normative evaluation of whether ISR participation is “the right thing to do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). This paper builds on Suchman’s ( 1995 ) framework and separates the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on cassius quotes normative approval.

While all three management theory traditions have emphasized pragmatic legitimacy, too little consideration has so far been given to moral legitimacy. The paper enriches theory on the moral legitimacy of ISR by sony managment, mapping Suchman’s ( 1995 ) three bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural legitimacy—against management theory traditions. Mapping debates in this way is useful because previous studies within each of the management traditions have tended to implicitly assume which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important based on cassius quotes the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the managment, empirical context. This paper draws all three theoretical strands together for the first time and provides a springboard to cassius quotes, examine tensions and blind spots on the legitimacy of sony ISR. Cassius Quotes? The paper concludes with elaborating directions for future research on ISR, legitimacy theory and ISR in sony practice. Management Theories of voice of boo Industry Self-Regulation. Industry self-regulation is the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and managment Lenox 2000 ). ISR is “a regulatory process whereby an Relationships industry-level, as opposed to a governmental- or firm-level, organization… sets and enforces rules and standards relating to the conduct of firms in the industry” (Gupta and sony managment Lad 1983 : 417). Management scholars have theorized ISR participation from three main perspectives: strategic, institutional and critical perspectives, each of which is briefly introduced in of Building Teacher-Student Relationships Essay this section. The different perspectives illustrate how various theorists have understood ISR schemes, which has implications for whether and how the schemes are seen as successful and legitimate.

Strategic Management Perspectives. First, within strategic management theory, ISR is described as a solution to at least one of two strategic problems: information asymmetry and common pool resources (King and Toffel 2009 ). Outsiders are unable to directly observe a firm’s social performance. Managers overcome this information asymmetry by participating in sony ISR schemes to signal their firm’s social performance. ISR schemes in industries such as toy manufacturing (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ), cut flowers (Prado 2013 ), sustainable agriculture (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) or coffee (Reinecke et al. 2012 ) enable firms to network, signal their social or environmental quality. Common pool resources, on managment the other hand, require firms to profile, collaborate to protect a shared resource such as the industry’s reputation, access to physical assets or supply chain resilience (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Strategic perspectives emphasize that ISR schemes are often led by dominant firms that have the sony managment, greatest interest in addressing the problem as with Nike or Walmart’s leadership in collective efforts to eliminate sweatshop labour from supply chains (O’Rourke 2003 ; Locke et al. 2007 ). In contrast, institutional theory emphasizes the voice of boo from monsters inc, role of sony managment institutions in shaping collective actions on social or environmental issues (Ostrom 1990 ; Hoffman 1999 ). Industries can self-regulate because of legal ambiguity, or because stakeholders demand social performance that is higher than current regulatory requirements (Edelman et al. 1991 ; Gunningham and The Principle of Building Teacher-Student Relationships Rees 1997 ). For example, Zietsma and sony managment Lawrence’s ( 2010 ) study of the evolution of of boo inc decisions on harvesting practices in the British Columbia forest industry showed how managers actively participated in creating, maintaining and disrupting industry collective actions.

ISR can also co-evolve with other institutions. For example, Lee ( 2009 ) showed how industry-led initiatives interacted with local and national policy content changes on certifying organic food. Institutional perspectives explain ISR as a way for managers to managment, maintain conformance with regulative, cognitive and normative requirements in the institutional environment (Hoffman 1999 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ). A third tradition, critical management theory, explains ISR as “first and foremost about control” (Jermier et al. 2006 , p. 627). Critical theorists focus on the discourses around proposed solutions to social problems, and the roles that these discourses play in protecting corporate privilege and social power (Banerjee 2008 ). Managers use ISR to maintain control over the rhetoric around social issues through generating and sony managment maintaining symbols such as certifications, logos, social reports and partnerships. Boiral ( 2013 ), for example, theorized sustainability reports certified to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A or A+ standard as “signs and images employed to control social representations” (p. 1037). Critical theorists highlight the fundamentally political nature of ISR, emphasizing the power and relational position of those who can influence the rules of the game (Levy 2008 ; Moog et al. Essay? 2015 ). A political approach emphasizes the fundamental imbalance between the size and power of global firms and the capacity and/or willingness of managment governments to adequately regulate them, leading to voice inc, the need for industry-led schemes to fill a governance gap (Vogel 2010 ). The Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation.

Management theorists from all three perspectives have provided rich description and managment empirical results on the drivers, forms and The Principle Teacher-Student Relationships consequences of ISR. However, amid accusations that firms and managment managers are marking their own homework, more research attention is required on of boo from inc the legitimacy of ISR schemes. Legitimacy is a “generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions” (Suchman 1995 : 574). Focusing on legitimacy reveals the sony, extent to which ISR schemes and their participants are conforming to social norms and expectations, including whether ISR is an Essay appropriate response to social challenges. The concept of legitimacy originates in institutional theory, which suggests that managers adopt new practices to be perceived as socially acceptable and appropriate rather than basing their decisions on rational efficiency criteria (Meyer and Rowan 1977 ). However, both strategic and critical management theory also use variants of sony legitimacy. Strategic management theory tends to emphasize the extent to which the social profile, approval of various stakeholder groups influences firms’ social strategy (e.g. Darnall et al. 2009 ; Kassinis and sony managment Vafeas 2006 ). In contrast, the The Principle of Building Essay, critical approach delves more deeply into the processes by which firms seek and earn legitimacy through their social disclosures and actions (e.g.

Crane 2000 ; Fineman and Clarke 1996 ). Numerous typologies of legitimacy have been proposed in the literature (see Bitektine 2011 for a review), but the most widely used is Suchman’s ( 1995 ) distinction between pragmatic and sony managment moral legitimacy. Pragmatic legitimacy is based on the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences, whereas moral legitimacy is cassius quotes, a broader normative evaluation of social appropriateness. Suchman’s original categorization also included cognitive legitimacy, based on taken-for-grantedness. However, cognitive legitimacy is managment, less useful in evaluating ISR because of the The Trial of God, lack of stable and shared assumptions about industry’s role in governance (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ). Cognitive legitimacy is deeper than, and follows, moral legitimacy (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Since new forms of governance such as ISR are not yet sufficiently taken-for-granted to managment, be able to evaluate cognitive legitimacy (Koppell 2008 ), this paper focuses on pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Others have applied Suchman’s distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in related contexts such as implementing codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), or of regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ). Some prior studies have also examined whether particular ISR schemes have pragmatic and The Trial of God Essay moral legitimacy, as in the case of Schepers’ ( 2010 ) and Cashore’s ( 2002 ) evaluations of the Forest Stewardship Council. However, so far the literature lacks a thorough analytic review of the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR. Such an analysis is much needed because different management theories of ISR imply different bases for legitimacy, and so provide different answers on when ISR is an appropriate form of governance. The next section reviews the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR from each management theory tradition to provide a foundation for further analysis.

The Pragmatic Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Pragmatic legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Maintain the ability to respond to social issues on the firm’s own terms. Meeting stakeholder expectations flexibly and at lower cost. (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Coglianese and Nash 2001 ) Maintaining agency to respond to institutional pressures. (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Zietsma and Lawrence 2010 ) Exerting control over sony rhetoric and resources. (Raynolds et al.

2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ; Moog et al. 2015 ) Position firm to gain positive social evaluations from other stakeholders for social performance. Signalling quality or behaviour. (King et al. Inequality Criminal Justice? 2005 ; Aravind and sony Christmann 2011 ) Meeting stakeholder expectations. (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Boiral 2007 ) Demonstrating prestige and status. (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ) Advantages increase with the number or esteem of members in an ISR scheme. Reputation commons and club theory. (Barnett and King 2008 ; Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) Institutions shape collective actions.

(Ostrom 1990 ; Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2010 ) Authority of high-status actors to set norms. (Levy and Egan 2003 ; Renard 2005 ) Learn how to cope with social concerns where there is uncertainty about social issues firms face and how to deal with them. Learning as a competitively valuable capability. Mimetic isomorphism and shared norms. (Braithwaite 2008 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ; Haack et al. Social Network Profile? 2012 ) Diffusing shared rhetoric. (Green 2004 ; Christensen et al. 2013 ) Works cited are illustrative only.

Where examples of strict industry self-regulation could not be found, examples are from the related contexts of self-regulation by individual firms or multi-stakeholder partnerships. The first set of benefits for ISR participants is to maintain the ability to respond to social issues on sony their own terms. For example, in 1999 companies collaborated through the US Better Business Bureau to introduce BBBOnline, a self-assessed and industry-monitored online privacy seal in an attempt to pre-empt and shape a new set of laws on Internet privacy introduced in the USA in 2001 (Haufler 2001 ). The Principle Teacher-Student Relationships Essay? Strategic management theory explains that firms may use ISR to strategically pre-empt costly sanctions or requirements from governments, NGOs, consumer groups or other stakeholders (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). Institutional theories describe ISR as a strategic response to institutional pressures, where managers try to retain agency within the constraints of actual or potential regulatory control (Oliver 1991 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Wijen 2014 ). A critical perspective focuses on how industry incumbents use their privileged economic and political position to maintain control not only of the governance but also of the rhetoric around social issues (Jermier et al. Sony Managment? 2006 ). Bartley ( 2005 ), for example, showed how the cassius quotes, US apparel industry succeeded in replacing a discourse of legal compliance with one based on compliance to sony managment, voluntary industry codes in response to rising stakeholder concerns about of Building Teacher-Student Relationships sweatshop labour. This enabled firms to maintain control over compliance through participating in sony managment the Fair Labor Association (FLA) to certify labour standards. Thus, all three management theories recognize ISR as a way for firms to A Brief History Essay, retain strategic control over aligning their own interests with other stakeholders, which is crucial for gaining pragmatic legitimacy. Firms also gain private benefits from ISR through earning or maintaining a sound reputation on social issues. Strategic perspectives emphasize that firms attempt to signal quality or behaviour through ISR participation to gain access to strategically valuable resources (Aravind and Christmann 2011 ; King et al. 2005 ). Institutional perspectives focus on the extent to which firms are seen to sony, be behaving according to The Trial Essay, stakeholder expectations (Jiang and managment Bansal 2003 ; Delmas and and Why My Apple Stocks Toffel 2008 ). Critical scholars emphasize status and the extent to which firms are seen to be performing social responsibility (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ). All three perspectives suggest that ISR can provide pragmatic legitimacy through symbolic participation in ISR schemes. Network effects are present when the value to the next incremental adopter depends on the number of others who have already adopted.

Evidence on ecolabels for sony managment green buildings, forestry and cassius quotes the apparel industry suggests that the higher the rate of adoption, the more an ISR scheme is managment, recognized as a credible signal of environmental quality, and the higher the benefit of adoption to of boo from monsters inc, the next incremental adopter (Bartley 2003 ; Chan et al. Sony? 2009 ). Cassius Quotes? ISR schemes can also be seen as “green clubs” (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) that protect an industry’s common reputation (King et al. 2002 ). Sony? These schemes can help develop the collective reputation, resources, staff, networks and expertise that lower the cost to individual firms of participation and are particularly successful in “small worlds” such as forestry (Conroy 2007 ) or the Chinese toy manufacturing industry (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ) where all the voice of boo from monsters, major players know each other. Institutional perspectives emphasize that is it safer for firms in uncertain and managment contested social environments to adopt a recognized scheme than to be left outside (DiMaggio and Powell 1983 ). Teacher-Student Relationships? The higher the sony managment, ratio of certified to non-certified firms in a local ISR scheme, the more likely are new entrants to participate to signal their similarity (Husted et al. 2016 ). A more critical perspective asks how ISR regimes gain the authority to govern particular social issues (Cashore 2002 ), highlighting the importance of high-status political actors in encouraging others to social network, participate (Levy and Egan 2003 ). As Renard ( 2005 ) demonstrated in the context of fair trade labelling, networks can be vital to encouraging widespread participation in an ISR scheme, but can also further embed existing power structures within an industry. To the extent that ISR schemes offer safety in numbers, participation can help earn pragmatic legitimacy from an organization’s immediate audiences. Finally, firms participate in ISR schemes as a way to learn in an uncertain environment. They can learn about their own organizational capacity to address social issues and how to managment, meet stakeholder expectations more effectively (Banerjee 1998 ). Participation in a scheme can facilitate the transfer of best practices and A Brief History and Why Stocks increase communication and information sharing between members through direct contact (Kraatz 1998 ; King and Lenox 2000 ). Schemes can encourage indirect learning as they attract boundary spanners such as consultancy firms and auditors who help spread credible information from sony managment, one firm to another, lowering informational costs (Delmas 2002 ; Jahn et al. 2005 ). Institutional theorists emphasize that managers also learn through observing others and conforming to shared local norms.

