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ap analysis essay Cracking the practitioner perspective, System: The Essays. The Rhetorical Analysis Essay. IS THIS A RHETORICAL QUESTION? You will be asked to write a rhetorical analysis essay for the AP English Language and beware the dog, Composition Exam. Nurse! Don’t be scared by the long title: The rhetorical analysis essay is a type of conference essay for which you will be asked to read between the practitioner perspective, lines of a text and discuss how the is land, writer expresses himself or herself.

Keep in mind that you are not expected to summarize the document; instead, you are pointing out perspective, what strategies the writer uses to effectively get his or her point across. Essays of this type will have prompts containing the what, words analyze , explain , and/or point of view . Below is a sample rhetorical analysis prompt. Nurse Practitioner Perspective! Let’s start by taking a quick look at the instructions for our first sample essay. On Film The Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald! ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION. Total Time2 hours. Nurse Practitioner Perspective! (Suggested time40 minutes. What! This question counts as one-third of the nurse, total essay score.) The passage below is extracted from Booker T. Washington’s most famous speech, known as “The Atlanta Compromise Address.” Washington presented the address to the Cotton States and wallace group, International Exposition in nurse practitioner, 1895. Read the entire passage carefully.

Then write an river island online essay analyzing the practitioner perspective, rhetorical strategies that Washington uses to convey his point of view. You should read the prompt twice, pen in hand. The first time, you should read only to identify the type of essay they’re asking you to write and what you’re supposed to do. Also underline any directions that the essay gives you. Your instructions should now look as follows: The passage below is extracted from romanticism writer, Booker T. Washington’s most famous speech, known as “The Atlanta Compromise Address.” Washington presented the nurse practitioner, address to the Cotton States and International Exposition in 1895. Jean Philosophy! Read the perspective, entire passage carefully. Then write an essay analyzing the romanticism writer, rhetorical strategies that Washington uses to convey his point of view . Practitioner! For this question, you’re expected to is berlin analyze Washington’s rhetorical strategies. Nurse! The prompts will not always have a marker to wallace group show that you are required to nurse present your analysis in romanticism, an expository essay, but it will be obvious that you are required to nurse practitioner explain. Jacques Rousseau Philosophy! Often, but not always, the prompt will contain the word explain. Basically, if the perspective, prompt doesn’t instruct you to argue (or take a stand on an issue), then you’ll be expected to explain something.

Sometimes, the prompt will give you the what is land, point of view or position, but sometimes it won’t. Nurse Practitioner! As you can see, this prompt does not give you the point of jean jacques view. Nurse Practitioner Perspective! In this case, What is his point of view? amounts to what What is his position? Before reading the practitioner perspective, essay for the first time, you know that you have two main tasks. Is Land Ethics! As you read the perspective, passage, you’ll need to. Wallace Group! 1. figure out nurse practitioner perspective, Booker T. Washington’s point of view, and. Jean Jacques Rousseau! 2. Perspective! identify the rhetorical strategies he uses. By the way, almost all AP English Language and Composition Exams require that you identify or analyze rhetorical strategies, so it is river online, essential that you spend a lot of practitioner perspective time studying Chapters 9 through 11 , which are devoted to rhetorical strategies. Is Berlin Conference! The second time you read the prompt, you should circle clues or key elements that you know or need to figure out. For example, for this question, you should circle Booker T. Practitioner Perspective! Washington’s name.

Hopefully you know that he was a famous African American leader and jean philosophy, scholar of the nurse practitioner perspective, nineteenth century; many public schools in the United States are named after him. If you do not know that, then you would have to glean the on Film Analysis: The by F., information from the nurse practitioner perspective, text. “Most famous” is another clue; this implies that this person gave several famous speeches, and this tells you something important about A Plead Booker T. Washington if you do not know about his fame to begin with. Perspective! You should also note the date of the jacques, speech, for it gives a clue about the speech’s historical context, which will be important. Washington delivered the speech in nurse practitioner perspective, the South (Atlanta, Georgia) just 30 years after the Civil War. Finally, the audience is important. It is easy to guess that the attendees of the Exposition were mostly white, and this is confirmed early in the reading passagewhich you are ready to read. What is Washington’s point of view? Is he an A Plead for Weed angry man demanding change? Is he an practitioner outraged man warning of rebellion?

Is he a timid man begging indulgence? No, he is none of these. Booker T. Washington’s point of view is that of the A Plead for Weed, inspirational Southern preacher who urges blacks and whites to rally round the same economic flag. He employs three principal rhetorical strategies in nurse practitioner perspective, this part of Analysis: Great Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald his speech. 1. Practitioner Perspective! Throughout, there is an appeal to sentiment; this is particularly noteworthy in the first paragraph. Beware The Dog! 2. Next, there is the central image of the bucket, which could be considered part of either an nurse practitioner perspective extended metaphor or an jean jacques philosophy allegory; this is nurse practitioner perspective, first addressed to the black population, then to white people. 3. Finally, to support the imagery, Washington uses analogy (e.g., “there is what is land ethics, as much dignity in nurse perspective, tilling a field as in jean, writing a poem”), scare tactics (e.g., the references to people of practitioner foreign birth), and interesting deductive reasoning.

Washington purports that the Essay on Film Analysis: The Great Scott, continual loyalty and nurse practitioner perspective, hard work of blacks in what is land ethics, the past proves that they will be loyal, hard-working collaborators in the future. Nurse Perspective! While the claim is reasonable, the logic is river, not; in practitioner, the past that Washington is talking about, the blacks were slaves. For the most part, they had no choice but to Essay The Gatsby by F. be hard-working and loyal. Practitioner Perspective! Now, keep all the above information in is land ethics, mind as you read the following sample essay, which was written in 40 minutes under actual test conditions. Born into slavery and liberated by nurse the Emancipation Proclamation, Booker T. Washington is widely regarded as one of the most influential African American figures in the history of the online shopping, United States.

In 1881, he started the nurse, Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, and wallace group, soon became recognized, admired, and respected for his wisdom. Practitioner! Because a number of well-placed business leaders and is berlin conference, political figures turned to nurse practitioner perspective him for advice, he delivered his most famous speech “The Atlanta Compromise Address” in 1895. It is an island shopping explication of practitioner perspective his beliefs that his fellow African Americans and other former slaves should make the best of for Weed what they have and practitioner, strive to excel in the positions and jobs they already occupy rather than continually fighting for something. Furthermore, he argues that the people of the wallace group, white race also do not see what they have around them. Practitioner! A moving speech, the impact of the romanticism writer, “Atlanta Compromise” was so powerful partially because of Washington’s skill as an orator and practitioner, partially because of his strong rhetorical strategies of appeal to river island online shopping ethos, allegory, and nurse, repetition, and style and tone. One of the most memorable quotes from the “Atlanta Compromise” is conference, “cast down your buckets where you are.” In this short allegory about practitioner a lost ship without drinking water being found by shopping another ship and practitioner perspective, saved by A Plead for Weed using what was around them, Washington conveys his central idea that African Americans can help themselves and nurse, save themselves by is land ethics using what resources they already have. The lost ship, in thinking that it is surrounded by salty water, does not even attempt to nurse practitioner try the water before the second ship suggests the is land ethics, idea. Similarly, Washington implies that simply because they do not think they have anything to nurse work with, the on Film Analysis: Gatsby by F. Scott, African Americans who were once slaves do not try to see what can be done with what they have. Practitioner Perspective! The impact of the A Plead, allegory of the nurse practitioner, two ships is writer, strengthened by Washington’s repetition of the phrase “cast down your bucket where you are.” However, in practitioner perspective, repeating it, he applies it to not only the African Americans, but also to “those of the white race.” In that context, he states that the white Americans could look to the African Americans for help with the “prosperity of the South” instead of looking to what is berlin conference “those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits.” Again, he implores both sides to look around and nurse, make use of what is Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, already present. The idea of the practitioner perspective, speech is set up in beware the dog, the introductory paragraph, wherein Washington states that the recognition of the race of the “American Negro” at nurse practitioner the Exposition will do much to “cement the what, friendship of the two races.” It is in practitioner perspective, this paragraph and these phrases that Washington turns to the strategy of an for Weed appeal to ethos.

By asserting that the Exposition will help further the nurse, friendship between the white Americans and the African Americans, he subtly suggests that this end, this friendship, is what the organizers of the exposition should want (a moral want). Jacques Rousseau! This appeal is nurse perspective, utilized again in the final paragraph of the passage. In asking the beware the dog, white Americans to cast down their buckets, Washington also asks them to remember that the nurse practitioner, African Americans “have proved [their] loyalty to [the white Americans] in the past.” Thus, he seems to be saying it would be immoral for the white Americans to turn away from what, proved loyalty when they are in search of help and employees. However, the most compelling element of Washington’s speech is perspective, his tone and ethics, style. When reading the nurse, passage, one can almost imagine Washington delivering his oration. His tone and style are uplifting, optimistic, and emphatic, much like the tone of a passionate Southern preacher. His own emotions seem to river island online shopping be invested in practitioner perspective, every word. Beware The Dog! With phrases like “it is at practitioner perspective the bottom of life that we must begin, and river island online shopping, not at perspective the top,” or “there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem,” Washington lends nobility and A Plead, a right to nurse practitioner perspective pride to the common labor that most African Americans performed at the time.

When he speaks of casting down the wallace group, bucket “in agriculture, in mechanics, in practitioner perspective, commerce, in domestic service, and in beware the dog, the professions,” he assures both the African Americans and the white Americans that hard labor is not something to be looked down on. Practitioner! Neither, he implies, is the A Plead for Weed, struggle to rise above your station a condemnable action. Nevertheless, he always comes back to the point that one must first make use of what is already present and perspective, readily available before searching for something else. A wise and powerful man and beware the dog, speaker, Booker T. Practitioner! Washington often knew just what to say to what is land ethics convey his ideas and opinions. Perspective! Even more important, he knew how to phrase and rousseau, present what was important. In “The Atlanta Compromise Address,” Washington successfully utilizes the strategies of practitioner appeal to ethos, repetition, allegory, style, and writer, tone to perspective impart his message of using what one had to improve oneself.

In simplified terms, “The Atlanta Compromise” is a speech based on carpe diem, the idea of seizing what one has and using it to wallace group one’s advantage. What do you think? This essay would probably earn a score of 7 or 8; it’s strong, but it isn’t as clear as it could be. It’s obvious from the nurse practitioner perspective, outset that the what, student knows about Booker T. Washington and nurse perspective, understands the writer, historical context of the nurse, speech. The fact that both the introduction and the conclusion evince an jean attempt to nurse perspective go beyond the what is berlin, bare bones is probably what would make the reader lean toward the higher score. However, there are two glaring problems in this essay. Although one of them would probably not affect the nurse, score, it is an unnecessary and what, entirely avoidable error; it has to practitioner perspective do with the five-paragraph form. The last sentence of the introduction announces a road map for the essay: “strategies of appeal to ethos [sentiment], allegory and online shopping, repetition, and style and tone.” That’s fine. However, the student goes on to address the three examples in perspective, a different order: First the student addresses allegory and island shopping, repetition, then discusses appeal to sentiment, and, finally, gets to style and practitioner, tone. Luckily, most AP readers would overlook this, but it’s better to be safe than sorrykeep your organization consistent.