ISR schemes can serve as templates that are easily adopted by newcomers. Social Network? Through interacting within the scheme, managers are made more aware of social needs and information spreads more quickly (Marquis et al. 2007 ). Sony? Focusing on cassius quotes the rhetoric of ISR, critical theorists also ask how managers learn to talk about sony managment social issues and solutions (Green 2004 ). Even weak ISR can serve as “aspirational talk”, and in the criminal justice system the beginnings of a learning process (Christensen et al. 2013 ), offering the possibility of aligning interests and gaining pragmatic legitimacy over time. Private Benefits and Pragmatic Legitimacy of ISR.

ISR schemes earn pragmatic legitimacy as participants persuade their stakeholders of the scheme’s usefulness. This section has outlined four private benefits revealed in prior ISR research that support interest alignment and pragmatic legitimacy of ISR. Although different management theory perspectives have analysed ISR based on widely divergent assumptions, each has touched upon sony managment, the core private benefits of strategic control, reputation, network benefits and learning. Analysts in the strategic management tradition have tended to approach the benefits of participation from a narrow, enlightened self-interest perspective, and of Building Relationships Essay so have most clearly articulated the private benefits of ISR. In contrast, while critical management theories have mentioned the private benefits of ISR participation, this has normally been in the context of normative disapproval.

ISR participation may secure control over rhetoric and resources (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. Sony? 2001 ) or reinforce the authority of high-status actors to set norms (Renard 2005 ). However, while ISR schemes may offer private benefits and pragmatic legitimacy from the racial inequality criminal system, organization’s most proximate audiences, schemes may still not be in the overall public interest (Vogel 2008 ). Indeed, whether ISR participation contributes to the broader public good is an under-explored question in management theory. Sony Managment? Pragmatic legitimacy alone is not an adequate basis for evaluating legitimacy since it only criminal justice takes account of sony transactional interest alignment with immediate audiences. Since ISR schemes are socially embedded within a system of norms, their appropriateness needs to be evaluated in the broader frame of network moral legitimacy.

The next section develops this by applying Suchman’s ( 1995 ) typology of moral legitimacy to the ISR context to evaluate the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. The Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Moral legitimacy asks whether a particular action, practice, scheme or organization is “the right thing to do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). It differs fundamentally from pragmatic legitimacy because it focuses on the ethical foundations of an organization or activity (Mele and Armengou 2015 ), and the reciprocal responsibility norms generated between an sony managment organization and its stakeholders (Elms and The Principle of Building Essay Phillips 2009 ). Assessing moral legitimacy requires looking beyond pragmatic evaluations based on interest alignment, to sony, a broader public perspective on the normative appropriateness of Essay example ISR. In his original review, Suchman identifies three alternative bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural.

Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Moral legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Short-term, direct, measurable effects. (Rivera 2002 ; Blackman and sony Rivera 2011 ) Short-term behaviour change; longer-term field reconfiguration. (Hoffman 1999 ; Haack et al. The Principle Of Building? 2012 ) Social, symbolic and material outcomes. Long-term and diffuse effects. (Boiral 2013 ; Christensen et al.

2013 ) Credible performance signal. Monitoring and sanctions for non-compliance. (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ; Aravind Christmann 2011 ) Stakeholder disclosure and scrutiny, including regulators. Codification of norms. (Wijen 2014 ; Terlaak 2007 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ) Ambition of sony managment performance levels. Transparency and accountability. Relationship to state.

Fit with competitive and The Principle Essay regulatory context. Demonstrates socially acceptable values and norms. Consistent with regulatory demands within field. (Locke, Rissing and Pal 2013 ; Lee 2009 ) Authoritative emblems and discourses. Nested within governance networks. (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ) Consequential legitimacy focuses on the outcomes of ISR. This approach derives from a rationalist view that “organizations should be judged by what they accomplish” (Suchman 1995 : 580). Surprisingly little academic research has focused on the material outcomes of ISR schemes (King et al.

2012 ), and existing evidence on the outcomes of managment ISR schemes is mixed at best. The Principle Essay? Famous examples of ISR schemes that are generally assumed to improve participating firms’ social or environmental performance over time include the sony managment, chemical industry’s Responsible Care Program (King and Lenox 2000 ), the Equator Principles for The Trial Essay example responsible project finance (Haack et al. Sony? 2012 ), the Forest Stewardship Council’s certification scheme (Moore et al. Racial In The System? 2012 ) and ISO 14001 (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ). However, each of these has also been questioned in terms of their effectiveness and consequential legitimacy (see, for example, Schepers 2010 ; Boiral 2007 ). Empirical studies show that the sony managment, environmental performance of participating firms in the US chemical industry’s Responsible Care, the ISO 14001 standard and sustainable agriculture certification is no better and in some cases is worse than that of non-participants (Russo and Harrison 2005 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Gamper-Rabindran and Finger 2013 ). The consequences of ISR schemes are notoriously difficult to define and measure. Indeed, one of the problems in evaluating ISR effectiveness is the different ideologically driven perspectives on ISR effectiveness from whose perspective, over what time period and inequality justice as compared to what (Gupta and Lad 1983 ). Past studies have assessed the consequences of ISR schemes by managment, examining the extent to which schemes fulfil the functional or governance functions they were designed to serve (Hahn and of Building Teacher-Student Pinkse 2014 ; Wijen 2014 ), whether they encourage participation (Prado and Woodside 2015 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they trigger pro-social behaviour change in participating firms (Terlaak 2007 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they improve allocative efficiency (Maxwell et al. 2000 ; Fleckinger and sony managment Glachant 2011 ) and ultimately whether they deliver material improvements in the social domains they are designed to address (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Aravind and social network profile Christmann 2011 ). Theorists have known that evaluating ISR effectiveness is controversial for a long time, but focusing on the different management perspectives brings shape to the debate. Each management perspective tends to emphasize different aspects of consequential legitimacy, leading to arbitrary emphases on some measures and not others based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the phenomenon. Strategic perspectives on ISR tend to evaluate the consequences of ISR by firm-level outcomes (see Table 2 ). This includes whether participation in sony ISR schemes generates private benefits to the firm such as the ability to charge higher prices (Rivera 2002 ), or improves firm-level social or environmental performance (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ). A Brief History Of Apple And Why I Would Sell Stocks? Given the focus on the firm level, strategic perspectives tend to sony, emphasize short-term, direct and measurable effects of cassius quotes ISR participation. In contrast, institutional perspectives consider not only behaviour changes by individual social actors within a field (Terlaak 2007 ), but also the longer-term field reconfiguration as an ISR scheme becomes institutionalized (Hofman 1999 ; Haack et al.

2012 ). Sony? Critical perspectives examine longer-term and diffuse effects of ISR schemes, including how ISR alters symbolic representations of reality (Boiral 2013 ) and the overall governance within a policy domain (Renard 2005 ). Thus, consequential legitimacy has been a significant concern within each of the The Principle of Building Teacher-Student Relationships Essay, management theory perspectives, but in sony managment fundamentally different, and sometimes incompatible, ways. Since it is so difficult to evaluate the consequences of ISR, for in the criminal whom and when, an alternative is to sony managment, instead rely on evaluating the design of the schemes. Suchman’s procedural legitimacy reflects the extent to which organizations embrace socially accepted methods and processes. A Brief Of Apple Sell Essay? In the absence of unambiguous evidence that an ISR scheme has positive outcomes, firms instead demonstrate “sound practices [which] may serve to sony managment, demonstrate that the inequality in the criminal justice, organization is sony managment, making a good-faith effort to voice of boo from monsters inc, achieve valued, albeit invisible, ends” (Suchman 1995 : 580). In the case of ISR, the procedural legitimacy of the scheme’s methods and processes is usually demonstrated through stringency of ISR design. Schemes with strong monitoring, third-party auditing, government involvement and highly codified processes are usually assumed to provide the most procedural legitimacy (Delmas and sony Terlaak 2001 ; Christmann and Taylor 2006 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). However, stringent ISR design is neither uni-dimensional nor unambiguously clearly socially beneficial.

ISR regimes vary along any of several different procedural dimensions. For example, Kolk and Van Tulder ( 2002 ) noticed that codes of conduct on child labour from US companies were both more tightly formulated and more loosely monitored than codes from European companies. Despite some exceptions, the various and The Principle Teacher-Student sometimes contradictory dimensions of stringency are not usually recognized in the literature. This has led to ISR theorists from different traditions focusing on managment different aspects of stringency, and to talking past each other. Different management theory traditions tend to emphasize different dimensions of procedural legitimacy and downplay others, regardless of whether this is the most salient in any given circumstance. Strategic perspectives usually prioritize monitoring and sanctions as a way to limit information asymmetry and free-riding (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ). In contrast, institutional perspectives emphasize codification and the flexibility provided by criminal justice, ambiguous norms in self-regulation (Edelman 1992 ; Wijen 2014 ), or interactions with the broader institutional context (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Lee 2009 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). Managment? Critical perspectives often question the ambition or transparency of ISR schemes (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ; Moog et al.

2015 ) and the potential for ISR to pre-empt stricter government regulation through altering power relations and diminishing the The Principle of Building Relationships Essay, role of the state (Renard 2005 ; Jermier et al. 2006 ). Thus, each tradition has a distinctive, but usually implicit view on sony which aspects of procedural legitimacy are most useful in evaluating the moral legitimacy of cassius quotes ISR schemes, with no one tradition addressing all aspects of sony managment procedural legitimacy. Structural legitimacy asks whether an monsters ISR scheme is “the right organization for the job” (Suchman 1995 : 581). Structural legitimacy is less about managment consequences and procedural actions, and social more about the structural appearance of an ISR scheme and sony its place within the broader governance system. Structural legitimacy is based on displays that the organizational form is appropriate.

However, as Suchman put it, “this sense of rightness has more to do with emblems of organizational identity than with demonstrations of organizational competence” (p. Of God? 581). Of the three bases of moral legitimacy, structural legitimacy has been least explored in ISR management theory. However, as with the other forms of moral legitimacy, different traditions emphasize different aspects of sony structural legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, structural legitimacy is about the fit between a firm’s ISR strategy and its competitive and regulatory environment (Rivera 2002 ). In addition to such coercive fit, institutional approaches assess whether ISR schemes are consistent with the The Trial Essay example, values and norms within a field.

Credentials such as ISO certificates can serve as “organizational degrees” (Boiral 2012 ), or useful objects to signal credibility (Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2011 ). A more constructivist view emphasizes how ISR schemes themselves serve as a way of narrating new standards for social or environmental performance (Haack et al. 2012 ). Critical perspectives claim that ISR schemes can serve as “organized exhibitions of authority” that demonstrate social appropriateness but without any real connection to improving firms’ social performance (Bowen 2014 ; Boiral 2013 ). Management Theories of ISR and Moral Legitimacy. The three management theory perspectives have evolved separately over the last two decades, resulting in parallel ISR literature talking past each other. Even when theorists from the different traditions examine the same ISR scheme, they can come to different conclusions about the scheme’s moral legitimacy by prioritizing a consequential, procedural or structural approach. For example, consider the moral legitimacy of the sony managment, American Chemistry Council’s Responsible Care Scheme, established back in cassius quotes 1988. Taking a strategic perspective, Gamper-Rabindran and Finger ( 2013 ) evaluated the consequential legitimacy of the sony, Responsible Care scheme by focusing on voice of boo monsters inc the environmental performance outcomes of participating compared with non-participating firms. They found that participating firms actually increased their toxicity-weighted pollution compared with statistically equivalent non-participating firms, questioning the sony, scheme’s consequential legitimacy. Gunningham’s ( 1995 ) institutional perspective focused on Responsible Care’s codes of practice and The Trial community engagement processes as adopted in Australia, arguing based on procedural legitimacy that it is “the most significant and far-reaching self-regulatory scheme ever adopted in Australia, or arguably, elsewhere” (p.

61). In contrast, critical perspectives emphasize symbolic importance of sony Responsible Care as a response to the 1984 disaster that killed some 2500 people at the Union Carbide subsidiary in Bhopal, India (Gereffi et al. 2001 ). Social Network Profile? The chemical industry needed to take steps to regain public acceptance after Bhopal, and “a code of conduct, a certificate, even literally a ‘symbol’, was necessary to sony managment, communicate those steps” (Matten 2003 : 224). Critical theorists explain this as an attempt by the chemical industry to maintain the structural legitimacy of the History of Apple and Why Sell My Apple Stocks Essay, prevailing regulatory system and Responsible Care within it. Table 2 summarizes how moral legitimacy is evident within each perspective. Each theoretical tradition holds different implicit assumptions about the bases for moral legitimacy, although individual authors within each perspective do not usually make this explicit.

Mapping the bases for moral legitimacy across different perspectives reveals blind spots in ISR research within each tradition so far. For example, within the strategic management perspective with its focus on the comparative analysis of different outcomes in different circumstances, there has been inadequate attention to sony, evaluating the long-term, indirect and social consequences of ISR schemes (King et al. Profile? 2012 ). In contrast, while critical perspectives may raise valid concerns about the ambition or authority of non-state actors on social issues, they may also underplay the extent to which ISR schemes can lead to positive longer-term field reconfiguration (Haack et al. 2012 ). Tensions Between Pragmatic and sony managment Moral Legitimacy. This paper has so far treated pragmatic and moral legitimacy separately.

However, the pragmatic legitimacy that can provide the basis for a social licence to operate is not the same as the more stable moral legitimacy based on ethical principles (Mele and Armengou 2015 ) and reciprocal responsibility (Elms and of boo from monsters inc Phillips 2009 ). Sony? Each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy outlined above—strategic control, reputation, network effects and learning—can interact with moral legitimacy. This section identifies tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and the management theory perspectives in which the social, tensions are based. This is useful to identify blind spots and to generate routes forward for future theory and sony managment practical evaluations of ISR. Strategic Control and Moral Legitimacy. Many ISR schemes offer participants options to from monsters, decide whether to participate, and managment if so, how.

For example, ISR schemes may contain different levels of required performance so that participating firms can maximize their private benefits from joining. Discretionary schemes can offer the strategic control needed for managers to respond to cassius quotes, stakeholder demands for social improvement, but to do so on their own terms. However, pragmatic legitimacy based on strategic control can have a dark side. The strategic goal of ISR participation can be to limit the sony managment, need to change behaviour, either in advance of regulation or later when the industry’s preferred approach may be subsequently adopted as a new regulatory standard (Ogus 1995 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). The critical view also emphasizes regulatory capture and History of Apple and Why I Would Stocks the potential for discretionary ISR schemes to manipulate or subvert stakeholder expectations without changes in firm behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ). Thus, while ISR schemes that offer strategic control can generate the flexibility needed to achieve pragmatic legitimacy, it can also threaten the consequential legitimacy of an ISR scheme. Take for example the US Green Building Council’s (USGBC) LEED standards, the leading green building standards in the USA. Managment? This points-based rating system certifies buildings as platinum, gold, silver or certified LEED green buildings. Cassius Quotes? These may appear at first glance to managment, be impartial endorsements of of boo monsters inc builders’ green performance. Sony? But a more critical look reveals that key industry players were heavily involved in cassius quotes the authorship of the schemes, which has largely displaced the more rigorous standards that were originally proposed (Parker 2009 ). The USGBC is often mistaken to be a government agency, but was originally a coalition of managment builders, consultants and property developers who realized that they needed to respond to stakeholder demands for greener buildings. Network Profile? They designed a flexible scheme that offered firms control over managment which technologies to implement to earn a green building label and therefore meet the pragmatic legitimacy expectations of The Principle Teacher-Student their immediate stakeholders. Managment? This flexibility encouraged builders to strategically target the cheapest and A Brief History and Why Stocks Essay least environmentally impactful building features, or to sony managment, target the lowest acceptable tier of LEED certification, which offers very little material improvement to the environment from the of boo, building (Corbett and Muthulingam 2007 ).

The LEED standards illustrate a broader tension between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR schemes can help participants maintain strategic control, but in order for this to be effective, participants’ interests must somehow dominate those of other stakeholders. Sony Managment? Thus, strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility that Elms and Phillips ( 2009 ) identify as the foundation of moral legitimacy. This raises the serious question of whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Seeking reputation is a pragmatic motivation for establishing product-level certification schemes such as organic food or fair trade product labels, as well as company-level reporting and disclosure schemes. Racial In The Criminal System? However, evidence on certification schemes suggests that they are not widely effective in improving firms’ social or environmental performance (King et al. Managment? 2012 ). The Principle Of Building Relationships? This lack of effectiveness is at least partly because ISR schemes designed to confer reputation often emphasize persuasion to sony, confer pragmatic legitimacy rather than the co-creation of norms and A Brief of Apple and Why I Would Sell My Apple Stocks Essay actions required for moral responsibility. The institutional perspective explains how managers may get caught up in larger structural pressures that require them to implement, measure, monitor and report on social performance (Bromley and Powell 2012 ). Managers may participate in ISR schemes because they have been swept up in ratings or rankings systems that evaluate their reputation (Chatterji and Toffel 2010 ). Signing up to an ISR scheme can help signal engagement with social or environmental issues. But certification schemes can also gloss over complexities in the behaviours and practices needed to generate better social outcomes (Wijen 2014 ). ISR schemes that provide reputation and pragmatic interest alignment can hide considerable ambiguity on managment how the scheme is A Brief of Apple and Why Essay, put into sony, practice and whether it is the right organization for cassius quotes the job.

Consider the example of CarbonNeutral ® certification. Sony Managment? Achieving certification is intended to help firms stand out from their competition and The Principle of Building Relationships Essay provide a “clear sign” that they are leading the way on climate change (Carbon Neutral Company 2016 ), that is, to offer pragmatic reputational benefits. To join this ISR scheme, participating firms need to meet a set of highly codified criteria that are outlined in a “Carbon Neutral Protocol” (Carbon Neutral Company 2013 ). Prospective members must commit to five steps to achieve certification: definition, measurement, set target, reduce emissions and communicate. Crucially, the “reduce emissions” stage differs from other definitions of carbon neutrality (Department of Energy and Climate Change 2009 ) because it allows all reductions to be made though offsetting and does not require individual firms to change their own internal emissions behaviours. Emphasizing the reputational benefits of joining an sony ISR scheme can lead to of boo from monsters, highlighting pragmatic and persuasive legitimacy rather than consequential actions.

Microsoft explained its adoption of the CarbonNeutral ® certificate because it found that it could not meet its previous 2009 commitment to reduce relative carbon emissions by 30% by 2012. Microsoft’s new cloud computing business model was driving gross carbon emissions up, so in order to managment, protect its environmental reputation the network, firm opted for the pragmatic legitimacy of achieving certification rather than the consequential legitimacy of actually reducing its own internal emissions (Microsoft 2012 ). Certification schemes such as this illustrate the sony managment, tension in network profile ISR between the pragmatic legitimacy gained through persuasion and the moral legitimacy of consequential changes in behaviours and performance. Network Effects and Moral Legitimacy. Some ISR schemes offer economies in membership, or collective shelter from institutional pressures by sony, following the example of dominant firms in the field. This is particularly common when firms’ reputations are interdependent (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Racial Inequality? On the sony managment, plus side, ISR schemes designed to harness pragmatic legitimacy through network effects can lead to positive spillover and multiply positive impacts. For example, Reich et al. ( 2005 ) identified spillover effects from the voluntary adoption of a living wage, as other workers not directly covered by the scheme also experienced some increase in their level of pay.

In the UK, Wills and Linneker ( 2012 ) showed how participating in the Living Wage Foundation’s voluntary living wage scheme led to spillover benefits in related social domains such as improvements in social network profile health and sony managment well-being, improved family life, reduced welfare benefit costs and local positive externalities from better paid residents. ISR schemes with network benefits, such as the Living Wage Foundation, can trigger social multiplier effects if they are actively connected with complementary institutions, increasing their outcome effectiveness even further (Pollin et al. 2002 ; Freeman 2005 ). Extensive cross-monitoring and dialogue can lead to cassius quotes, networked legitimacy, where the ISR scheme draws together a nexus of interests and each participant gains its own pragmatic legitimacy (Mele and sony Schepers 2013 ). However, this positive interaction between network effects and consequential legitimacy crucially depends on whether participants do actually improve their social performance. Critical theorists describe how network effects can support shared discourses and industry-led schemes that consolidate the power of large corporations without altering corporate behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ; Bowen 2014 ). Network Profile? Network benefits can promote the deliberately low standards of powerful incumbents (Raynolds et al. 2007 ). These firms may have strong incentives to embed low standards as acceptable norms of corporate behaviour (Dunlap and sony managment McCright 2011 ). Doing so may award ISR schemes pragmatic legitimacy from their immediate audiences, but threaten the cassius quotes, development of responsible norms as a foundation for moral legitimacy. These challenges can be seen in comparing two ISRs in sony managment sustainable forestry: the FSC and of Apple I Would My Apple Essay SFI. Forestry companies face a shared reputational risk from environmental NGOs who cannot tell if their undifferentiated wood products are environmentally damaging (Bartley 2003 ; Winn et al. 2008 ). Both the FSC and SFI are voluntary ISR programmes that were initiated at the industry level: by sony, the US forestry industry in the case of The Principle of Building Relationships Essay SFI, and by socially concerned retailers in the case of FSC (Cashore 2002 ). In the early days of sustainable forestry certification, the US forestry industry actively resisted the FSC’s more ambitious standards, preferring instead to start their own lighter touch, SFI scheme in order to attract more participants (Coglianese and sony Nash 2001 ; Meidinger 2006 ). The US forestry industry adopted the less ambitious SFI scheme, and the more ambitious FSC scheme failed to take off in the USA as it did in in the criminal justice system Canada, the UK and sony managment other countries (Cashore 2002 ; Conroy 2007 ). The lower environmental standards required within SFI compared with FSC became entrenched as the SFI standard spread.

Worse, because forestry certification is voice from inc, interlinked with other schemes, such as for green buildings, this consequential legitimacy loss spilled over into other US industries when the USGBC controversially decided to sony, award LEED points for using SFI-certified wood in their buildings. In this example, responsibility norms were co-created by scheme participants and their surrounding stakeholders. However, the performance level for SFI was established at social network profile, a lower performance level than for sony FSC. More generally, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the emerging shared norms (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). Without firm ethical foundations, networked ISR schemes may be awarded pragmatic legitimacy by their immediate audiences, but lack deeper moral legitimacy. ISR schemes vary in History I Would Sell My Apple Stocks Essay their potential scope for learning opportunities and the extent to which these learning exchanges are actually realized (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ). ISR can provide spaces for sony managment experimentation and innovative solutions to social profile, social problems, leading to opportunities for wider learning, conversation and interest alignment between participating firms and their immediate audiences.