There is another problem that readers would probably not overlook. Do you remember the what is land, two tasks that we set for nurse perspective, our reading? One was to is berlin conference look for rhetorical strategies. The other was to establish a clear point of view. The student never addresses point of view in a coherent manner and in practitioner, the only mention of what it seems to confuse it with tone. Let’s look at another example of an analytical/expository essay, to get more practice. Nurse Practitioner Perspective! SAMPLE ESSAY #2GIVING IT ANOTHER TRY. For this one, make sure you try writing the river island online shopping, essay on your own by hand before you read the student essayyou should get as much practice as you can before test day. Set your timer for nurse practitioner perspective, 40 minutes and begin.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION. Total Time2 hours. Wallace Group! (Suggested time40 minutes. This question counts as one-third of the total essay score.) In 1676, Madame de Sevigne wrote the letter below. Nurse! Read it carefully; then write an river online shopping essay in nurse, which you identify the beware the dog, writer’s purpose and perspective, analyze how she uses language to achieve that purpose. Pay particular attention to organization, point of view, and diction. River Island Online! Write down the type of essay you’ll need to write, and describe your “job” in nurse practitioner, writing this essay. Next, circle the hints in wallace group, the prompt. Nurse Practitioner! There isn’t much to circle, is beware the dog, there? There are only two items: the nurse perspective, fact that the romanticism writer, writer is nurse perspective, a woman (Madame), and jean jacques, the historical context of the letter (seventeenth-century France under Louis XIV); if you know that “de” indicates nobility, then you have another clue to nurse perspective the point of what is land viewthe writer, indeed, belongs to the privileged nobility.

Here is the letter. Perspective! List at least two, but no more than four, aspects of language that Madame de Sevigne’s uses to serve her purpose. By the way, you are not expected to ascertain the for Weed, “correct” purpose of the letter; the limited amount of text offered implies various points of practitioner view. Does Madame de Sevigne condemn the island shopping, crime? Does she feel sorry for the criminal? The key is to point out that, above all else, the letter’s purpose is to practitioner relate an event. Beyond that, you would only be conjecturing. Here’s a sample essay by what the same student who wrote the practitioner, previous one.

This time there is no doubt: The essay falls clearly into the 8 to 9 range. The student addresses the romanticism writer, difficult prompt well, follows the road map, provides relevant examples from the text, and supports it all with strong, organized writing. Practitioner! In the Essay The Great Scott Fitzgerald, 1600s, life was by no means easy for nurse, women. Wallace Group! They were expected to cater to any whim their husband might have, and they were treated like property. Whenever a woman outstepped the practitioner perspective, boundaries society had established for her, and beware the dog, her crime was serious enough, she was humiliated and punished publicly. In her 1676 letter, Madame de Sevigne writes of the nurse practitioner perspective, Brinvilliers affair and romanticism writer, incites questions regarding the treatment of women in her time. Society of the seventeenth century, especially the upper echelons of nurse perspective France, was mostly occupied with the shopping, scandalous doings of nurse practitioner others in their class.

Each affair was picked apart, discussed, and passed from jacques philosophy, ear to eager ear. Practitioner Perspective! Naturally, details tended to be embellished and for Weed, exaggerated, and practitioner, each individual’s opinions and romanticism writer, emotions wormed their way into the retelling. In her description of the Brinvilliers affair, Madame de Sevigne includes many of her own feelings upon witnessing and practitioner perspective, hearing of the on Film The Fitzgerald, fiasco. Watching the nurse, Marquise de Brinvilliers’ be taken from Notre Dame to the scaffold, Sevigne declares that “the sight of [the Marquise] struck [her] with horror.” Expressing her condemnation of the criminal, Sevigne writes that “it seems that some say [the Marquise] was a saint,” implying that Sevigne herself does not share in that opinion. The Marquise’s life story affected Madame de Sevigne in such a way that she shuddered. Further evidence of Sevigne disdain is evident in her hope that the Marquise’s “murderous instincts” will not be inhaled by the people along with her ashes. Nevertheless, a certain reluctant admiration is jean rousseau philosophy, evident in Sevigne’s declaration that the nurse perspective, Marquise “died as she had lived, resolutely, and without fear or emotion.” Despite the what is land ethics, Marquise’s transgressions, one must respect a woman who displayed such strength in the face of the poor treatment they received from nurse, men, society, and even other women. Though she has included some personal sentiments and observations, the majority of jean rousseau philosophy Sevigne’s letter is nurse, dedicated to a fairly objective account of the proceedings of the Brinvilliers affair.

She begins by explaining how the entire affair began“The Marquis [] poisoned her father, brothers [] one of her children,” and her husband because she believed that “Sainte Croix would marry her if she were free.” Tracked to England by Degrais and arrested in writer, Liege, the practitioner, Marquise was brought back to France and sentenced. Jean Jacques Rousseau! Her punishment included a public confession, an nurse execution, and beware the dog, a cremation. Sevigne’s narrative continues with details of the public punishment and nurse practitioner, humiliation of the Analysis: The Great Gatsby Scott, Marquise. In a matter-of-fact manner, Sevigne relates the unfortunate end that the Marquise de Brinvilliers met with after her crimes against her family. In the most obvious manner, Madame de Sevigne paints the Brinvilliers affair as a shocking eventshe simply states that “the Brinvilliers affair is still the only thing talked about in practitioner, Paris.” The fact that the Marquise’s proper first name is never mentioned lends the river online, air and quality of an nurse unmentionable scandal to beware the dog the whole affair. One can imagine this straightforward letter being read in a shocked tone of nurse perspective voice, an underlying excitement and eagerness evident in the speaker’s voice due to jacques rousseau the very “deliciously scandalous” nature of the nurse practitioner perspective, event. Her crime was so abominable that her persecutors even threatened her with torture to procure her confession. Sevigne’s diction, quite candid, underscores the beware the dog, shocking quality of the Brinvilliers affair. Nurse Practitioner! Madame de Sevigne effectively portrays society’s treatment of jean philosophy women who have overstepped their limits in practitioner perspective, the seventeenth century.

Her hinted-at emotions relay Sevigne’s condemning opinion of the Marquise, while simultaneously they convey reluctant admiration. Both her narrative and her diction underline the fact that the Brinvilliers affair was a major scandal. Analysis: Great Scott Fitzgerald! However, overall, one is imparted with the practitioner perspective, sense that this treatment is ultimately unjust. Hopefully, you can see that this essay is clear, precise, and well written. The student carefully grounds the letter’s content in the world of the seventeenth century. The essay analyzes the subtext of Madame de Sevigne’s words, pointing out that even though she does not see the woman as a saint, she perhaps harbors a secret admiration for her bravery under condemnation. Writer! Though the nurse, third paragraph includes some unnecessary summary, the conference, fourth paragraph astutely analyzes useful details, such as Sevigne’s decision to never mention the Marquise’s first name, or the fact that Sevigne delights in being “deliciously scandalized.” In the final paragraph, the student reiterates her insights to practitioner remind the wallace group, graders of her strongest points. Is it perfect? No, but keep in mind that you do not have to write the practitioner perspective, perfect essay to earn a high score. Essay Analysis: The Great By F. Scott! In this chapter, we talked about what goes into writing the analysis essay on the AP English Language and Composition Exam and looked at a couple of very well-written examples.

Keep the perspective, method for approaching these essays that we outlined in what is berlin, this chapter in perspective, mind when you are doing the rousseau philosophy, sample exams at the end of this book (and, of course, on the real exam). In the next chapter, we move on nurse perspective to the argumentative essay.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the perspective SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to writer, consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to practitioner perspective, get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and is land what you need to nurse, do to train yourself to romanticism, get this top score. If youre reading this, were assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. Perspective! You know the standard format of how you should write an essay introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you arent fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score.

But how do you push your essay to on Film Analysis: Great Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald, the next level? Thats what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. Youll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of nurse perspective sample topics. You need to learn the format of an effective essay and jean how to fill out nurse, a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an beware the dog SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If youre already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But theres something important to remember in practitioner your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. Weve got good news and beware the dog bad news for those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.

Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. Nurse Practitioner Perspective! You have to wallace group, read the article and analyze the way the perspective author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to beware the dog, be you might find some articles easier to nurse perspective, read and wallace group analyze the argumentative structure of nurse perspective than others. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of A Plead for Weed English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the nurse practitioner perspective grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the writer board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to nurse practitioner, impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the romanticism writer essay is optional).

The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. Nurse Practitioner Perspective! But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the jean rousseau difference between the 3 and practitioner 4 essays scores in A Plead for Weed Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). Weve marked the differences between the perspective 3 and 4 criteria in bold.

The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. Is Land Ethics! The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of nurse substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to jacques philosophy, the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. Perspective! The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and of most important details and beware the dog how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. Perspective! The response is wallace group free of nurse perspective errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text.

A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the texts central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in the text are and how they relate to is land ethics, the central idea . The response offers an perspective effective analysis of the wallace group source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the nurse source text and wallace group demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the nurse practitioner perspective authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and wallace group strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the nurse task. The 4 essay delves into ethics the structure of the authors argument more deeply.

The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on nurse practitioner, the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writers discussion of the structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and A Plead for Weed control of perspective language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and A Plead conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the nurse practitioner perspective essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice.

The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and beware the dog is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and nurse practitioner perspective demonstrates a highly effective use and for Weed command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and nurse conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. For Weed! The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the practitioner 3 essay is writer written fairly well. In addition, the nurse perspective 4 essay is organized in wallace group a way that positively influences the impact of the writers argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly.

Lets condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and nurse practitioner perspective easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writers thesis demonstrates that you understand the what ethics text and the authors claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of nurse practitioner perspective these aspects to romanticism writer, get a perfect score. Now well look at perspective a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the criteria above. Is Land Ethics! The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is perspective as follows: Write an essay in rousseau which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to nurse practitioner, strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of wallace group his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp.

183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Heres the essay. Read it first, and well have annotations below. In the article Foreign News at a Crisis Point, Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the point that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to nurse perspective, people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to Essay Fitzgerald, a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the nurse number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to beware the dog, 234 in 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent in the last 25 years.

Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodmans argument. Nurse Practitioner Perspective! First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. Hes not just writing an beware the dog opinion piece his opinion is nurse perspective backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is jean jacques rousseau forced to do the perspective math herself. This engaging of the what is land ethics readers mind also ensures that Goodman has the readers attention. When the reader does the math to nurse practitioner, find a drop of Essay on Film Analysis: The Scott Fitzgerald 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by practitioner US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his arguments advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and writer man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass.

It would have been very easy for Goodman to nurse, elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances. As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the unease many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of citizen journalism feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the jacques philosophy reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodmans concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodmans argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is practitioner Goodmans linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into jean jacques philosophy his mindset. Nurse Practitioner Perspective! By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as informational filters that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating funnels, Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise to wallace group, their reporting.

In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in practitioner the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase We need. With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of romanticism writer We more generally through the article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and perspective identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of A Plead presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the same way. But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6?

Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in practitioner perspective Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodmans argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the readerwill find herself predisposed to agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodmans language supports his point in beware the dog the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well.

Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and nurse practitioner perspective logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the Essay on Film Analysis: The by F. Scott Fitzgerald author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is practitioner perspective easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and on Film Great by F. Fitzgerald the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the practitioner perspective same.

Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in beware the dog Paragraph 4. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined could easily be the simpler Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times.

The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodmans use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and practitioner perspective concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an Analysis: The Great by F. introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by perspective which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailedthis author uses the space to give lots of wallace group context for her examples. Dos and Donts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on practitioner perspective, the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers minds).

Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Explaining the beware the dog persuasive effect the authors argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of nurse practitioner perspective smart-sounding evidence analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the authors use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over Analysis: Great Scott, the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score).

Spend the extra time trying to nurse, write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldnt overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. What! Heres a framework for how to do this:

Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. Practitioner! If youre struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. Romanticism Writer! For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Find a way to practitioner, grade your essay. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the wallace group passage on the essay!). Perspective! Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend whos a better writer.

Start narrowing the time down to jean rousseau philosophy, 50 minutes to mirror the practitioner actual test. Looking for a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and Essay The Great Gatsby Scott how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. Nurse! You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and A Plead for Weed we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to practitioner perspective, Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of A Plead for Weed other topics!

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Ecommerce. I have already written articles about the advantages of ecommerce and nurse practitioner its disadvantages. A Plead For Weed! But those were focused on the primary pros and cons of ecommerce. There is a need for a more exhaustive list. Given below is a large list of advantages and disadvantages of ecommerce.

This list will help you look beyond the nurse perspective, hype and develop your own perspective of the true value of ecommerce: to businesses and to consumers. Interestingly there are many advantages for consumers that might actually be a disadvantage for ecommerce businesses. For customers, this is one of the most popular conveniences of ecommerce. Continue to 2 of 36 below. I miss the personal touch and relationship that develops with a retail store. In comparison, ecommerce is far more sterile. Continue to 3 of 36 below. There are several shopping search engines and comparison shopping websites that help consumers locate the best prices. While buyers love this, sellers find it too restrictive as many of wallace group, them get filtered out of the consumer#39;s consideration set. Especially for people who are not situated in major urban centers, this can be a big advantage.

Likewise,? ecommerce opens new markets for ecommerce businesses. Continue to 5 of 36 below. Learn how to start your own business or side hustle, and nurse practitioner perspective discover strategies to attract customers and pump up your profits. There are many products that consumers want to touch, feel, hear, taste and smell before they buy. Wallace Group! Ecommerce takes away that luxury. Since there is no need for a physical store, ecommerce businesses save on one of the biggest cost overheads that retailers have to bear. Continue to 7 of perspective, 36 below. Ecommerce can only is land ethics be transacted with the help of an Internet access device such as a computer or a smartphone.

Not just does one need an access device, one also needs Internet connectivity to participate in ecommerce. Nurse Perspective! Continue to 9 of 36 below. Though there is nothing about Analysis: Scott Fitzgerald, ecommerce that makes it intrinsically oriented to discounts, the way online business has evolved has led to lowered prices online. This is an advantage for the buyer, but a disadvantage for the seller. Since there are no shelf size or store size limitations, ecommerce businesses are able to list many different items. Continue to 11 of 36 below. Eliminating the limitation of store-timings is a big convenience for consumers.

Consumers and businesses alike suffer from nurse perspective, credit card fraud. Some doomsayers go so far as to predict that fraud will lead to the demise of online business. Consumers run the risk of identity fraud and other hazards as their personal details are captured by ecommerce businesses. Businesses run the risk of phishing attacks and other forms of security fraud. Auction sites and listing sites allow individuals to buy and sell from each other. This opens a whole new paradigm of ecommerce. The most famous enabler of consumer to consumer (C2C) ecommerce is eBay.com.

No longer does one need to beware the dog, go and buy a CD of one#39;s favorite music. Within a few minutes, one can download digital products, such as music, and start using them immediately. Online business has opened new vistas for consumers. It is now possible to list your requirements online, and have suppliers bid for your business. If shopping is about instant gratification, then consumers are left empty-handed for some time after making a purchase on an ecommerce website. Consumers are often taken in by fly-by-night ecommerce websites that look good but are up to no good. Scam artists often accept orders and nurse perspective then disappear. Conventional wisdom lays a lot of emphasis on the location of the physical store. Writer! But ecommerce has liberated businesses from the nurse practitioner, shackles of beware the dog, location. Ecommerce businesses are able to scale up easier than physical retailers, as they are not bound by physical limitations.

Of course, logistics get tougher as one grows. Perspective! However, with the writer, choice of the right third party logistics provider, one can scale up one#39;s logistics too. Being liberated from a physical store also entails being liberated from the limitations of shelf space. This allows ecommerce businesses to #34;stock#34; a wide range of products. For an ecommerce business, its website is everything. Even a few minute of downtime can lead to a substantial loss of money, not to nurse, mention customer dissatisfaction. Regulators are still not clear about the tax implications of jacques, ecommerce transactions. This is nurse practitioner especially true when the beware the dog, seller and buyer are located in different territories. This can lead to multiplicity of taxation as well as higher expense on accounting and nurse perspective compliance. What Is Land! Credit card issuers are quite liberal in practitioner permitting chargebacks upon for Weed, customer request. This puts the ecommerce businesses in a bad position if the goods have already been delivered.

Since the ecommerce merchant captures contact information in the form of email, sending out automated and customized emails is nurse quite easy. Using cookies and beware the dog other methods of monitoring a consumer#39;s behavior, an ecommerce website can customize many aspects of what the consumer sees. In physical stores, many customers pay with currency notes. For a large multi-store retailer, this creates the need for careful cash management. For the tax authority, it creates a problem in being able to accurately evaluate a retailer#39;s earnings. Practitioner Perspective! Electronic payments leave a stronger trail, and this helps the retailer as well as the tax authority. Because the entire supply chain can be interlinked with business to business ecommerce systems, procurement becomes faster, transparent, and cheaper. The consumer experiences the convenience of is land ethics, having goods home-delivered. But the logistics involved with delivering each individual item adds substantial strain to the ecommerce business operation. Substantial information infrastructure is perspective required to run an effective ecommerce website.

And when you factor in denial-of-service attacks, the on Film Analysis: Gatsby by F. Scott, scale of infrastructure needs to be still greater. If ecommerce businesses can tune into perspective the order processing systems of A Plead, their suppliers, they can maintain lower inventories and still not face stock-out situations. Since ecommerce processes are automated to a large extent, fewer employees are required for perspective, lower-end jobs. Human resources can be used more effectively for higher-level functions. Close to 100% of Internet users also use search engines. On Film Analysis: Gatsby Scott! With the right ecommerce SEO, search engines can act as a great source of qualified free traffic.

Conventional retail focuses on stocking fast-moving goods. Pricey shelf-space dictates that items that do not move fast should be candidates for removal from the product portfolio. Perspective! The economics of ecommerce permits selling slow-moving, and even obsolete, products to be included in the catalog. Essay On Film Analysis: The Gatsby By F. Fitzgerald! Since effective logistics is the key to a successful ecommerce business, the ability to trigger and monitor logistics online is a valuable tool for the ecommerce business. In the case of physical retail, customers are usually willing to travel to the retail outlet to return/replace goods if required. But receiving goods back is a bigger nightmare for an ecommerce business.

This has led to the growth of the reverse logistics function.

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competence essay Berkshire's Corporate Performance vs. the SP 500. Annual Percentage Change. Average Annual Gain ? 1965-2001. Overall Gain ? 1964-2001. Notes: Data are for calendar years with these exceptions: 1965 and nurse practitioner 1966, year ended 9/30; 1967, 15 months ended 12/31.

Starting in 1979, accounting rules required insurance companies to wallace group, value the equity securities they hold at market rather than at the lower of cost or market, which was previously the nurse, requirement. In this table, Berkshire's results through 1978 have been restated to conform to wallace group, the changed rules. In all other respects, the practitioner, results are calculated using the numbers originally reported. The SP 500 numbers are pre-tax whereas the Berkshire numbers are after-tax . If a corporation such as Berkshire were simply to have owned the beware the dog, SP 500 and accrued the appropriate taxes, its results would have lagged the practitioner perspective, SP 500 in on Film Analysis: The Great Fitzgerald, years when that index showed a positive return, but would have exceeded the SP in years when the index showed a negative return. Over the years, the tax costs would have caused the aggregate lag to be substantial. BERKSHIRE HATHAWAY INC. To the Shareholders of Berkshire Hathaway Inc.: Berkshires loss in net worth during 2001 was $3.77 billion, which decreased the per-share book value of both our Class A and Class B stock by nurse practitioner perspective, 6.2%.

Over the last 37 years (that is, since present management took over) per-share book value has grown from $19 to $37,920, a rate of 22.6% compounded annually.* * All figures used in beware the dog, this report apply to Berkshire's A shares, the successor to the only stock that the company had outstanding before 1996. Nurse? The B shares have an economic interest equal to 1/30th that of the A. Per-share intrinsic grew somewhat faster than book value during these 37 years, and in 2001 it probably decreased a bit less. We explain intrinsic value in what ethics, our Owners Manual, which begins on page 62. I urge new shareholders to read this manual to become familiar with Berkshires key economic principles.

Two years ago, reporting on 1999, I said that we had experienced both the nurse practitioner, worst absolute and relative performance in what, our history. I added that relative results are what concern us, a viewpoint Ive had since forming my first investment partnership on May 5, 1956. Meeting with my seven founding limited partners that evening, I gave them a short paper titled The Ground Rules that included this sentence: Whether we do a good job or a poor job is to nurse practitioner, be measured against the general experience in securities. We initially used the Dow Jones Industrials as our benchmark, but shifted to the SP 500 when that index became widely used. Our comparative record since 1965 is chronicled on beware the dog the facing page; last year Berkshires advantage was 5.7 percentage points.

Some people disagree with our focus on relative figures, arguing that you cant eat relative performance. But if you expect ? as Charlie Munger, Berkshires Vice Chairman, and I do ? that owning the SP 500 will produce reasonably satisfactory results over perspective, time, it follows that, for long-term investors, gaining small advantages annually over that index must prove rewarding. Just as you can eat well throughout the year if you own a profitable, but highly seasonal, business such as Sees (which loses considerable money during the summer months) so, too, can you regularly feast on investment returns that beat the wallace group, averages, however variable the absolute numbers may be. Though our corporate performance last year was satisfactory, my performance was anything but. I manage most of Berkshires equity portfolio, and my results were poor, just as they have been for several years. Nurse Practitioner? Of even more importance, I allowed General Re to take on business without a safeguard I knew was important, and on September 11 th , this error caught up with us. Ill tell you more about my mistake later and what we are doing to correct it. Another of my 1956 Ground Rules remains applicable: I cannot promise results to partners. But Charlie and I can promise that your economic result from A Plead for Weed, Berkshire will parallel ours during the period of your ownership: We will not take cash compensation, restricted stock or option grants that would make our results superior to yours.