ISR schemes designed for learning can improve both pragmatic and consequential legitimacy. Managment? For example, firms were more likely to change their waste management practices when managers said they joined EPA’s awareness-raising WasteWise programme to promote their relations with the EPA and to social, learn about waste (Delmas and Keller 2005 ). Similarly, Locke’s ( 2013 ) study of labour standards in apparel, electronics and metalworking supply chains showed the potential of learning through sharing best practices and managment capability-building in ISR to provide cleaner and safer workplaces for workers than other scheme designs. Essay Example? ISR on labour standards in global supply chains has helped managers incorporate and learn from the voices of traditionally excluded groups of sony workers such as women export workers (Pearson and A Brief I Would Sell Essay Seyfang 2001 ) and sony has also stimulated learning among activists about what worked in affecting change in previous campaigns (Freeman 2005 ). However, as with network effects, the consequential legitimacy of ISR schemes designed for learning depends on what is learned and shared within the scheme. Outcomes depend on the performance of the leading firms and the expectations they share with later joiners.

The primary motivation to participate may be to learn how to avoid, deflect or pre-empt more ambitious regulatory requirements (Ogus 1995 ), or to co-opt or deflect stakeholder interests (Parker 2002 ; Raynolds et al. Profile? 2007 ). All four of the managment, ISR schemes examined by Lenox and Nash ( 2003 ) in cassius quotes the chemical, textile and pulp and paper industries were designed with sharing mechanisms such as industry newsletters, annual conferences and member meetings. These were intended to help participants learn to manage the uncertainty surrounding new environmental demands. However, in most of the schemes, the sony, performance bar was not sufficiently ambitious to offer learning to new members on reducing pollution. Cassius Quotes? Similarly, Lin-Hi and Blumberg ( 2016 ) emphasized the learning potential from schemes such as the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), which focuses on learning and capacity building to improve working conditions in global supply chains. However, two of the factories in the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh that collapsed in sony managment 2013 were participants in the BSCI. Learning within the BSCI scheme did not extend to assessing the safety or regulatory compliance of the physical buildings, or to empowering local workers to act when they identified cracks in the building before the collapse (Gross 2013 ). Opportunities to voice inc, learn about facility safety were lost because of managment weak performance standards in the scheme (Chao 2013 ). As with network effects above, the moral legitimacy of ISR depends not only on interactions and learning with stakeholders, but also on the ethical content of what is learned. Voice From Monsters? Moral legitimacy requires the learning to have firm ethical foundations (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). However, these ethical foundations can become unmoored from the ISR scheme if participants do not place adequate emphasis on what and sony how they are learning from ISR schemes. This section addressed each of the bases of and Why pragmatic legitimacy in sony managment turn and used past ISR research from all three management theory perspectives to explore potential tensions with moral legitimacy.

Focusing on tensions between pragmatic and example moral responsibility offers several implications for ISR research. First, with respect to strategic control, the managment, balance of evidence considered here seriously questions the consequential legitimacy of discretionary ISR schemes. Social? Rather like students marking their own homework, it is tempting for managers to award themselves the easy points but without truly engaging with fundamental changes in their activities. Sony Managment? This is even the case in cassius quotes performance-based ISR schemes such as the sony, USGBC’s LEED building standards. Future research should pay more attention to the specific outcomes of flexible ISR schemes, particularly ISR schemes that offer choices on a range of performance standards. Second, the current ISR literature challenges the racial inequality system, consequential legitimacy of certification schemes that offer reputational benefits. Sony Managment? Certification-based ISR schemes often provide pragmatic legitimacy from firms’ immediate audiences as they reassure stakeholders that firms are taking their social obligations seriously. The Principle Teacher-Student Relationships? Within the broader social context, such emblems and credentials can offer structural legitimacy that an industry-led scheme is the right form of organization to address a social challenge.

However, increased structural legitimacy from reputation-enhancing ISR schemes is often decoupled from the scheme’s outcomes. Thus, future research should further investigate the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes. Finally, for ISR schemes that offer network and learning effects, the pragmatic reasons to participate can multiply the positive outcomes of an ISR scheme. Sony? This is an under-explored area in empirical studies and offers new optimism that there may actually be learning and A Brief of Apple and Why Sell Stocks relational benefits in firms marking their own homework. Managment? The current ISR literature is inconclusive about whether these network and learning effects are positive or negative, since ISR outcomes depend on what is learned and of God Essay example shared within ISR. More research is needed on formally modelling learning effects and network spillover in ISR. A particularly exciting frontier for managment modelling might be when self-regulatory mechanisms interact, as in the case of the SFI sustainable forest products scheme and the USGBC’s LEED green building standards. So far, serious empirical treatments of the consequential legitimacy of overlapping, networked ISR schemes is lacking from the academic literature.

The wide range of ISR schemes now operating provides an opportunity for future empirical research to explore these ideas both within and History of Apple I Would Sell My Apple Essay across industry sectors. In principle, ISR can provide flexible and innovative social improvements at lower cost than direct state regulation (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). However, mixed empirical evidence and managment some high-profile ISR failures have fed scepticism that ISR allows firms to mark their own homework. Although marking their own homework may not be unambiguously bad, current ISR theory cannot explain when or why this may be case, as it has not fully examined the legitimacy of ISR. While legitimacy theory clearly separates the in the justice, pragmatic legitimacy of gaining a social licence to managment, operate from a deeper, more stable moral legitimacy (Suchman 1995 ; Mele and of Building Teacher-Student Relationships Armengou 2015 ), ISR research has been slow to recognize this distinction. In response, this paper mapped what we know about the managment, legitimacy of ISR from management theory, clearly separated pragmatic from A Brief and Why My Apple Essay, moral legitimacy, and sony used this distinction to expose tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. This paper offers extensions to three strands within ISR theory. First, it provides integration across different theoretical perspectives within current management theory of ISR. It derives an integrated approach drawing on strategic, institutional and critical management perspectives. Pulling these perspectives into a single analysis is a significant contribution because previous management scholarship has been fragmented and context specific. Strategic, institutional and critical management theories of ISR have evolved in parallel, as have scholarly communities that focus on particular content domains such as firms’ impacts on the natural environment, labour standards, ethical trading or diversity practices. This paper leverages and racial inequality justice integrates across these parallel studies and offers the broader view needed to explore the managment, biases, blind spots and boundary conditions of A Brief History of Apple and Why Sell Stocks ISR.

Second, this paper moves beyond the managment, largely descriptive analyses of ISR in the current literature to examine the The Trial Essay example, normative legitimacy of ISR. Sony Managment? The framework contributes to ISR management theory by moving beyond the private benefits that provide pragmatic legitimacy to ISR schemes to examine the more ethical foundations and shared responsibility norms that underly moral responsibility. A Brief I Would Essay? The framework derived in Table 2 can guide a comprehensive evaluation of moral legitimacy based on the details of a particular ISR scheme, rather than implicitly assuming which aspect of managment moral legitimacy is most important as has been so common in management theories of ISR. Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for cassius quotes the job (structural). Focusing on different types of legitimacy gives different answers about the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. Very stringent schemes can give procedural legitimacy, but this does not necessarily mean that they will have good outcomes (i.e. consequential legitimacy). Similarly, a well-functioning scheme with positive overall social benefits can lose legitimacy if it does not somehow signal appropriate emblems or credentials to maintain structural legitimacy. Previous research has been hampered by blinkered approaches from sony, within particular management traditions. This paper offers an integrative view of moral legitimacy of ISR based on racial in the the different bases of managment moral legitimacy, rather than the implied theoretical worldview of the analyst. Finally, the social, paper contributes to a burgeoning literature on sony managment the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of other phenomena such as codes of inc ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ) or controversial projects (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). This literature recognizes that pragmatic legitimacy and moral legitimacy do not always go together. The extension made in this paper is to specifically examine three tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in the ISR context.

First, ISR schemes that offer pragmatic legitimacy through strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility required for managment moral legitimacy. Voice Of Boo From Monsters Inc? Participants in ISR schemes cannot simultaneously dominate and responsibly reciprocate with stakeholders, leading to serious questions about whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Second, ISR schemes that offer reputational benefits rely on gaining pragmatic legitimacy through persuasion, which can become decoupled from consequential changes in behaviours. Focusing on sony the exchange and transactional aspects of reputation can help gain pragmatic legitimacy, but disconnect schemes from deeper, reciprocal moral legitimacy. Third, the cassius quotes, moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network or learning effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the sony, scheme. From Monsters? Ethically weak ISR schemes will lack moral legitimacy regardless of how many firms join or how much participants share learning within the scheme. Focusing on ISR has opened up some new frontiers in research on the interactions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR is unusual in that firms play a dual role in influencing the design of ISR schemes and sony then deciding whether and how to participate. To the extent that firms can influence the design of ISR schemes, there is the History and Why, potential for sony managment firms to deliberately design schemes to maximize pragmatic legitimacy. For example, ISR schemes could be designed to emphasize strategic control (as in performance-based ISR schemes such as LEED), or to of boo from inc, emphasize reputation (as in certification schemes). These design choices can ultimately influence the moral legitimacy of the sony managment, scheme in action.

It is possible that the tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy identified in this paper are a consequence of this dual role in ISR. The Trial Of God Essay Example? This analysis challenges legitimacy theorists to assess whether these tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy are unique to circumstances where organizations both design and sony managment participate in governance schemes or are generalizable to other contexts beyond ISR. This paper was partly motivated by the mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes, and Relationships Essay a desire to better evaluate ISR schemes in practice. Table 2 generates a wide variety of normative considerations in assessing the appropriateness of ISR schemes that takes evaluation of ISR schemes far beyond simple cost–benefit logic. Scheme participants and stakeholders can use Table 2 to generate a systematic set of questions to evaluate the legitimacy of specific ISR schemes. From a consequential legitimacy point of view, questions focus on the outcomes of the managment, scheme: what are the outcomes for participating firms, non-participants and inequality system other interested stakeholders?

What are the sony, direct and cassius quotes indirect outcomes over the short and long term? Questions of sony managment procedural legitimacy include whether inclusion criteria are sufficiently ambitious to set new standards, whether the scheme is of Building Teacher-Student Relationships, sufficiently codified to shape action and to what extent non-compliant participants are sanctioned. Structural legitimacy questions ask about the sony managment, extent to racial in the, which the authority of the ISR scheme is formally recognized within the relevant country or industry, whether the sony managment, ISR scheme reflects acceptable values for its social context and whether and how the History of Apple I Would Sell Stocks Essay, form of the ISR conveys that firms are performing their proper social function. Sony? Systematic questions beyond simple short-term cost–benefit analysis have the potential to from inc, identify and develop relatively more socially beneficial ISR schemes in sony managment the future, and ultimately to improve ISR schemes in practice. The primary limitation of this analysis is that it is based on an analytic review of past research from voice from inc, a sprawling range of sony traditions and substantive policy domains. Voice From Monsters Inc? A formal, systematic review could have been a useful way to sony managment, generate a more comprehensive, unbiased and transparent literature review. However, a systematic review would also have had to be necessarily limited to particular policy domains or contexts or sets of journals (that is, theoretical tradition) to formally limit the A Brief History of Apple, scope of the review.

By adopting a more analytic approach, this analysis linked up insights on ISR that would not usually show up in a narrower key word search. It did not offer the replicable and more structured findings of a systematic review, but instead served as a conversation starter based on an analytical overview of a wide span of literature. This paper is also limited in sony managment that it did not attempt to empirically explore, verify or test key insights. Future research on the structural conditions of inequality justice ISR schemes and their outcomes is particularly needed, and is now increasingly possible because of the sony managment, very large number of schemes that could be compared. For example, the International Trade Centre lists over 210 voluntary standards operating in network profile over 200 countries, many of which would meet the sony managment, definition of ISR used in this paper (see ). Cassius Quotes? Similarly, lists over 450 ecolabels across 25 industry sectors.

Empirical researchers might collate existing evidence on the effectiveness of sony managment these standards or ecolabels and develop preliminary tests and categorizations on which ones have the most learning or network potential, and how they rank on the various dimensions of consequential, procedural or structural legitimacy. A Brief Of Apple And Why I Would Sell My Apple Essay? As data availability improves, empirical researchers will be able to managment, conduct more complete systematic reviews and cassius quotes even meta-analyses of the legitimacy of sony managment ISR in the future. This paper examined the legitimacy of ISR in response to mixed empirical evidence and accusations that firms are using ISR schemes to “mark their own homework”. It explained how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate pragmatic legitimacy of ISR schemes based on private benefits, from moral legitimacy based on A Brief and Why My Apple reciprocal responsibilities, a firm ethical foundation and normative approval. Sony? Mapping the literature has revealed tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and generated implications for inequality justice system theory on ISR and on legitimacy. Future ISR research should examine the full range of moral legitimacy questions about ISR. Only then can ISR achieve its full potential as a fully legitimate mode of managment governance in the contemporary economic system. The work was funded by the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC: ES/K007440/1). Compliance with Ethical Standards. The author declares that they have no conflict of interest.

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by The Trial Essay, any of the sony managment, authors. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Frances Bowen 1 Email author 1. School of Business and Management Queen Mary University of London London UK. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.

.BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of cassius quotes Springer Nature.

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Welcome to managment Australian Funeral Directors, Peter J Jackson's Article. Upon learning of a death, intimate friends of the of God example, family should visit the home to offer sympathy and ask if they can help. Using your own words, express your sympathy. Kind words about the person who has died is always appropriate. If the family wants to talk, they usually simply need to express their feelings; they aren't necessarily looking for a response from managment you. What you say depends entirely on The Principle Teacher-Student Relationships Essay, your relationship with the deceased and their family. Sony Managment! If the deceased is an acquaintance or casual friend, saying I'm sorry, He was a wonderful person and a friend of voice mine. He will be missed, My sympathy to your family, or something comparable is appropriate. Sony Managment! However, if you are closer to the family you may want to ask if there is anything you can do to cassius quotes help or express your feelings about the deceased. You should not ask for details from the family about the illness or death. Help answering the phone and greeting visitors.

Keep a record of managment everyone who calls, visits or has been contacted. Help coordinate the food and drink supply for family and The Trial example visitors. Offer to pick up friends and family at the airport. Arrange housing or referrals to appropriate, nearby hotels or motels. Offer to provide transportation for out-of-town visitors. Help him/her keep the house cleaned and the dishes washed. House-sit to prevent burglaries during the funeral and visitations. The funeral is a ceremony of proven worth and value for sony, those who mourn.

It provides an opportunity for the survivors and others who share in racial inequality in the criminal justice, the loss to express their love, respect, grief and managment appreciation for a life that has been lived. Cassius Quotes! Through the funeral the bereaved take that first step toward emotional adjustment to their loss. While there is no substitute for a personal visit if you are able to sony do so, there are many other ways to express your sympathy. Flowers can be a great comfort to the family and may be sent to the funeral home or to the residence. Or, if you prefer, you may send flowers to network the residence afterwards. If the family asks that that donations should be made in lieu of flowers, you should honor that request. A memorial gift is sony managment, always appropriate, especially when the family has requested such a gift in lieu of flowers.

Usually the family will designate a specific organization or charity. Remember to profile provide the family's name and address to the charity so they can send proper notification. It is acceptable to mention your gift in a sympathy note without mentioning the amount of the gift. If you live out-of-town you should telephone as soon as possible to managment offer your sympathy. Keep the call brief, since others will probably be trying to call as well. Remember to call after the funeral as well.

Just a short phone call to voice from monsters inc let the bereaved know they are still in your thoughts and prayers, will mean so much. One of the most welcome gifts at this time is food. There may be family from out of town or other visitors in managment, the house who need to be fed. During the days immediately following the death, dishes that require little preparation other than reheating are appropriate. E-mail is appropriate from those who are not intimate with the family such as a business associate or a former neighbor. The family will appreciate your message of concern. Unless the obituary states that services will be held at the convenience of the family or private services will be held, family and friends are welcome to The Principle of Building Teacher-Student Essay attend the managment, services.

In other words, if the location and time of the services are included in the obituary notice, it is considered an invitation to attend. It is no longer necessary to wear black to a funeral. Wearing colorful clothing is no longer inappropriate for relatives and friends. However, persons attending a funeral should be dressed in good taste so as to show dignity and of boo inc respect for the family and the occasion. Funeral services differ depending upon the religious and personal beliefs of the family. Funeral services can be held at a church, temple, funeral home, or even the managment, residence. Whether the service is of God Essay, held at managment, the funeral home or at church, enter quietly and be seated.

The first few rows are usually reserved for family members, however, people should sit close behind them to give comfort and support. A member of the clergy usually conducts the of Building Teacher-Student Relationships, ceremony, but the family may invite others to managment offer thoughts, anecdotes or eulogies. Of God! At the conclusion of the service, you will want to leave promptly, and wait in your car if you plan to follow the sony managment, procession to the cemetery. Remember to racial in the justice system turn your headlights on so you can be identified as being a part of the procession. Also remember to turn you headlights off once you arrive at the cemetery. The casket is normally placed beside the grave. People then gather around the casket to listen to the rites of sony managment burial given by the clergy. Following the clergy's remarks, family members may place a flower on the casket.

In many cases the funeral director will provide flowers for each mourner. The clergy or funeral director will then dismiss the family and racial inequality in the friends at the end of the service. Immediately after the funeral, the family sometimes invites the attendees to join them for food or a reception at their home or designated place. This gives everyone a chance to talk and provides some time to relax and refresh. Sometimes friends or church members will take it upon themselves to sony managment prepare food ahead of time for this gathering, and relieve the family of this task. After the difficult and busy days surrounding the death, the family is faced with the challenge of trying to resume their day to day lives. Remembering the family during this time, often is critical in voice inc, their recovery. What you say depends on if you've already had contact with them. Sony Managment! If you attended the visitation or funeral, a warm greeting or a gentle expression of concern would be appropriate. If this is your first meeting with them since the cassius quotes, death, you might carefully express your sympathy. Sony Managment! Perhaps by saying you understand that this is a difficult time for them, you can express your concern without causing the bereaved to feel uncomfortable in The Principle Teacher-Student Relationships, this public setting.

You might even ask when it would be a good time to visit or go to lunch or dinner. In the days and months to come, the family will continue to need your support. Try to write or call on sony managment, a regular basis. Continue to include them in your social plans, they will let you know when they are ready to participate. It is also nice to remember the family on A Brief I Would My Apple, special occasions during the first year following the death.

Don't worry about bringing up the pain and emotion of the loss, they are well aware of sony managment that. By remembering such occasions as wedding anniversaries and The Trial Essay birthdays, you are not remembering the managment, death, but reaffirming that a life was lived. The Circle of Life - Condolence Letters. By Mary Mitchell. Few gestures are as meaningful to criminal justice someone who's lost a loved one than a condolence letter. No matter what else you have done - attended the sony managment, funeral, sent flowers, paid a visit to of God Essay example the home of the bereaved, telephoned, sent an e-mail - the condolence letter will stand out for its kindness. Write your letter in ink. Use a fountain pen if you have one. Managment! A ballpoint will do if you don't, but it's not very refined. Rollerball pens come a close second to fountain pens, followed by social network profile, felt-tip pens.

Use black ink. The condolence letter is the place to recall in more detail the managment, special characteristics of the deceased, visits to your home, lessons learned from that person, good times shared, and so forth. Sometimes it is best not to offer or ask but to just assume the tasks to help the grieving individual. After the Funeral (consider doing these every week for two to three months) Prepare or provide dinner on a day that is mutually acceptable. Offer to History of Apple I Would Essay help with yard chores such as watering or pruning. Feed and exercise the pets, if any. Write notes offering encouragement and support. Offer to drive or accompany him to the cemetery regularly. Offer to house sit, so the sony managment, survivor can take a restful vacation, or visit family or friends out of town.

Make a weekly run to the grocery store, laundry, or cleaners. Help with the Thank You notes and/or other correspondence. Anticipate difficult periods such as anniversaries, birthdays, holidays, and social network the day of death. Always mention the deceased by name and encourage reminiscing. If you learn that a friend or relative has died, the first thing to do is extend your sympathy and offer assistance in whatever way you can. If you live a distance from where the death occurred, tell the family if you will be attending the service and approximately when you expect to arrive. Sending a floral tribute is sony managment, a an of Building, accepted custom in many traditions, unless the family has requested that memorial gifts be sent in lieu of flowers.

Unless the notice in the newspaper state that flowers are to be omitted, friends and relatives may consider it obligatory to send flowers. Sony! Catholics have an option of of boo sending flowers of a Spiritual Bouquet, indicating that a Mass or series of sony managment Masses will be said in memory of the deceased. When sending memorial gifts be certain to Essay mention that the gift is being made in memory of the deceased. The organization receiving the managment, gift will normally send a list of donors to A Brief and Why Sell Stocks Essay the family so the family can express its thanks and acknowledge the donation. It is a good idea to arrive at the funeral home at sony managment, least 10 minutes before the service is scheduled to begin. Services usually start precisely at I Would My Apple, the time specified, and sony it is considered rude to enter the service room or chapel after the of God Essay, service has begun. If you arrive early, do not try to meet or speak with bereaved family members. Conversation in the chapel, prior to the service, is permissible, but should be conducted in a very low voice.

A friend can be greeted with a nod and a smile, but refrain from conducting animated conversations, even with a friend you haven't seen for a long time. Sony! A funeral service, regardless of where it is cassius quotes, held, is a time to conduct oneself with decorum and a show respect for the grieving family. It is sony, a common custom for friends to go up to the casket for a final farewell before or after the A Brief I Would My Apple Stocks, service. It is not obligatory that this be done, however; and managment you show no lack of respect or affection by refraining. Attending the graveside services after the funeral is a choice for of God example, each person to determine. The deciding factor will be the closeness of the relationship between the individual and the bereaved family. The trend today is toward shorter funeral processions.

In larger cities, particularly, traffic congestion can make it difficult to move a long procession through the streets without interruptions and confusion. The funeral director or assistant will give brief instructions and an identification device to managment the drivers of all cars in the procession. The use of auto headlights is a commonplace method of identification. As soon as you have parked your car in the cemetery, move as quickly as possible to the graveside. Do not attempt to engage the immediate family in conversation either before or immediately after the social network, graveside service. It is courteous to managment follow, rather than precede, the family when returning to of Building Essay your car. The bereaved family will need a few days following the service to take care of the many details that are inevitable and time to compose themselves. Before visiting, a good rule of thumb is to wait until you have received an acknowledgment card or thank you note. It is appropriate to send a short, personal note to clergy to thank them for their spiritual consolation and assistance, the funeral home will generally make a gratuity to the clergy on the family's behalf.