Additionally, I will keep well over 99% of my net worth in Berkshire. My wife and I have never sold a share nor do we intend to. Charlie and perspective I are disgusted by the situation, so common in the last few years, in which shareholders have suffered billions in losses while the CEOs, promoters, and other higher-ups who fathered these disasters have walked away with extraordinary wealth. Wallace Group? Indeed, many of these people were urging investors to buy shares while concurrently dumping their own, sometimes using methods that hid their actions. To their shame, these business leaders view shareholders as patsies, not partners. Though Enron has become the symbol for shareholder abuse, there is practitioner no shortage of egregious conduct elsewhere in A Plead, corporate America. One story Ive heard illustrates the all-too-common attitude of managers toward owners: A gorgeous woman slinks up to a CEO at nurse practitioner perspective, a party and through moist lips purrs, Ill do anything ? anything ? you want.

Just tell me what you would like. With no hesitation, he replies, Reprice my options. One final thought about beware the dog, Berkshire: In the perspective, future we wont come close to replicating our past record. To be sure, Charlie and I will strive for Essay Great Scott Fitzgerald above-average performance and will not be satisfied with less. But two conditions at Berkshire are far different from what they once were: Then, we could often buy businesses and securities at perspective, much lower valuations than now prevail; and more important, we were then working with far less money than we now have. Fitzgerald? Some years back, a good $10 million idea could do wonders for us (witness our investment in Washington Post in 1973 or GEICO in perspective, 1976). Today, the combination of ten such ideas and a triple in Essay on Film Analysis: Great Gatsby by F., the value of each would increase the net worth of Berkshire by practitioner, only of 1%. We need elephants to make significant gains now ? and they are hard to find.

On the positive side, we have as fine an array of operating managers as exists at any company. Wallace Group? (You can read about many of them in a new book by Robert P. Miles: The Warren Buffett CEO .) In large part, moreover, they are running businesses with economic characteristics ranging from good to superb. The ability, energy and nurse practitioner perspective loyalty of these managers is simply extraordinary. We now have completed 37 Berkshire years without having a CEO of an operating business elect to leave us to work elsewhere. Our star-studded group grew in 2001. First, we completed the purchases of two businesses that we had agreed to buy in 2000 ? Shaw and Johns Manville. Then we acquired two others, MiTek and XTRA, and contracted to buy two more: Larson-Juhl, an acquisition that has just closed, and Fruit of the Loom, which will close shortly if creditors approve our offer. All of these businesses are led by beware the dog, smart, seasoned and trustworthy CEOs. Additionally, all of nurse, our purchases last year were for cash, which means our shareholders became owners of these additional businesses without relinquishing any interest in the fine companies they already owned. We will continue to follow our familiar formula, striving to increase the value of the excellent businesses we have, adding new businesses of similar quality, and issuing shares only grudgingly. Acquisitions of 2001. A few days before last years annual meeting, I received a heavy package from St.

Louis, containing an unprepossessing chunk of metal whose function I couldnt imagine. There was a letter in the package, though, from Gene Toombs, CEO of a company called MiTek. He explained that MiTek is the worlds leading producer of this thing Id received, a connector plate, which is used in making roofing trusses. Gene also said that the U.K. parent of MiTek wished to sell the company and that Berkshire seemed to beware the dog, him the practitioner perspective, ideal buyer. Liking the sound of his letter, I gave Gene a call. It took me only Great Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald a minute to realize that he was our kind of manager and nurse practitioner perspective MiTek our kind of business. Beware The Dog? We made a cash offer to nurse practitioner, the U.K. owner and before long had a deal. Genes managerial crew is Analysis: Great Gatsby Fitzgerald exceptionally enthusiastic about the company and wanted to participate in the purchase. Therefore, we arranged for 55 members of the MiTek team to perspective, buy 10% of the company, with each putting up a minimum of $100,000 in cash. Jacques Philosophy? Many borrowed money so they could participate.

As they would not be if they had options, all of these managers are true owners . They face the downside of decisions as well as the upside. Practitioner Perspective? They incur a cost of beware the dog, capital. And they cant reprice their stakes: What they paid is what they live with. Charlie and I love the high-grade, truly entrepreneurial attitude that exists at MiTek, and we predict it will be a winner for all involved. In early 2000, my friend, Julian Robertson, announced that he would terminate his investment partnership, Tiger Fund, and that he would liquidate it entirely except for four large holdings. One of these was XTRA, a leading lessor of truck trailers.

I then called Julian, asking whether he might consider selling his XTRA block or whether, for nurse practitioner perspective that matter, the wallace group, companys management might entertain an offer for the entire company. Julian referred me to Lew Rubin, XTRAs CEO. He and perspective I had a nice conversation, but it was apparent that no deal was to what is land ethics, be done. Then in practitioner perspective, June 2001, Julian called to on Film The Great Gatsby by F. Scott, say that he had decided to sell his XTRA shares, and I resumed conversations with Lew. The XTRA board accepted a proposal we made, which was to nurse perspective, be effectuated through a tender offer expiring on September 11 th . The tender conditions included the usual out, allowing us to withdraw if the A Plead for Weed, stock market were to close before the nurse, offers expiration. Throughout much of the 11 th , Lew went through a particularly wrenching experience: First, he had a son-in-law working in the World Trade Center who couldnt be located; and second, he knew we had the option of what is land, backing away from our purchase. The story ended happily: Lews son-in-law escaped serious harm, and Berkshire completed the transaction. Trailer leasing is a cyclical business but one in which we should earn decent returns over time. Lew brings a new talent to Berkshire, and we hope to expand in leasing. On December 3 rd , I received a call from Craig Ponzio, owner of Larson-Juhl, the U.S. Nurse Practitioner Perspective? leader in custom-made picture frames. Craig had bought the company in 1981 (after first working at A Plead for Weed, its manufacturing plant while attending college) and thereafter increased its sales from nurse practitioner perspective, $3 million to $300 million.

Though I had never heard of A Plead, Larson-Juhl before Craigs call, a few minutes talk with him made me think we would strike a deal. He was straightforward in describing the business, cared about nurse practitioner perspective, who bought it, and romanticism was realistic as to price. Practitioner? Two days later, Craig and Steve McKenzie, his CEO, came to Omaha and in ninety minutes we reached an agreement. In ten days we had signed a contract. Larson-Juhl serves about 18,000 framing shops in beware the dog, the U.S. and is also the industry leader in Canada and much of Europe. Nurse Perspective? We expect to see opportunities for Essay by F. making complementary acquisitions in the future. As I write this letter, creditors are considering an offer we have made for Fruit of the Loom. The company entered bankruptcy a few years back, a victim both of too much debt and poor management. Perspective? And, a good many years before that, I had some Fruit of the Loom experience of A Plead, my own. In August 1955, I was one of five employees, including two secretaries, working for the three managers of perspective, Graham-Newman Corporation, a New York investment company. Graham-Newman controlled Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron (PR), an anthracite producer that had excess cash, a tax loss carryforward, and jean jacques rousseau philosophy a declining business.

At the time, I had a significant portion of my limited net worth invested in PR shares, reflecting my faith in the business talents of my bosses, Ben Graham, Jerry Newman and nurse practitioner Howard (Micky) Newman. This faith was rewarded when PR purchased the Union Underwear Company from Jack Goldfarb for $15 million. Jean Rousseau? Union (though it was then only a licensee of the name) produced Fruit of the Loom underwear. The company possessed $5 million in cash ? $2.5 million of which PR used for the purchase ? and was earning about $3 million pre-tax, earnings that could be sheltered by the tax position of PR. And, oh yes: Fully $9 million of the remaining $12.5 million due was satisfied by non-interest-bearing notes, payable from 50% of any earnings Union had in excess of $1 million. ( Those were the nurse, days; I get goosebumps just thinking about such deals.) Subsequently, Union bought the licensor of the Fruit of the A Plead for Weed, Loom name and, along with PR, was merged into Northwest Industries. Fruit went on to achieve annual pre-tax earnings exceeding $200 million. John Holland was responsible for Fruits operations in perspective, its most bountiful years. In 1996, however, John retired, and management loaded the wallace group, company with debt, in part to make a series of practitioner, acquisitions that proved disappointing. Bankruptcy followed.

John was then rehired, and he undertook a major reworking of operations. Before Johns return, deliveries were chaotic, costs soared and relations with key customers deteriorated. While correcting these problems, John also reduced employment from a bloated 40,000 to rousseau philosophy, 23,000. In short, hes been restoring the perspective, old Fruit of the what, Loom, albeit in practitioner, a much more competitive environment. Stepping into Fruits bankruptcy proceedings, we made a proposal to creditors to which we attached no financing conditions, even though our offer had to remain outstanding for many months. We did, however, insist on a very unusual proviso: John had to be available to continue serving as CEO after we took over. To us, John and the brand are Fruits key assets. I was helped in this transaction by my friend and former boss, Micky Newman, now 81.

What goes around truly does come around. Our operating companies made several bolt-on acquisitions during the year, and I cant resist telling you about beware the dog, one. In December, Frank Rooney called to tell me H.H. Brown was buying the inventory and trademarks of Acme Boot for $700,000. That sounds like small potatoes. But ? would you believe it? ? Acme was the nurse practitioner, second purchase of PR, an acquisition that took place just before I left Graham-Newman in the spring of 1956. The price was $3.2 million, part of it again paid with non-interest bearing notes, for a business with sales of $7 million. After PR merged with Northwest, Acme grew to be the worlds largest bootmaker, delivering annual profits many multiples of what the ethics, company had cost PR. But the business eventually hit the skids and never recovered, and that resulted in our purchasing Acmes remnants. In the frontispiece to Security Analysis , Ben Graham and Dave Dodd quoted Horace: Many shall be restored that now are fallen and many shall fall that are now in honor. Fifty-two years after I first read those lines, my appreciation for what they say about nurse perspective, business and beware the dog investments continues to grow.

In addition to bolt-on acquisitions, our managers continually look for ways to grow internally. In that regard, heres a postscript to a story I told you two years ago about nurse perspective, R.C. Willeys move to what, Boise. As you may remember, Bill Child, R.C. Nurse Perspective? Willeys chairman, wanted to extend his home-furnishings operation beyond Utah, a state in which his company does more than $300 million of business (up, it should be noted, from $250,000 when Bill took over 48 years ago). The company achieved this dominant position, moreover, with a closed on beware the dog Sunday policy that defied conventional retailing wisdom. I was skeptical that this policy could succeed in Boise or, for that matter, anyplace outside of Utah. After all, Sunday is the day many consumers most like to shop. Bill then insisted on something extraordinary: He would invest $11 million of his own money to build the Boise store and would sell it to Berkshire at cost (without interest!) if the venture succeeded. If it failed, Bill would keep the store and eat the loss on nurse its disposal.

As I told you in the 1999 annual report, the store immediately became a huge success ? and Essay on Film The Great by F. it has since grown. Shortly after the Boise opening, Bill suggested we try Las Vegas, and this time I was even more skeptical. How could we do business in a metropolis of that size and be closed on Sundays, a day that all of perspective, our competitors would be exploiting? Buoyed by the Boise experience, however, we proceeded to locate in jacques, Henderson, a mushrooming city adjacent to Las Vegas. The result: This store outsells all others in practitioner perspective, the R.C. Willey chain, doing a volume of business that far exceeds the beware the dog, volume of any competitor and that is twice what I had anticipated. Nurse Perspective? I cut the ribbon at the grand opening in October ? this was after a soft opening and a few weeks of exceptional sales ? and, just as I did at Boise, I suggested to the crowd that the new store was my idea.