How should I offer condolences to sony Buddhist friends? It's not common to send food to the home of A Brief History and Why Essay mourners, but it is common to send flowers to the funeral. Do not send a Mass card. The idea of a Mass is alien to Buddhists, be they Zen or otherwise. Rather than send a sympathy card, it might be better to write a personal note to your friends. Keep in mind that while they have suffered a loss, the Buddhist idea of death is sony managment, different from the common Judeo-Christian idea. In Buddhism, each individual passes through many reincarnations until he or she is liberated from worldly illusions and passions and enter nirvana, which is Sanskrit for a blowing out of Building Relationships Essay, as of a flame. Shraddah, or Hindu death observances, include rituals that continue for 12 months after death. In India, people wear only cloth or rubber shoes, and women don't braid their hair or oil it to give it a sheen. These practices signal their sadness at losing a close relative. Sony Managment! (In rural India, in fact, men go entirely barefoot.) Mourners who touch a dead body are considered impure until they shower or bathe or regain their purity by touching a saint.

The mourning period lasts 10 to 30 days, depending on racial inequality in the justice system, one's caste. After that, the sony, eldest son in a family shaves his head for an entire year of mourning. Males who are mourning the death of inequality justice a parent are considered too impure to enter a temple, since a grieving mind isn't suitable for ritual worship. Sony Managment! But they can silently worship or chant the name of God at home. Why do Hindus wear white to funerals? In most parts of voice of boo from inc India, it's the husband or wife who, if they're Hindu, almost always wears white to sony managment the funeral of a spouse. There is The Trial Essay example, no hard and fast rule about what others attending a funeral wear. They can don just about managment, any color. The same holds true for Hindu funerals in the United States.

But the emigre Hindu community is familiar with Western customs, and even wearing the darkest black in your wardrobe wouldn't be a blunder. Hindus living here know what Westerners are accustomed to, and would not consider your wearing even the most sober of blacks to be a faux pas. Just make sure your clothing, like your behavior, is dignified. Sending flowers would certainly be a kind gesture and would offend no one, but keep in mind that it's a Western tradition not common in most Hindu communities. If you do send them, avoid bright colors (white is traditionally associated with Hindu funerals)--you might try white or pale yellow flowers. Within the Christian faith, there are numerous denominations including: Protestant, Roman Catholic, Christian Orthodox, Baptists, plus many others. In general, these religions share a commonality in how they practice the ritual of funerals. Although cultural distinctions may exist, it is important to be aware and knowledgeable of the proper rituals when attending a Christian funeral.

Traditionally, the deceased is taken to The Trial Essay example a funeral home and is prepared for family viewing. The body will generally be presented in a casket then later buried at a cemetery. Depending on the final wishes of the deceased however, the remains may also be cremated. Generally, friends, family and managment acquaintances gather at the funeral home to offer their condolences to the family and pay their last respects to the deceased. Upon arrival at the funeral home, it is common to voice inc firstly approach the casket or urn and take a few moments to silently reflect or pray. When finished paying respect to the deceased, one is managment, expected to approach the deceased's family and offer condolences. This is a very general and common procedure at most Christian Funerals. Today, many funerals may vary depending upon the final wishes of deceased or the deceased's family. Often times a funeral mass or service will take place in a Church or funeral home chapel. So, it is suggested that you find out specific funeral service details, which are generally posted in a local newspaper, on the internet with or through word of mouth to be certain of times and dates. Depending on the last wishes of the deceased, their family or cultural background, the body usually will be buried (Interned) in a final resting-place.

Traditionally, the burial will take place at a cemetery or mausoleum. Social Network! Close family and friends will gather around and managment a clergyman will recite ritualistic prayers. It was common for the casket to be lowered into the ground in the presence of racial inequality in the system those gathered. However, today the casket is usually lowered once everyone has left the cemetery. If the deceased has been cremated the remains will be placed in an urn and pending on the final arrangements the remains may either be scattered at a designated destination or kept by sony managment, the family.

A gathering or wake usually takes place immediately after the interment or is announced at a later date. This gathering is an opportunity for the family to offer thanks to those who have helped during their time of sadness and to also memorialize and celebrate the life of the cassius quotes, deceased. Oftentimes food and beverages are serviced at these gatherings. Within the Jewish faith, there exists 3 different sects, Conservative, Orthodox and Reform however all three share similar funeral rituals. According to Judaism, the deceased is sony, usually buried the same day or within 24 hours because embalming is not permitted. The deceased's body is wrapped in a white burial shroud and is placed in a simple coffin made of voice from wood.

The Funeral Service takes place at the Synagogue where prayers, eulogies and sermons will be conducted. Depending on the religious sect, head coverings may be required. For Orthodox services both sexes are required to cover their heads, yarmulkes for men and scarves for women. For Conservative services, only men are required to wear yarmulkes. And for Reformed services, the choice is optional. Most Synagogues will provide the head coverings if required. Black and dark coloured conservative clothing is the sony managment, most respectful attire. Once the racial in the criminal system, funeral service has taken place only close friends and family members will proceed to the cemetery for burial.

Once the coffin is managment, lowered to the ground, close family members will place dirt on to the coffin. Cassius Quotes! The focus, until the burial is on the deceased, after which, people may begin to managment approach the family and offer their condolences. Once the burial has taken place, Shiva (the mourning period) shall commence. Shiva traditionally lasts for seven days and nights. The deceased's family is required to stay home for this time period, refraining from their day-to-day activities. Allowing mourners to The Trial example focus on their grief and help prepare them to go back to their day-to-day duties.

Shiva also allows friends, family and acquaintances to offer their condolences and offer help and support to the family. Friends and extended family usually prepare the first meal (Seudat Havrach) consisting of eggs, cookies, cake and sony fruit. Preparing food that is round in profile, shape symbolizes the cycle of life. The Jewish tradition discourages people from cheering up the mourners, thus it is most appropriate to offer words that encourages family to come to terms with their mourning. Sony Managment! It is not appropriate to inequality send flowers.

It is customary in the Jewish faith to plant trees to honor the memory of the deceased or to make a charitable donation in the deceased's name. It is customary to bury the deceased immediately because embalming is managment, not permitted in of boo from inc, the Muslim faith. The body is prepared for burial by performing a ritualistic bath and is bound in a simple white shroud. The funeral service takes place in a Mosque where shoes are required to be removed; women and men sit separately in designated seats; and where women are obligated to wear a headscarf. The funeral service is brief, involving ritualistic chanting and managment readings from the Koran. Those in attendance will pay their respects by lining up and walking past the body, prior to the deceased being taken to their final resting-place. The deceased will be taken to the cemetery where the body is lowered into the ground, with the deceased's head pointing towards the direction of Mecca (The Islamic Holy Land). Within the Buddhist faith customs may vary depending on culture and sects.

There are however, a few traditional rituals in all Buddhist funeral services. They include chanting, incense burning and a memorial service. Historically, Buddhists have cremated their deceased, however burial is becoming more and more common with Chinese Buddhists. Those attending the funeral service are required to pay their condolences to the deceased and the family prior to the service at the funeral home. Wearing black or dark colours are not required. Wearing conservative clothing is the most appropriate, however, the colour red is frowned upon. If the funeral service takes place in the Temple, it is required to remove your footwear.

During the funeral service a family member will initiate the service by offering a eulogy and monsters inc present a life history about the deceased. Chanting sacred words will then take place. First a direct family member will ignite the incense and make a ritualistic offering. The family usually wears white because it is the colour for grieving, they will sit at the front of the sony managment, room and accept condolences from those in attendance. When approaching the casket a simple bow is all that is required.

After the funeral service interment will take place at a cemetery. Funerals usually take place within 24 hours after a death occurs. Embalming is of Apple, forbidden because it is believed that the body must remain intact for the afterlife. The first-born son is in charge of the funeral arrangements. The funeral service usually takes place at a funeral home. Managment! Holy Montras (scriptures) are chanted by of Building Relationships Essay, a Hindu priest who evokes the help of sony managment gods and deities to provide the soul the spiritual guidance to reach the of Apple and Why I Would Sell Stocks Essay, eternal world successfully. Flowers may be placed on top of the deceased and a short service takes place at the crematorium. It is traditional that all Hindus are to be cremated. It is managment, customary for bereaving family members wear white, and Teacher-Student Relationships Essay those attending the funeral should wear dark conservative clothing.

Although sending flowers is managment, not traditional, it is acceptable.

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#8216;Alien#8217;: Neil Marshall praises Ridley Scott#8217;s sci-fi classic [guest essay] Sigourney Weaver and director Ridley Scott on the set of Alien. (Robert Penn / 20th Century Fox) Actress Sigourney Weaver. Managment. (Casey Curry / Associated Press) Sigourney Weaver as Ellen Ripley, in a scene from the 1979 film Alien. (20th Century Fox) A scene from Alien. (20th Century Fox) A scene from Alien. (Robert Penn / 20th Century Fox) A scene from Alien. (Robert Penn / 20th Century Fox) A scene from of God, Alien. (Robert Penn / 20th Century Fox) A scene from Alien. (Robert Penn / 20th Century Fox) A scene from managment, Alien. (Robert Penn / 20th Century Fox) A scene from Alien. (Robert Penn / 20th Century Fox) A scene from Alien. Social Network Profile. (Stanley Bielecki Movie Collection/Getty Images) A scene from Alien. (Stanley Bielecki Movie Collection/Getty Images) A scene from Alien. (Hulton Archive / Getty Images) A scene from the 1986 sequel Aliens. (Stanley Bielecki Movie Collection/Getty Images) A scene from the 1986 sequel Aliens. Sony Managment. (Stanley Bielecki Movie Collection/Getty Images) A scene from the 1986 sequel Aliens. (Stanley Bielecki Movie Collection/Getty Images) A scene from the 1986 sequel Aliens. (Stanley Bielecki Movie Collection/Getty Images) Sigourney Weaver is the guest of honor at the 2014 Hero Complex Film Festival. (Lawrence K. Ho/Los Angeles Times) Sigourney Weaver is the guest of honor at in the the 2014 Hero Complex Film Festival. (Lawrence K. Ho/Los Angeles Times) In the spirit of Halloween, Hero Complex reached out to select filmmakers to sony solicit their fondest memories of classic horror. Below, Neil Marshall #8212; who recently directed the pilot episode of NBC#8217;s new series #8220;Constantine,#8221; and who produced the ghost story #8220;Soulmate,#8221; which arrived on DVD this week #8212; discusses his respect and admiration for Ridley Scott#8217;s #8220;Alien.#8221; He also addresses its influence on his features, including the acclaimed thriller #8220;The Descent,#8221; a superlative horror story that sees a strong heroine fighting monsters in racial inequality justice system a confined setting. Director Neil Marshall. (Courtesy of Neil Marshall) Few horror movies have had such a profound effect on sony managment, me as Ridley Scott’s 1979 masterpiece, #8220;Alien.#8221; Few movies of any kind have had as much of an impact and A Brief of Apple I Would Sell My Apple Stocks Essay influence on the movies I make. Sony Managment. I was too young to catch it at racial inequality justice the cinema when it was first released, but my uncle did, and sony he enthralled me with tales of of Building, strange planets, chestbursters and the unusual notion of a woman as the hero of a science-fiction horror movie. I was hooked, but I didn’t get to see it for myself until it was first broadcast on sony, television in the UK in 1982 when I was 12, and it surpassed all expectations. A scene from #8220;Alien.#8221; (Stanley Bielecki Movie Collection/Getty Images) Director Ridley Scott, along with artists H.R. Giger and Ron Cobb, working from a script by Dan O’Bannon and Ronald Shusett, set out to inequality in the justice create two utterly realistic and compelling future worlds, one human, one alien, and then set them on a collision course. Sony. There is nothing in #8220;Alien#8221; that ever seems fake.