It didnt work. Today, when I pontificate about retailing, Berkshire people just say, What does Bill think? (Im going to Analysis: The Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, draw the practitioner perspective, line, however, if he suggests that we also close on Saturdays.) The Economics of Property/Casualty Insurance. Our main business ? though we have others of jean jacques rousseau, great importance ? is insurance. To understand Berkshire, therefore, it is nurse practitioner necessary that you understand how to Essay on Film The Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald, evaluate an nurse perspective, insurance company. The key determinants are: (1) the amount of float that the business generates; (2) its cost; and (3) most critical of all, the The Scott Fitzgerald, long-term outlook for both of these factors. To begin with, float is money we hold but don't own. In an insurance operation, float arises because premiums are received before losses are paid, an interval that sometimes extends over nurse practitioner perspective, many years. During that time, the insurer invests the money.

This pleasant activity typically carries with it a downside: The premiums that an jean, insurer takes in usually do not cover the losses and expenses it eventually must pay. That leaves it running an practitioner perspective, underwriting loss, which is the cost of float. Essay On Film The Gatsby Scott? An insurance business has value if its cost of float over time is less than the cost the company would otherwise incur to obtain funds. But the business is a lemon if its cost of float is higher than market rates for money. Historically, Berkshire has obtained its float at a very low cost. Indeed, our cost has been less than zero in about half of the years in which we've operated; that is, we've actually been paid for nurse holding other people's money. Over the A Plead for Weed, last few years, however, our cost has been too high, and in 2001 it was terrible. The table that follows shows (at intervals) the float generated by nurse practitioner, the various segments of Berkshire's insurance operations since we entered the beware the dog, business 35 years ago upon acquiring National Indemnity Company (whose traditional lines are included in the segment Other Primary).

For the table we have calculated our float ? which we generate in large amounts relative to our premium volume ? by practitioner perspective, adding net loss reserves, loss adjustment reserves, funds held under reinsurance assumed and unearned premium reserves, and then subtracting insurance-related receivables, prepaid acquisition costs, prepaid taxes and deferred charges applicable to assumed reinsurance. (Got that?) Yearend Float (in $ millions) Last year I told you that, barring a mega-catastrophe, our cost of float would probably drop from its 2000 level of 6%. I had in mind natural catastrophes when I said that, but instead we were hit by a man-made catastrophe on September 11 th ? an event that delivered the insurance industry its largest loss in history. Our float cost therefore came in at a staggering 12.8%. It was our worst year in float cost since 1984, and a result that to a significant degree, as I will explain in the next section, we brought upon ourselves. If no mega-catastrophe occurs, I ? once again ? expect the cost of our float to be low in the coming year. We will indeed need a low cost, as will all insurers. For Weed? Some years back, float costing, say, 4% was tolerable because government bonds yielded twice as much, and stocks prospectively offered still loftier returns.

Today, fat returns are nowhere to be found (at least we can't find them) and short-term funds earn less than 2%. Under these conditions, each of our insurance operations, save one, must deliver an underwriting profit if it is to be judged a good business. Nurse Practitioner Perspective? The exception is wallace group our retroactive reinsurance operation (a business we explained in last year's annual report), which has desirable economics even though it currently hits us with an annual underwriting loss of about $425 million. Principles of Insurance Underwriting. When property/casualty companies are judged by their cost of float, very few stack up as satisfactory businesses. And interestingly ? unlike the situation prevailing in many other industries ? neither size nor brand name determines an nurse practitioner, insurer's profitability.

Indeed, many of the biggest and best-known companies regularly deliver mediocre results. What counts in this business is underwriting discipline. The winners are those that unfailingly stick to three key principles: They accept only those risks that they are able to properly evaluate (staying within their circle of competence) and that, after they have evaluated all relevant factors including remote loss scenarios, carry the expectancy of profit. These insurers ignore market-share considerations and are sanguine about losing business to wallace group, competitors that are offering foolish prices or policy conditions. They limit the business they accept in a manner that guarantees they will suffer no aggregation of losses from a single event or from practitioner perspective, related events that will threaten their solvency. They ceaselessly search for possible correlation among seemingly-unrelated risks.

They avoid business involving moral risk: No matter what the rate, trying to write good contracts with bad people doesn't work. While most policyholders and jean philosophy clients are honorable and practitioner perspective ethical, doing business with the few exceptions is usually expensive, sometimes extraordinarily so. In pricing property coverages, for example, we had looked to the past and taken into account only jean costs we might expect to incur from windstorm, fire, explosion and earthquake. Perspective? But what will be the largest insured property loss in history (after adding related business-interruption claims) originated from jacques, none of these forces. Nurse Perspective? In short, all of jean, us in nurse practitioner perspective, the industry made a fundamental underwriting mistake by focusing on writer experience, rather than exposure, thereby assuming a huge terrorism risk for which we received no premium. Experience, of course, is practitioner a highly useful starting point in jean jacques, underwriting most coverages. For example, it's important for insurers writing California earthquake policies to practitioner, know how many quakes in the state during the past century have registered 6.0 or greater on the Richter scale. This information will not tell you the wallace group, exact probability of a big quake next year, or where in the state it might happen. But the statistic has utility, particularly if you are writing a huge statewide policy, as National Indemnity has done in practitioner perspective, recent years. At certain times, however, using experience as a guide to pricing is not only useless, but actually dangerous. Late in jacques, a bull market, for example, large losses from directors and nurse practitioner officers liability insurance (DO) are likely to be relatively rare.

When stocks are rising, there are a scarcity of rousseau philosophy, targets to sue, and both questionable accounting and nurse practitioner perspective management chicanery often go undetected. At that juncture, experience on high-limit DO may look great. But that's just when exposure is likely to beware the dog, be exploding, by way of ridiculous public offerings, earnings manipulation, chain-letter-like stock promotions and a potpourri of other unsavory activities. When stocks fall, these sins surface, hammering investors with losses that can run into the hundreds of billions. Juries deciding whether those losses should be borne by small investors or big insurance companies can be expected to hit insurers with verdicts that bear little relation to those delivered in bull-market days. Even one jumbo judgment, moreover, can cause settlement costs in later cases to mushroom. Consequently, the correct rate for nurse perspective DO excess (meaning the insurer or reinsurer will pay losses above a high threshold) might well, if based on exposure , be five or more times the beware the dog, premium dictated by experience . Insurers have always found it costly to ignore new exposures. Doing that in the case of nurse practitioner, terrorism, however, could literally bankrupt the industry. No one knows the probability of a nuclear detonation in a major metropolis this year (or even multiple detonations, given that a terrorist organization able to ethics, construct one bomb might not stop there).

Nor can anyone, with assurance, assess the probability in this year, or another, of nurse practitioner perspective, deadly biological or chemical agents being introduced simultaneously (say, through ventilation systems) into A Plead multiple office buildings and nurse practitioner manufacturing plants. An attack like that would produce astronomical workers' compensation claims. Here's what we do know: The probability of such mind-boggling disasters, though likely very low at present, is what is land ethics not zero. The probabilities are increasing, in perspective, an irregular and immeasurable manner, as knowledge and materials become available to those who wish us ill. Fear may recede with time, but the danger won't ? the war against terrorism can never be won. The best the nation can achieve is a long succession of stalemates. There can be no checkmate against hydra-headed foes.

Until now, insurers and reinsurers have blithely assumed the financial consequences from the incalculable risks I have described. Under a close-to-worst-case scenario, which could conceivably involve $1 trillion of damage, the insurance industry would be destroyed unless it manages in some manner to dramatically limit its assumption of terrorism risks. Only the is land ethics, U.S. Government has the resources to absorb such a blow. If it is unwilling to do so on a prospective basis, the general citizenry must bear its own risks and count on the Government to come to its rescue after a disaster occurs. Why, you might ask, didn't I recognize the above facts before September 11 th ? The answer, sadly, is that I did ? but I didn't convert thought into action. I violated the practitioner, Noah rule: Predicting rain doesn't count; building arks does. I consequently let Berkshire operate with a dangerous level of risk ? at wallace group, General Re in particular. Nurse Practitioner? I'm sorry to say that much risk for which we haven't been compensated remains on our books, but it is running off by the day.

At Berkshire, it should be noted, we have for some years been willing to assume more risk than any other insurer has knowingly taken on. Jacques? That's still the case. We are perfectly willing to lose $2 billion to nurse perspective, $2 billion in a single event (as we did on beware the dog September 11 th ) if we have been paid properly for assuming the practitioner, risk that caused the what is land, loss (which on that occasion we weren't). Indeed, we have a major competitive advantage because of our tolerance for huge losses. Berkshire has massive liquid resources, substantial non-insurance earnings, a favorable tax position and a knowledgeable shareholder constituency willing to accept volatility in earnings. This unique combination enables us to assume risks that far exceed the nurse practitioner perspective, appetite of even our largest competitors. Over time, insuring these jumbo risks should be profitable, though periodically they will bring on wallace group a terrible year.

The bottom-line today is that we will write some coverage for terrorist-related losses, including a few non-correlated policies with very large limits. Nurse Perspective? But we will not knowingly expose Berkshire to losses beyond what we can comfortably handle. We will control our total exposure, no matter what the beware the dog, competition does. Insurance Operations in 2001. Over the years, our insurance business has provided ever-growing, low-cost funds that have fueled much of Berkshire's growth. Charlie and I believe this will continue to be the case. But we stumbled in a big way in 2001, largely because of perspective, underwriting losses at General Re. In the past I have assured you that General Re was underwriting with discipline ? and I have been proven wrong.

Though its managers' intentions were good, the company broke each of the on Film Great by F. Fitzgerald, three underwriting rules I set forth in the last section and has paid a huge price for doing so. Nurse? One obvious cause for its failure is that it did not reserve correctly ? more about this in the next section ? and therefore severely miscalculated the cost of the product it was selling. Not knowing your costs will cause problems in any business. On Film Analysis: Great Gatsby By F. Scott? In long-tail reinsurance, where years of unawareness will promote and practitioner perspective prolong severe underpricing, ignorance of true costs is dynamite. Additionally, General Re was overly-competitive in going after, and beware the dog retaining, business. Nurse Perspective? While all concerned may intend to underwrite with care, it is on Film Analysis: Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald nonetheless difficult for nurse practitioner able, hard-driving professionals to curb their urge to prevail over competitors. Romanticism Writer? If winning, however, is equated with market share rather than profits, trouble awaits. No must be an important part of any underwriter's vocabulary.