The sets, the spacecraft, the planet, the of boo from monsters, characters, the costumes, the sony, performances; everything feels credible and voice of boo from authentic. The opening on the movie gives us a brief tour of the #8220;tug#8221; Nostromo, a workhorse of the spaceways, cumbersome and functional. Inside, its corridors are claustrophobic, dark, wet and grimy. This feels every inch a lived-in working environment and its rudimentary familiarity draws you into the story. Everything in this world is out to get you, from the vacuum of space to the cornbread and the corporation, let alone androids and managment alien beings. Space travel, in cassius quotes this movie, is no picnic.

The characters Ripley, Dallas, Ash, Kane, Parker, Brett and Lambert are blue-collar workers we can readily identify with. They bitch about money, food, and each other. After spending months in hypersleep, who wouldn’t be a little grumpy? I love that they’re not a bunch of teens in jeopardy. Sony Managment. They’re not even that sympathetic. Instead they’re scratchy, sweaty, and cassius quotes stretched thin by months in close quarters confinement.

They’re flawed and therefore very human. The ALIEN on the other hand, is described by Ash as “the perfect organism.” Its very perfection is what makes it so otherworldly. As a biological entity, it’s precise, elegant and lethal. Everything about the managment, ALIEN is social sexual its design, life cycle, its behavior given Giger’s work that’s not too surprising. Sony Managment. What it added to movie lore is a creature (actually multiple creatures) not merely repulsive and terrifying, but also darkly beautiful and disturbing.

A scene from voice monsters inc, #8220;Alien.#8221; (Robert Penn / 20th Century Fox) So which came first, the managment, ALIEN or the EGG? Actually neither. The derelict spacecraft comes first, if indeed it is a spacecraft. Teacher-Student Relationships. It looks almost organic and comes complete with several vagina-like portals through which our heroes gain access. Is it a female spacecraft? It has something resembling a pilot (more of which later) but it also has a womb, loaded with EGGS just waiting for some unwitting human to stray inside and #8220;fertilize.#8221; Kane describes these EGGS as “round leathery objects.” They seem to be alive and are crowned with yet more vagina-like orifices that open up and ejaculate another alien organism say hello to the FACE-HUGGER. Sony Managment. A scene from #8220;Alien.#8221; (Robert Penn / 20th Century Fox) This little beast essentially kills you by raping your face and making you pregnant, and this is by no means limited to woman. The alien can’t be accused of being sexist. Any sex, any age, any thing is The Principle Relationships Essay fair game, and if you’re unlucky enough to sony be orally impregnated, then the process of giving birth is Teacher-Student Relationships Essay no less unpleasant and ultimately fatal.

Much has been said about the CHESTBURSTER’s big entrance, and yet despite lifting all the sony, veils of movie magic it still retains the power to shock and of God Essay example disturb. Managment. It’s violent, painful and bloody, but none of it would be nearly so convincing if it wasn’t for social network John Hurt’s agonizing death throes and the rest of the managment, cast looking on, dumbfounded and appalled. Cassius Quotes. The aliens may be monstrous, but it’s the humans that sell the horror in the movie. Sony Managment. And so we come to the main event, the ALIEN itself, a gangly, seven-foot-tall, drooling, slithering phallus of death, complete with erectile tongue for voice of boo thrusting out and penetrating its victims#8217; bodies. I’d say you couldn’t make this up, but they did, and in managment turn created the The Trial, greatest movie monster of all. To me, ALIEN (both the movie and the creature) is a perfect collaboration of brilliant minds and creative forces, all working together to push the envelope of #8217;70s cinema. I somehow doubt this movie would get made in managment today#8217;s movie climate. It’s too adult, or perhaps too alien, for an audience weaned on A Brief History I Would My Apple Essay, superheroes and CGI.

And yet, it spawned a successful franchise that’s still going strong today, via sequels, spin-offs, video games, and recently a prequel. Sony Managment. And therein lies the rub#8230;. When I first saw #8220;Alien,#8221; the thing that burrowed deepest into my mind was not the ALIEN or the FACE-HUGGER or the EGG, but the other alien creature seen in the movie, the SPACE JOCKEY. This, to me, was far more incomprehensible than the ALIEN itself. Inequality In The Justice. Despite all I’ve said above, the ALIEN is basically a predator, and managment that’s something I can get my head around. The SPACE JOCKEY, on the other hand, is entirely unfathomable. Has it grown out of the chair? Has its #8220;nose#8221; apparently connected to History of Apple I Would My Apple Stocks Essay its body in sony such a way it cannot move? It is, to my mind, something utterly and of boo from inc completely alien.

Imagine my crushing disappointment to find out, all these years later, that it was not some inscrutable alien being after all, but was, within the sony, context of the story, just a man in a suit ! Painfully ironic, given the lengths they went to network in the original movie to disguise the fact that the ALIEN (played by sony managment, Bolaji Badejo) was in fact just that. Social Network. Nevertheless, #8220;Alien#8221; is still a remarkable film-making achievement and an intense and terrifying movie which still holds up today with considerable ease. Gene Ha#8217;s poster for NBC#8217;s #8220;Constantine.#8221; (NBC / DC Comics) 2 Responses to #8216;Alien#8217;: Neil Marshall praises Ridley Scott#8217;s sci-fi classic [guest essay] thanks for post. I too saw Alien as a pre-teen as my sister worked at the movie theater and snuck me in. It was the most shocking movie I had seen to that point and maybe since. The thing that changed everything was that prior to managment that space was something man played in, both Star Trek and Star Wars had made space a playground where the likes of The Trial of God Essay example, Han Solo only needed a dust mask to even breath. Then this Movie arrived and all of a sudden space was scary as hell.

RT @MNightShyamalan: Day 1: Seventeen years in the making. Sony. #Glass days ago RT @tracycbrown: Stop dissing Wonder Woman days ago RT @jenyamato: Also discovered diving into this Stephen King Moment: Filmmakers love IT, critics can#039;t forget MAXIMUM OVERDRIVE https://t.c…1 week ago RT @jenyamato: Why are we so obsessed w/ @StephenKing rn? #GeraldsGame#039;s @FlanaganFilm, 1922#039;s Zak Hilditch, @leonardmaltin explain https:/… 1 week ago Fans are running AMUCK at the news of a Hocus Pocus remake.… week ago Follow @latherocomplex. Terms of cassius quotes, Service | Privacy Policy, Updated 10/19/11 | Los Angeles Times, 202 West 1st Street, Los Angeles, California, 90012 | Copyright 2017.

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essay contest war In the summer of 2017, we partnered with one of Washington’s top foreign-policy outlets to sony bring college students’ voices into our nation’s foreign policy conversation and to take a small step toward restoring a healthy, balanced civic debate on the proper scale of our nation’s ambitions and actions abroad. We received a deluge of excellent submissions from young voices all across the criminal, country, all answering this question: “What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to the United States?” First prize went to Andrew Beddow , who is also president of our University of Michigan chapter. In his essay, Beddow calls for America to set a clear grand strategy that recognizes the world’s complexity and sony managment, thus does not treat international problems as separate and readily fixable. Thus, “Intervention is occasionally justified, and the United States both improves the condition of mankind and benefits itself through its continued participation in international humanitarian efforts and multilateral cooperation. The Principle Teacher-Student Essay. However, intervention must be guided by a grand strategy, one that explicitly enumerates the core interests of the United States and limits activity abroad to the securing of these interests. American policymakers must consider whether or not foreign adventures, e.g. taking a moral stand against Russian annexation of sony Crimea, are sufficiently important all-things-considered to outweigh the plausible negative consequences that will result from this action. In light of the dynamic nature of the international order, we must also recognize the inherent unpredictability of intervention. Prudence, not beneficence, should be the guiding virtue of foreign policy.”

One of our runners up was Enea Gjoza of the Harvard Kennedy School. Gjoza’s essay examines our current strategy of The Trial Essay global primacy – of “seeking to shape the world through frequent military intervention and by maintaining and exercising overwhelming dominance over potential competitors.” He argues that this strategy has come at a high price in blood and treasure, and yet has failed to make America safer. Sony Managment. And this strategy is a departure from I Would Sell My Apple Stocks Essay, America’s traditional posture of restraint. Sony. Under that approach, Gjoza writes, “As the other great powers of the day exhausted themselves in conflict against each other throughout the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, the United States developed its economy and voice of boo monsters, society in relative peace, intervening substantially only to tip the balance in the World Wars. Sony Managment. This allowed the United States to emerge as an unmatched superpower after the wreckage of the Second World War, with an unscathed homeland and approximately half of the world’s GDP. Today, however, the voice of boo monsters inc, United States is on the other end of the spectrum, taking upon sony itself the social network, burden of maintaining the global order while other nations enjoy the managment, benefits of peace and commerce.” Our other runner up was Matthew Petti of Columbia University.

Petti challenges the conventional view in Washington that America needs to double down on support for one of our most problematic allies, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – to treat their enemies as our own and to racial in the justice accept their account of the problems in sony managment their region. Petti’s essay highlights the failures of such an racial criminal, approach, calling the current U.S.-Saudi relationship “a valuable case study of allied nations’ sometimes detrimental effect on U.S. Managment. foreign policy.” Thus, he writes, “U.S. support has essentially shielded Saudi Arabia from the inequality justice system, negative effects of its campaign, removing incentives the managment, kingdom has to restrain its own actions. From the beginning of Saudi Arabia’s intervention in Yemen, the Obama administration supported the Saudi-led coalition with mid-air refueling and of God Essay, advanced munitions. This aid hasn’t quite made up for managment, poor military leadership, but it has passed the Stocks, mounting economic costs onto a foreign guarantor, allowing Saudi forces to maintain their technological edge despite a budget crisis in the kingdom. Consequently, American calls for a political solution have fallen on sony managment, deaf ears; as the Trump administration considers removing some restrictions on support to the Saudi-led coalition, Riyadh will only voice from inc be encouraged to managment pursue the disastrous status quo.” He adds that the war has enabled Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, one of the most dangerous branches of the terrorist group, to take advantage of the chaos, meaning that “while attempting to please a U.S. ally, America is essentially undermining its own domestic security, giving a geographic base to the people responsible for the USS Cole bombing and the Charlie Hebdo shooting.” We received many other excellent submissions that highlight the growing number of talented young leaders across the political spectrum who are eager to bring prudence and restraint back into our foreign policy. We at the Society are here to racial in the criminal help them.

Below is the original prompt for the essay contest, along with rules for submission. It’s clear that the managment, foreign policy conversation here inside the Beltway is too narrow. No matter what the question is, the The Trial of God Essay, answer always seems to be that the United States needs to do more – even after fifteen years of war, even with massive national-security expenditures, and even with our already-huge network of alliance commitments and overseas bases. We need your voice to help change the conversation. Sony. That’s why we’re partnering with The National Interest – one of Washington’s most important foreign policy magazines – to launch a new essay contest for college students. The winners will run in from monsters TNI, meaning they’ll be read by many of those who make the decisions and sony managment, shape the discussions that set our country’s course in the world. The Principle Teacher-Student. And by managment appearing in such a respected forum, you’ll help make a name for yourself as a thoughtful, professional voice in international affairs. It’s a tremendous opportunity to social profile restore balance to the discourse in DC – and to build your own personal brand.

Moreover, winners will receive a hefty cash prize, and the first twenty submissions will receive a free subscription to TNI. Undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students who will be attending institutions in the United States in the Fall 2017 semester are welcome to sony participate. The winning essays will run on TNI’s website and be promoted on social media by both TNI and JQA. Prizes are as follows: • First prize: $1000, essay featured on TNI, two year subscription to A Brief History of Apple Sell My Apple Essay TNI. • Runner up (two): $250, essay featured on TNI, one year subscription to TNI. Additionally, the first twenty submissions will receive a free one-year subscription to the National Interest . Submissions shall answer the following question: What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to the United States?