At the nurse practitioner perspective, risk of sounding Pollyannaish, I now assure you that underwriting discipline is being restored at writer, General Re (and its Cologne Re subsidiary) with appropriate urgency. Joe Brandon was appointed General Re's CEO in September and, along with Tad Montross, its new president, is committed to producing underwriting profits. Last fall, Charlie and I read Jack Welch's terrific book, Jack, Straight from the Gut (get a copy!). In discussing it, we agreed that Joe has many of Jack's characteristics: He is smart, energetic, hands-on, and nurse expects much of both himself and his organization. When it was an independent company, General Re often shone, and now it also has the beware the dog, considerable strengths Berkshire brings to the table. Nurse? With that added advantage and with underwriting discipline restored, General Re should be a huge asset for Berkshire. Jacques? I predict that Joe and Tad will make it so. At the National Indemnity reinsurance operation, Ajit Jain continues to add enormous value to practitioner, Berkshire. Working with only 18 associates, Ajit manages one of the world's largest reinsurance operations measured by assets, and the largest, based upon the size of individual risks assumed. I have known the beware the dog, details of almost every policy that Ajit has written since he came with us in 1986, and never on nurse practitioner even a single occasion have I seen him break any of beware the dog, our three underwriting rules.

His extraordinary discipline, of course, does not eliminate losses; it does, however, prevent foolish losses. Nurse Practitioner Perspective? And that's the key: Just as is the case in investing, insurers produce outstanding long-term results primarily by avoiding dumb decisions, rather than by making brilliant ones. Since September 11 th , Ajit has been particularly busy. Among the policies we have written and jean retained entirely for nurse practitioner perspective our own account are (1) $578 million of property coverage for a South American refinery once a loss there exceeds $1 billion; (2) $1 billion of non-cancelable third-party liability coverage for losses arising from acts of terrorism at several large international airlines; (3) 500 million of property coverage on a large North Sea oil platform, covering losses from terrorism and sabotage, above 600 million that the insured retained or reinsured elsewhere; and (4) significant coverage on rousseau philosophy the Sears Tower, including losses caused by terrorism, above a $500 million threshold. We have written many other jumbo risks as well, such as protection for the World Cup Soccer Tournament and the 2002 Winter Olympics. In all cases, however, we have attempted to perspective, avoid writing groups of policies from which losses might seriously aggregate. We will not, for writer example, write coverages on a large number of office and apartment towers in a single metropolis without excluding losses from both a nuclear explosion and the fires that would follow it. No one can match the speed with which Ajit can offer huge policies. After September 11 th , his quickness to nurse perspective, respond, always important, has become a major competitive advantage. So, too, has our unsurpassed financial strength. Some reinsurers ? particularly those who, in turn, are accustomed to laying off much of their business on Analysis: The Gatsby Scott a second layer of reinsurers known as retrocessionaires ? are in a weakened condition and would have difficulty surviving a second mega-cat.

When a daisy chain of retrocessionaires exists, a single weak link can pose trouble for all. In assessing the nurse practitioner perspective, soundness of their reinsurance protection, insurers must therefore apply a stress test to all participants in writer, the chain, and practitioner must contemplate a catastrophe loss occurring during a very unfavorable economic environment. After all, you only what is land ethics find out perspective, who is swimming naked when the tide goes out. At Berkshire, we retain our risks and depend on beware the dog no one. And whatever the world's problems, our checks will clear. Ajit's business will ebb and flow ? but his underwriting principles won't waver.

It's impossible to nurse, overstate his value to Berkshire. GEICO, by far our largest primary insurer, made major progress in 2001, thanks to Tony Nicely, its CEO, and his associates. Quite simply, Tony is an writer, owner's dream. GEICO's premium volume grew 6.6% last year, its float grew $308 million, and practitioner perspective it achieved an underwriting profit of is land ethics, $221 million. This means we were actually paid that amount last year to hold the nurse practitioner, $4.25 billion in float, which of course doesn't belong to Berkshire but can be used by for Weed, us for investment. The only disappointment at GEICO in 2001 ? and it's an important one ? was our inability to add policyholders. Our preferred customers (81% of our total) grew by 1.6% but our standard and non-standard policies fell by 10.1%. Overall, policies in nurse, force fell .8%. New business has improved in recent months. Beware The Dog? Our closure rate from telephone inquiries has climbed, and our Internet business continues its steady growth. Practitioner Perspective? We, therefore, expect at least a modest gain in policy count during 2002.

Tony and I are eager to commit much more to marketing than the $219 million we spent last year, but at the moment we cannot see how to do so effectively. In the meantime, our operating costs are low and far below those of our major competitors; our prices are attractive; and our float is on Film Analysis: The by F. Scott cost-free and growing. Our other primary insurers delivered their usual fine results last year. Nurse Practitioner Perspective? These operations, run by what is land ethics, Rod Eldred, John Kizer, Tom Nerney, Michael Stearns, Don Towle and Don Wurster had combined premium volume of $579 million, up 40% over 2000. Their float increased 14.5% to nurse practitioner, $685 million, and Essay on Film Great Gatsby by F. they recorded an underwriting profit of nurse practitioner perspective, $30 million.

In aggregate, these companies are one of the finest insurance operations in the country, and their 2002 prospects look excellent. Loss Development and Insurance Accounting. Bad terminology is the enemy of good thinking. Essay On Film The Gatsby By F.? When companies or investment professionals use terms such as EBITDA and pro forma, they want you to unthinkingly accept concepts that are dangerously flawed. (In golf, my score is frequently below par on a pro forma basis: I have firm plans to restructure my putting stroke and therefore only count the swings I take before reaching the green.) In insurance reporting, loss development is a widely used term ? and practitioner one that is beware the dog seriously misleading. First, a definition: Loss reserves at an insurer are not funds tucked away for practitioner a rainy day, but rather a liability account. Wallace Group? If properly calculated, the liability states the amount that an insurer will have to pay for all losses (including associated costs) that have occurred prior to the reporting date but have not yet been paid. Nurse? When calculating the reserve, the beware the dog, insurer will have been notified of many of the losses it is practitioner perspective destined to jean jacques rousseau, pay, but others will not yet have been reported to practitioner perspective, it. These losses are called IBNR, for incurred but not reported. Indeed, in some cases (involving, say, product liability or embezzlement) the romanticism, insured itself will not yet be aware that a loss has occurred.

It's clearly difficult for an insurer to put a figure on the ultimate cost of all such reported and unreported events. But the ability to do so with reasonable accuracy is vital. Otherwise the insurer's managers won't know what its actual loss costs are and nurse how these compare to the premiums being charged. GEICO got into beware the dog huge trouble in the early 1970s because for several years it severely underreserved, and therefore believed its product (insurance protection) was costing considerably less than was truly the case. Consequently, the company sailed blissfully along, underpricing its product and selling more and more policies at ever-larger losses. When it becomes evident that reserves at nurse, past reporting dates understated the liability that truly existed at jean, the time, companies speak of loss development. In the nurse practitioner, year discovered, these shortfalls penalize reported earnings because the catch-up costs from prior years must be added to current-year costs when results are calculated. This is beware the dog what happened at General Re in 2001: a staggering $800 million of loss costs that actually occurred in earlier years, but that were not then recorded, were belatedly recognized last year and charged against current earnings. The mistake was an practitioner, honest one, I can assure you of that. Nevertheless, for several years, this underreserving caused us to believe that our costs were much lower than they truly were, an error that contributed to woefully inadequate pricing.

Additionally, the overstated profit figures led us to romanticism, pay substantial incentive compensation that we should not have and to incur income taxes far earlier than was necessary. We recommend scrapping the term loss development and practitioner its equally ugly twin, reserve strengthening. (Can you imagine an insurer, upon what finding its reserves excessive, describing the reduction that follows as reserve weakening?) Loss development suggests to investors that some natural, uncontrollable event has occurred in the current year, and reserve strengthening implies that adequate amounts have been further buttressed. The truth, however, is that management made an error in estimation that in nurse perspective, turn produced an error in the earnings previously reported. The losses didn't develop ? they were there all along. What developed was management's understanding of the losses (or, in the instances of romanticism writer, chicanery, management's willingness to finally fess up). A more forthright label for nurse practitioner perspective the phenomenon at issue would be loss costs we failed to recognize when they occurred (or maybe just oops). Underreserving, it should be noted, is a common ? and serious ? problem throughout the property/casualty insurance industry. At Berkshire we told you of our own problems with underestimation in 1984 and wallace group 1986. Generally, however, our reserving has been conservative.

Major underreserving is common in cases of nurse practitioner perspective, companies struggling for romanticism writer survival. In effect, insurance accounting is a self-graded exam, in that the insurer gives some figures to its auditing firm and generally doesn't get an argument. (What the auditor gets, however, is a letter from management that is practitioner designed to take his firm off the hook if the numbers later look silly.) A company experiencing financial difficulties ? of a kind that, if truly faced, could put it out of business ? seldom proves to be a tough grader. Jean Jacques? Who, after all, wants to prepare his own execution papers? Even when companies have the best of intentions, it's not easy to reserve properly. I've told the story in nurse practitioner perspective, the past about the fellow traveling abroad whose sister called to The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, tell him that their dad had died. Perspective? The brother replied that it was impossible for him to get home for jean the funeral; he volunteered, however, to shoulder its cost. Nurse? Upon returning, the brother received a bill from the mortuary for $4,500, which he promptly paid.

A month later, and a month after that also, he paid $10 pursuant to an add-on invoice. When a third $10 invoice came, he called his sister for an explanation. Oh, she replied, I forgot to tell you. We buried dad in philosophy, a rented suit. There are a lot of practitioner, rented suits buried in the past operations of insurance companies. Sometimes the problems they signify lie dormant for decades, as was the case with asbestos liability, before virulently manifesting themselves. Romanticism? Difficult as the job may be, it's management's responsibility to adequately account for all possibilities. Conservatism is essential. When a claims manager walks into the CEO's office and says Guess what just happened, his boss, if a veteran, does not expect to hear it's good news.

Surprises in the insurance world have been far from symmetrical in their effect on earnings. Because of this one-sided experience, it is nurse perspective folly to suggest, as some are doing, that all property/casualty insurance reserves be discounted , an approach reflecting the wallace group, fact that they will be paid in the future and nurse that therefore their present value is less than the stated liability for them. Discounting might be acceptable if reserves could be precisely established. They can't, however, because a myriad of forces ? judicial broadening of policy language and medical inflation, to name just two chronic problems ? are constantly working to make reserves inadequate. Discounting would exacerbate this already-serious situation and, additionally, would provide a new tool for the companies that are inclined to fudge. I'd say that the jean jacques philosophy, effects from telling a profit-challenged insurance CEO to lower reserves through discounting would be comparable to perspective, those that would ensue if a father told his 16-year-old son to Essay on Film Great by F. Fitzgerald, have a normal sex life. Neither party needs that kind of practitioner, push. Sources of Reported Earnings.

The table that follows shows the main sources of Berkshire's reported earnings. In this presentation, purchase-accounting adjustments (primarily relating to goodwill) are not assigned to the specific businesses to which they apply, but are instead aggregated and rousseau philosophy shown separately. This procedure lets you view the earnings of our businesses as they would have been reported had we not purchased them. In recent years, our expense for goodwill amortization has been large. Perspective? Going forward, generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) will no longer require amortization of goodwill.

This change will increase our reported earnings (though not our true economic earnings) and what is land ethics simplify this section of the nurse, report. of Net Earnings. (after taxes and. (1) Includes Acme Brick from August 1, 2000; Benjamin Moore from December 18, 2000; Johns Manville from wallace group, February 27, 2001; and MiTek from July 31, 2001. (2) From date of practitioner perspective, acquisition, January 8, 2001. Here are some highlights (and lowlights) from 2001 relating to our non-insurance activities:

Our shoe operations (included in other businesses) lost $46.2 million pre-tax, with profits at H.H. Brown and Justin swamped by losses at Dexter. I've made three decisions relating to Dexter that have hurt you in a major way: (1) buying it in the first place; (2) paying for it with stock and (3) procrastinating when the need for changes in its operations was obvious. I would like to lay these mistakes on Charlie (or anyone else, for that matter) but they were mine. Dexter, prior to our purchase ? and jean jacques indeed for a few years after ? prospered despite low-cost foreign competition that was brutal. I concluded that Dexter could continue to cope with that problem, and nurse perspective I was wrong. We have now placed the Dexter operation ? which is still substantial in size ? under the rousseau philosophy, management of Frank Rooney and nurse practitioner perspective Jim Issler at H.H. What Is Land? Brown. Nurse Perspective? These men have performed outstandingly for Berkshire, skillfully contending with the extraordinary changes that have bedeviled the footwear industry.

During part of 2002, Dexter will be hurt by unprofitable sales commitments it made last year. After that, we believe our shoe business will be reasonably profitable. MidAmerican Energy, of which we own 76% on a fully-diluted basis, had a good year in 2001. Its reported earnings should also increase considerably in 2002 given that the company has been shouldering a large charge for the amortization of goodwill and that this cost will disappear under the new GAAP rules. Last year MidAmerican swapped some properties in England, adding Yorkshire Electric, with its 2.1 million customers. We are now serving 3.6 million customers in the U.K. and are its 2 nd largest electric utility. We have an equally important operation in Iowa as well as major generating facilities in romanticism, California and the Philippines. At MidAmerican ? this may surprise you ? we also own the second-largest residential real estate brokerage business in the country. Practitioner Perspective? We are market-share leaders in a number of large cities, primarily in the Midwest, and wallace group have recently acquired important firms in Atlanta and perspective Southern California. Last year, operating under various names that are locally familiar, we handled about 106,000 transactions involving properties worth nearly $20 billion. Wallace Group? Ron Peltier has built this business for us, and it's likely he will make more acquisitions in 2002 and the years to come.

Considering the recessionary environment plaguing them, our retailing operations did well in nurse practitioner perspective, 2001. In jewelry, same-store sales fell 7.6% and rousseau pre-tax margins were 8.9% versus 10.7% in 2000. Practitioner? Return on invested capital remains high. Same-store sales at our home-furnishings retailers were unchanged and so was the margin ? 9.1% pre-tax ? these operations earned. Here, too, return on on Film Analysis: The by F. Fitzgerald invested capital is excellent. We continue to expand in both jewelry and home-furnishings. Of particular note, Nebraska Furniture Mart is nurse practitioner perspective constructing a mammoth 450,000 square foot store that will serve the greater Kansas City area beginning in the fall of 2003. Despite Bill Child's counter-successes, we will keep this store open on Sundays. The large acquisitions we initiated in late 2000 ? Shaw, Johns Manville and Benjamin Moore ? all came through their first year with us in great fashion. Charlie and I knew at the time of our purchases that we were in good hands with Bob Shaw, Jerry Henry and Yvan Dupuy, respectively ? and we admire their work even more now. Together these businesses earned about $659 million pre-tax.

Shortly after yearend we exchanged 4,740 Berkshire A shares (or their equivalent in B shares) for the 12.7% minority interest in Shaw, which means we now own 100% of the company. Shaw is our largest non-insurance operation and will play a big part in Berkshire's future. All of the income shown for what ethics Flight Services in nurse, 2001 ? and a bit more ? came from FlightSafety, our pilot-training subsidiary. Its earnings increased 2.5%, though return on invested capital fell slightly because of the $258 million investment we made last year in A Plead, simulators and practitioner perspective other fixed assets. My 84-year-old friend, Al Ueltschi, continues to wallace group, run FlightSafety with the same enthusiasm and competitive spirit that he has exhibited since 1951, when he invested $10,000 to start the company. Practitioner Perspective? If I line Al up with a bunch of 60-year-olds at is land ethics, the annual meeting, you will not be able to pick him out. After September 11 th , training for commercial airlines fell, and today it remains depressed. However, training for business and nurse practitioner general aviation, our main activity, is at near-normal levels and should continue to grow. In 2002, we expect to spend $162 million for 27 simulators, a sum far in excess of our annual depreciation charge of $95 million. Those who believe that EBITDA is in any way equivalent to true earnings are welcome to pick up the wallace group, tab.

Our NetJets® fractional ownership program sold a record number of planes last year and also showed a gain of perspective, 21.9% in service income from management fees and hourly charges. Nevertheless, it operated at romanticism, a small loss, versus a small profit in 2000. Nurse? We made a little money in the U.S., but these earnings were more than offset by European losses. Measured by the value of our customers' planes, NetJets accounts for about half of the industry. We believe the on Film Analysis: by F., other participants, in aggregate, lost significant money. Maintaining a premier level of nurse, safety, security and service was always expensive, and the cost of sticking to those standards was exacerbated by September 11 th . No matter how much the Essay on Film Analysis: Great by F. Scott Fitzgerald, cost, we will continue to be the industry leader in all three respects. Nurse? An uncompromising insistence on delivering only the best to his customers is The Great Scott embedded in the DNA of Rich Santulli, CEO of the company and the inventor of fractional ownership. I'm delighted with his fanaticism on these matters for both the company's sake and practitioner my family's: I believe the Buffetts fly more fractional-ownership hours ? we log in excess of 800 annually ? than does any other family. In case you're wondering, we use exactly the same planes and crews that serve NetJet's other customers. NetJets experienced a spurt in new orders shortly after September 11 th , but its sales pace has since returned to normal. Per-customer usage declined somewhat during the year, probably because of the recession.

Both we and our customers derive significant operational benefits from our being the runaway leader in the fractional ownership business. Wallace Group? We have more than 300 planes constantly on the go in the U.S. and nurse can therefore be wherever a customer needs us on very short notice. A Plead? The ubiquity of our fleet also reduces our positioning costs below those incurred by operators with smaller fleets. These advantages of scale, and others we have, give NetJets a significant economic edge over competition. Under the competitive conditions likely to prevail for a few years, however, our advantage will at best produce modest profits. Our finance and financial products line of business now includes XTRA, General Re Securities (which is in a run-off mode that will continue for an extended period) and nurse perspective a few other relatively small operations. The bulk of the assets and is land ethics liabilities in practitioner, this segment, however, arise from Essay on Film Gatsby Scott, a few fixed-income strategies, involving highly-liquid AAA securities, that I manage. This activity, which only makes sense when certain market relationships exist, has produced good returns in the past and has reasonable prospects for continuing to nurse practitioner, do so over the next year or two.

Below we present our common stock investments. Writer? Those that had a market value of more than $500 million at the end of nurse practitioner perspective, 2001 are itemized. (dollars in millions) We made few changes in jean jacques rousseau philosophy, our portfolio during 2001. Practitioner? As a group, our larger holdings have performed poorly in the last few years, some because of disappointing operating results. Charlie and I still like the basic businesses of all the companies we own. But we do not believe Berkshire's equity holdings as a group are undervalued. Our restrained enthusiasm for these securities is matched by decidedly lukewarm feelings about the prospects for jacques stocks in general over nurse practitioner, the next decade or so. I expressed my views about equity returns in a speech I gave at an Allen and Company meeting in July (which was a follow-up to a similar presentation I had made two years earlier) and an edited version of my comments appeared in what is land ethics, a December 10 th Fortune article. Nurse Practitioner? I'm enclosing a copy of what ethics, that article. You can also view the Fortune version of my 1999 talk at our website www.berkshirehathaway.com . Charlie and I believe that American business will do fine over time but think that today's equity prices presage only moderate returns for investors.

The market outperformed business for a very long period, and that phenomenon had to end. A market that no more than parallels business progress, however, is likely to leave many investors disappointed, particularly those relatively new to practitioner, the game. Here's one for those who enjoy an odd coincidence: The Great Bubble ended on March 10, 2000 (though we didn't realize that fact until some months later). On that day, the NASDAQ (recently 1,731) hit its all-time high of 5,132. That same day, Berkshire shares traded at $40,800, their lowest price since mid-1997. During 2001, we were somewhat more active than usual in romanticism writer, junk bonds. These are not, we should emphasize, suitable investments for the general public, because too often these securities live up to practitioner perspective, their name. We have never purchased a newly-issued junk bond, which is the beware the dog, only kind most investors are urged to buy. When losses occur in this field, furthermore, they are often disastrous: Many issues end up at a small fraction of their original offering price and some become entirely worthless. Despite these dangers, we periodically find a few ? a very few ? junk securities that are interesting to us.

And, so far, our 50-year experience in distressed debt has proven rewarding. In our 1984 annual report, we described our purchases of nurse perspective, Washington Public Power System bonds when that issuer fell into disrepute. Wallace Group? We've also, over the years, stepped into other apparent calamities such as Chrysler Financial, Texaco and RJR Nabisco ? all of which returned to grace. Nurse Practitioner? Still, if we stay active in junk bonds, you can expect us to have losses from time to time. Occasionally, a purchase of distressed bonds leads us into something bigger. Early in the Fruit of the Loom bankruptcy, we purchased the company's public and bank debt at about 50% of face value. This was an Analysis: by F., unusual bankruptcy in that interest payments on senior debt were continued without interruption, which meant we earned about a 15% current return. Our holdings grew to perspective, 10% of Fruit's senior debt, which will probably end up returning us about wallace group, 70% of face value. Through this investment, we indirectly reduced our purchase price for the whole company by a small amount. In late 2000, we began purchasing the obligations of FINOVA Group, a troubled finance company, and practitioner perspective that, too, led to wallace group, our making a major transaction.

FINOVA then had about nurse perspective, $11 billion of romanticism writer, debt outstanding, of which we purchased 13% at nurse practitioner, about two-thirds of face value. Rousseau Philosophy? We expected the company to go into bankruptcy, but believed that liquidation of nurse practitioner, its assets would produce a payoff for writer creditors that would be well above our cost. As default loomed in early 2001, we joined forces with Leucadia National Corporation to present the company with a prepackaged plan for bankruptcy. The plan as subsequently modified (and I'm simplifying here) provided that creditors would be paid 70% of face value (along with full interest) and that they would receive a newly-issued 7% note for the 30% of perspective, their claims not satisfied by cash. To fund FINOVA's 70% distribution, Leucadia and Berkshire formed a jointly-owned entity ? mellifluently christened Berkadia ? that borrowed $5.6 billion through FleetBoston and, in romanticism writer, turn, re-lent this sum to FINOVA, concurrently obtaining a priority claim on practitioner its assets. Berkshire guaranteed 90% of the Berkadia borrowing and also has a secondary guarantee on the 10% for which Leucadia has primary responsibility. A Plead For Weed? (Did I mention that I am simplifying?).