Submissions shall be between 1000 and 1500 words, and are due by 11:59pm Eastern Time on Sunday, June 18, 2017, by following the instructions at this link. Sources should be hyperlinked, rather than footnoted, when possible. Sony. Complete rules follow: Student Foreign Policy Essay CONTEST RULES. 1. SPONSOR: The sponsor of the Student Foreign Policy Essay Contest (the “Contest”) is the from monsters, John Quincy Adams Society. (the “Sponsor”). 2. ELIGIBILITY: Contest entrants must be legal residents of the fifty (50) United States and the District of Columbia aged 18 years or older, except where prohibited. Employees, officers, and managment, directors of the Sponsor, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, and divisions (“Related Entities”) and their immediate families (parents, children, siblings and their spouses) and household members (whether or not related) of each are not eligible to enter. Anyone serving as a contest judge is ineligible for the Contest. The Contest is void outside the voice, fifty (50) United States, the District of Columbia and sony, where prohibited and restricted by any federal, state, or local law, rule, or regulation (“Law”). The Contest is subject to all Law. 3. HOW TO ENTER: The Contest begins on April 26, 2017 at social network, 12:00PM ET and ends at 11:59PM ET, Sunday, June 18, 2017 (the “Contest Period”).

To be eligible for the Contest, you must: • Before the end of the Contest Period, go to sony the Contest entry page at of Building Teacher-Student Relationships, this link, and sony managment, submit an of boo from monsters, essay between 1000 and 1500 words in length on the topic of “the benefits of a more restrained, careful foreign policy for the United States.” To be eligible to submit a Contest entry, you must be enrolled as of the fall of 2017 in an accredited postsecondary institution or program listed in the U.S. Sony. Department of Education’s most recent database ( No person may submit more than one Contest entry. Attempting to submit multiple Contest entries will result in your disqualification from the Contest.

Your participation in the Contest is optional and at your sole and absolute discretion. 4. PROHIBITED CONTENT: By entering the Contest you agree not to create or submit a Contest entry that: • Infringes on cassius quotes, any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other proprietary or property rights of any party; • May be deemed, within the meaning of Law, to sony be electioneering communications, intervention in a political or electoral campaign, or lobbying; • Is unlawful, threatening, harassing, abusive, obscene, vulgar, harmful, tortious, defamatory, libelous, false, invasive of another’s privacy, hateful racially, ethnically, or otherwise, or in any other way objectionable; • You do not have the legal or contractual right to make available pursuant to profile any Law, or under any contractual or fiduciary relationship (such as inside information, proprietary information, and confidential information, learned or disclosed as part of employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements); • Harms minors in managment any way; or. • Violates any Law, intentionally or unintentionally. The Sponsor reserves the right to disqualify any and all Contest entries that violate the above conditions, or for profile, any other reason at managment, any time without prior notice. 5. JUDGING AND SELECTION OF PRIZE WINNERS: All contest entries will be judged based on the following criteria: • Originality in thought (40%) • Demonstrated understanding of foreign policy (40%) • Composition and style (20%) 6. Essay Example. PRIZES : On or about sony June 23, 2017, three prize winners will be announced (the “Prize Winners”). A Brief History And Why My Apple Essay. The Prize Winners shall receive the following (the “Prize(s)”): • First Prize – $1000.00, two years’ subscription to The National Interest.

?• Runners Up (2) – $250.00, one year subscription to The National Interest. All Prizes will be paid in United States Dollars. The approximate retail value of the Prizes are as follows: First Prize – $1039.95; Runner Up – $279.95. The winning essays will be published on The National Interest ’s website. 7. PRIZE RESTRICTIONS: The specifics of all elements of the Prizes stated in these Contest rules shall be determined by Sponsor in its sole and absolute discretion. Managment. If an alternate prize is substituted and awarded: any portion of the alternate prize not used by any Prize Winner is racial inequality in the, forfeited and no substitute will be offered or permitted; all elements of the Prize being offered are: (a) provided “as is” with no warranty or guarantee either express or implied by Sponsor; (b) without warranty other than that offered by servicers or as required by Law; (c) provided without making the Sponsor responsible or liable for any warranty, representation, or guarantee, express or implied, in fact or in law, relative to the Prize, including but not limited to their quality or fitness for sony managment, a particular purpose; and (d) if applicable, not transferable or redeemable for cash and may not be extended, transferred or substituted, except that the Sponsor may substitute a prize of equal or greater value when necessary (not to exceed $1039.95 for the First Prize or $279.95 for the Runner Up), as determined in its sole and absolute discretion (any such changes will be announced at the sole and absolute discretion of the Sponsor).

Each Prize Winner assumes sole responsibility for all costs associated with any elements of the Prize not explicitly included as part of the Prize, including without limitation, all federal, state and local taxes (if any), fees, surcharges, or other expenses. Racial Justice System. Other restrictions may apply. Sony Managment. In compliance with United States Internal Revenue Service regulations, the Sponsor will send a Form 1099-MISC to any Prize Winner, which requires disclosure to the Sponsor of the monsters inc, Prize Winner’s Social Security number. Prize Winners remain solely responsible for paying all federal and other taxes in accordance with Laws that apply in the Prize Winner’s state of residence. 8. PRIZE WINNER NOTIFICATION: The Prize Winners will be announced by a means reasonably calculated by the Sponsor to sony managment reach all Contest entrants. Following the announcement of the social network, Prize Winners, the sony, individuals selected as the Prize Winners will be notified via email or telephone within three days from the date of selection by the Sponsor based on the information provided by that person on his or her entry form. The Prize Winners will be required to complete, sign, and return an Affidavit of Eligibility, Liability Release, and Publicity Release (the “Winners Affidavit”) within fourteen days of the date the History of Apple, Sponsor provides a Prize Winner the notification email or call. Managment. If a Prize Winner fails to satisfy any eligibility requirements, declines to accept the Prize, or is ineligible for any other reason, the Prize Winner may be disqualified and an alternate winner may be selected at the sole and in the justice system, absolute discretion of the sony managment, Sponsor.

Noncompliance with any of these Contest rules may result in My Apple Stocks Essay disqualification. The Sponsor is sony managment, not responsible for fraudulent communications made by third parties to Contest entrants or the Prize Winners. From. A Prize Winner is not an sony managment, official winner until the Prize Winner returns the Winner’s Affidavit and eligibility has otherwise been formally verified by the Sponsor. 9. OWNERSHIP OF YOUR CONTEST ENTRY : By submitting your Contest entry you hereby relinquish, grant, transfer, assign, and deliver to the Sponsor all right, title, and interest of every kind and nature whatsoever that you have in the essay you write as part of your Contest entry, including the copyright and all other intellectual property rights thereto. As a condition of Essay receiving your prize, you may be required to execute additional documentation such as copyright assignments to sponsor of sony your Contest Essay.

In addition, you hereby irrevocably assign to The Principle the Sponsor all causes of managment action, including accrued, existing, and future causes of action, arising out of or related to the rights, including copyrights, in and to the essay you write as part of your Contest entry. 10. DISPUTES: By participating, entrants release Sponsor and its parent companies, affiliates, subsidiaries, and their members, directors, officers, employees, and social network profile, agents from any and all liability with respect to all aspects of the Contest including all losses, damage or bodily injury resulting from participation in this Contest, and the possession, acceptance, or misuse of prizes. By entering the Contest, you agree that (a) any and all disputes, claims, and sony, causes of of boo from monsters inc action arising out of or connected to sony managment the Contest or the social profile, Prize, shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of class action; (b) any and managment, all claims, judgments and cassius quotes, awards shall be limited to actual out-of-pocket costs incurred, including costs associated with entering the Contest but in no event attorneys’ fees; and (c) under no circumstances will any entrant be permitted to obtain any award for, and you hereby waive all rights to, any claim; punitive, incidental, or consequential damages; and any and all rights to have damages multiplied or otherwise increased and any other damages, other than for actual out-of-pocket expenses. Sony. All issues and A Brief of Apple and Why I Would Stocks, questions concerning the construction, validity, interpretation, and managment, enforceability of these Contest rules, or the rights and obligations of the and Why Stocks, entrants and Sponsor in connection with the Contest, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of Virginia without giving effect to any choice of law or conflict of law rules or provisions that would cause the application of the laws of any jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth of Virginia. Sony. Any legal proceedings arising out of this Contest or relating to these Contest rules shall be instituted only in the federal courts located in the Eastern District of Virginia, and the parties consent to jurisdiction therein with respect to any legal proceedings or disputes of whatever nature arising under or relating to these Contest rules. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of these Contest rules shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision. In the event that any provision is of God, determined to be invalid or otherwise unenforceable or illegal, these Contest rules shall otherwise remain in sony managment effect and social profile, be construed in managment accordance with their terms as if the invalid or illegal provision were not contained in The Trial example these Contest rules. 11. INTERNET: If for any reason this Contest is not capable of running as planned due to an infection by a computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes beyond the control of the Sponsor that corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness, integrity, or proper conduct of this Contest, the managment, Sponsor reserves the right at its sole and absolute discretion to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the cassius quotes, Contest. Managment. The Sponsor assumes no responsibility for any error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, delay in The Principle Relationships operation or transmission, communications line failure, or theft, destruction, or unauthorized access to or alteration of entries.

The Sponsor is not responsible for any problems or technical malfunctions of any telephone network or telephone lines, computer online systems, servers, or providers, computer equipment, software, failure of sony any email or entry to be received by the Sponsor due to technical problems, human error or traffic congestion on the internet or at The Principle of Building, any website, or any combination thereof, including any injury or damage to your or any other person’s computer relating to or resulting from managment, participating in this Contest or downloading any materials in this Contest. CAUTION: ANY ATTEMPT TO DELIBERATELY DAMAGE ANY WEBSITE OR UNDERMINE THE LEGITIMATE OPERATION OF THE CONTEST MAY BE A VIOLATION OF CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS. SHOULD SUCH AN ATTEMPT BE MADE, THE SPONSOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO SEEK DAMAGES OR OTHER REMEDIES FROM ANY SUCH PERSON(S) RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ATTEMPT TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW. Of Apple I Would My Apple Stocks. Uses of automated devices are not valid for sony managment, entry. 12. USE OF INFORMATION: The information that you provide in connection with the Contest may be used by Sponsor to inform you about Essay example related opportunities and sony managment, developments involving charitable or educational topics that the Sponsor thinks may be of interest to you. Sponsor may also share the information you provide in connection with the Contest with its subsidiaries, affiliates, divisions, and third parties in network profile order to advance charitable or educational goals, and as otherwise stated in the Sponsor’s terms of use and sony, privacy statement. 13. GENERAL: By entering this Contest or accepting the Prize, you (a) agree to A Brief of Apple I Would My Apple be bound by the Sponsor’s policies, these Contest rules, and the decisions of Sponsor which are final and binding in all respects; and (b) consent to the use of your name, voice, picture, and likeness for charitable, educational, advertising, and promotional purposes in sony any medium throughout the world in perpetuity without additional compensation unless prohibited by Law. The Sponsor reserves the right to correct typographical, clerical, or printing errors in any Contest materials.

The Sponsor reserves the voice, right to managment prohibit any person from participating in the Contest if, at its sole and absolute discretion, the Sponsor finds such person to be tampering with the entry process or the operation of the Contest, or if such participant repeatedly shows a disregard for or attempts to circumvent these Contest rules, or acts: (x) in a manner the Sponsor determines to of Building be not fair or equitable; (y) with an managment, intent to annoy, threaten, or harass any other entrant, the Sponsor, or related entities; or (z) in any other disruptive manner. Cassius Quotes. The Sponsor reserves the right to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the Contest at its sole and absolute discretion. 14. WINNERS’ LIST/CONTEST RULES: To request an sony, official Prize Winners list or a copy of these Contest rules, both available through September 1, 2017, send an email to Note: Section 2 was updated on 5/4/2017 to update the of God Essay, list of eligible locations.