There is a spread of about two percentage points between what Berkadia pays on its borrowing and what it receives from practitioner, FINOVA, with this spread flowing 90% to philosophy, Berkshire and 10% to Leucadia. As I write this, each loan has been paid down to $3.9 billion. As part of the bankruptcy plan, which was approved on August 10, 2001, Berkshire also agreed to offer 70% of face value for up to $500 million principal amount of the $3.25 billion of nurse practitioner perspective, new 7% bonds that were issued by FINOVA. (Of these, we had already received $426.8 million in principal amount because of our 13% ownership of the original debt.) Our offer, which was to wallace group, run until September 26, 2001, could be withdrawn under a variety of conditions, one of which became operative if the New York Stock Exchange closed during the nurse perspective, offering period. When that indeed occurred in the week of September 11 th , we promptly terminated the offer. Many of FINOVA's loans involve aircraft assets whose values were significantly diminished by the events of September 11 th . Other receivables held by writer, the company also were imperiled by nurse practitioner, the economic consequences of the attack that day.

FINOVA's prospects, therefore, are not as good as when we made our proposal to the bankruptcy court. Nevertheless we feel that overall the transaction will prove satisfactory for Berkshire. Essay The Great Gatsby Scott? Leucadia has day-to-day operating responsibility for FINOVA, and we have long been impressed with the nurse practitioner, business acumen and managerial talent of its key executives. It's déjà vu time again: In early 1965, when the investment partnership I ran took control of Berkshire, that company had its main banking relationships with First National Bank of Boston and a large New York City bank. A Plead? Previously, I had done no business with either. Fast forward to nurse practitioner perspective, 1969, when I wanted Berkshire to buy the jean jacques rousseau philosophy, Illinois National Bank and Trust of Rockford. We needed $10 million, and I contacted both banks. There was no response from practitioner, New York.

However, two representatives of the Boston bank immediately came to Omaha. They told me they would supply the money for our purchase and that we would work out the details later. For the next three decades, we borrowed almost nothing from banks. What Is Land? (Debt is a four-letter word around Berkshire.) Then, in perspective, February, when we were structuring the FINOVA transaction, I again called Boston, where First National had morphed into FleetBoston. Chad Gifford, the company's president, responded just as Bill Brown and Ira Stepanian had back in 1969 ? you've got the money and we'll work out the details later. And that's just what happened. FleetBoston syndicated a loan for $6 billion (as it turned out, we didn't need $400 million of it), and it was quickly oversubscribed by 17 banks throughout the jacques rousseau, world. Sooooo . . . if you ever need $6 billion, just give Chad a call ? assuming, that is, your credit is practitioner perspective AAA.

One more point about our investments: The media often report that Buffett is buying this or that security, having picked up the wallace group, fact from reports that Berkshire files. These accounts are sometimes correct, but at other times the transactions Berkshire reports are actually being made by Lou Simpson, who runs a $2 billion portfolio for GEICO that is quite independent of me. Normally, Lou does not tell me what he is buying or selling, and I learn of his activities only when I look at a GEICO portfolio summary that I receive a few days after the end of each month. Lou's thinking, of course, is quite similar to mine, but we usually end up in different securities. Perspective? That's largely because he's working with less money and for Weed can therefore invest in nurse, smaller companies than I. Oh, yes, there's also another minor difference between us: In recent years, Lou's performance has been far better than mine. Berkshire follows a highly unusual policy in respect to charitable contributions ? but it's one that Charlie and what I believe is both rational and fair to owners. First, we let our operating subsidiaries make their own charitable decisions, requesting only perspective that the owners/managers who once ran these as independent companies make all donations to their personal charities from jean jacques, their own funds, instead of using company money.

When our managers are using company funds, we trust them to make gifts in a manner that delivers commensurate tangible or intangible benefits to the operations they manage. Last year contributions from Berkshire subsidiaries totaled $19.2 million. At the parent company level, we make no contributions except those designated by nurse practitioner perspective, shareholders. We do not match contributions made by beware the dog, directors or employees, nor do we give to the favorite charities of the nurse practitioner, Buffetts or the Mungers. However, prior to our purchasing them, a few of our subsidiaries had employee-match programs and on Film The by F. Scott Fitzgerald we feel fine about their continuing them: It's not our style to tamper with successful business cultures. To implement our owners' charitable desires, each year we notify registered holders of A shares (A's represent 86.6% of our equity capital) of a per-share amount that they can instruct us to contribute to as many as three charities. Shareholders name the nurse perspective, charity; Berkshire writes the check.

Any organization that qualifies under the Internal Revenue Code can be designated by shareholders. Last year Berkshire made contributions of $16.7 million at the direction of 5,700 shareholders, who named 3,550 charities as recipients. Since we started this program, our shareholders' gifts have totaled $181 million. Most public corporations eschew gifts to religious institutions. These, however, are favorite charities of our shareholders, who last year named 437 churches and synagogues to receive gifts. Additionally, 790 schools were recipients. A few of our larger shareholders, including Charlie and me, designate their personal foundations to wallace group, get gifts, so that those entities can, in turn, disburse their funds widely. I get a few letters every week criticizing Berkshire for practitioner contributing to Planned Parenthood.

These letters are usually prompted by jean jacques philosophy, an organization that wishes to nurse perspective, see boycotts of Berkshire products. The letters are invariably polite and sincere, but their writers are unaware of a key point: It's not Berkshire, but rather its owners who are making charitable decisions ? and these owners are about Essay The Scott Fitzgerald, as diverse in their opinions as you can imagine. For example, they are probably on both sides of the abortion issue in roughly the same proportion as the practitioner, American population. We'll follow their instructions, whether they designate Planned Parenthood or Metro Right to Life, just as long as the charity possesses 501(c)(3) status. It's as if we paid a dividend, which the shareholder then donated. Our form of A Plead for Weed, disbursement, however, is more tax-efficient. In neither the nurse, purchase of goods nor the hiring of personnel, do we ever consider the religious views, the gender, the race or the sexual orientation of the persons we are dealing with. It would not only be wrong to romanticism writer, do so, it would be idiotic. We need all of the talent we can find, and practitioner perspective we have learned that able and romanticism writer trustworthy managers, employees and suppliers come from a very wide spectrum of humanity. To participate in our future charitable contribution programs, you must own Class A shares that are registered in the name of the nurse, actual owner, not the nominee name of a broker, bank or depository. Shares not so registered on August 31, 2002 will be ineligible for romanticism the 2002 program.

When you get the contributions form from us, return it promptly. Designations received after the perspective, due date will not be honored. The Annual Meeting. This year's annual meeting will be on Saturday, May 4, and we will again be at the Civic Auditorium. The doors will open at 7 a.m., the movie will begin at 8:30, and the meeting itself will commence at 9:30. There will be a short break at noon for Analysis: Great by F. Scott Fitzgerald food. (Sandwiches can be bought at the Civic's concession stands.) Except for that interlude, Charlie and I will answer questions until 3:30. Perspective? Give us your best shot. For at least the next year, the Civic, located downtown, is the only site available to us. We must therefore hold the meeting on either Saturday or Sunday to avoid the traffic and parking nightmare sure to occur on a weekday.

Shortly, however, Omaha will have a new Convention Center with plenty of parking facilities. Essay On Film The Great By F. Fitzgerald? Assuming that we then head for the Center, I will poll shareholders to see whether you wish to nurse practitioner, return to the Monday meeting that was standard until 2000. Jean Jacques Rousseau Philosophy? We will decide that vote based on a count of shareholders, not shares. Nurse Perspective? (This is for Weed not a system, however, we will ever institute to decide who should be CEO.) An attachment to the proxy material that is enclosed with this report explains how you can obtain the credential you will need for admission to the meeting and other events. Nurse Practitioner Perspective? As for plane, hotel and car reservations, we have again signed up American Express (800-799-6634) to give you special help. They do a terrific job for beware the dog us each year, and I thank them for nurse perspective it. In our usual fashion, we will run buses from the larger hotels to A Plead for Weed, the meeting. Perspective? Afterwards, the buses will make trips back to the hotels and to Nebraska Furniture Mart, Borsheim's and romanticism the airport. Even so, you are likely to find a car useful. We have added so many new companies to Berkshire this year that I'm not going to detail all of the products that we will be selling at the meeting.

But come prepared to carry home everything from bricks to candy. And underwear, of practitioner perspective, course. Beware The Dog? Assuming our Fruit of the Loom purchase has closed by May 4, we will be selling Fruit's latest styles, which will make you your neighborhood's fashion leader. Perspective? Buy a lifetime supply. GEICO will have a booth staffed by a number of its top counselors from around the country, all of them ready to supply you with auto insurance quotes. In most cases, GEICO will be able to give you a special shareholder discount (usually 8%). This special offer is permitted by 41 of the 49 jurisdictions in which we operate. Bring the details of your existing insurance and check out whether we can save you money. At the Omaha airport on is land Saturday, we will have the usual array of aircraft from NetJets® available for your inspection. Nurse Practitioner Perspective? Just ask a representative at the Civic about viewing any of these planes.

If you buy what we consider an appropriate number of items during the weekend, you may well need your own plane to take them home. And, if you buy a fraction of a plane, we might even throw in a three-pack of what, briefs or boxers. At Nebraska Furniture Mart, located on a 75-acre site on 72 nd Street between Dodge and Pacific, we will again be having Berkshire Weekend pricing, which means we will be offering our shareholders a discount that is customarily given only to employees. We initiated this special pricing at NFM five years ago, and sales during the Weekend grew from practitioner perspective, $5.3 million in 1997 to $11.5 million in 2001. To get the discount, you must make your purchases on Thursday, May 2 through Monday, May 6 and also present your meeting credential. The period's special pricing will even apply to the products of several prestigious manufacturers that normally have ironclad rules against discounting but that, in jean, the spirit of our shareholder weekend, have made an exception for nurse practitioner you. We appreciate their cooperation. NFM is open from 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. on weekdays and beware the dog 10 a.m. to practitioner perspective, 6 p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. Borsheim's ? the for Weed, largest jewelry store in the country except for Tiffany's Manhattan store ? will have two shareholder-only events. The first will be a cocktail reception from nurse practitioner, 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. on A Plead Friday, May 3. The second, the main gala, will be from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Sunday, May 5. Shareholder prices will be available Thursday through Monday, so if you wish to nurse practitioner perspective, avoid the large crowds that will assemble on Friday evening and Sunday, come at jean, other times and identify yourself as a shareholder.

On Saturday, we will be open until 6 p.m. Borsheim's operates on a gross margin that is fully twenty percentage points below that of its major rivals, so the practitioner perspective, more you buy, the more you save (or at least that's what my wife and daughter tell me). Come by A Plead, and let us perform a walletectomy on you. In the mall outside of Borsheim's, we will have some of the world's top bridge experts available to play with our shareholders on Sunday afternoon. We expect Bob and Petra Hamman along with Sharon Osberg to host tables. Patrick Wolff, twice U.S. chess champion, will also be in the mall, taking on all comers ? blindfolded! Last year, Patrick played as many as six games simultaneously ? with his blindfold securely in nurse practitioner perspective, place ? and beware the dog this year will try for seven.

Finally, Bill Robertie, one of only two players who have twice won the backgammon world championship, will be on hand to test your skill at that game. Practitioner Perspective? Come to the mall on Sunday for A Plead for Weed the Mensa Olympics. Gorat's ? my favorite steakhouse ? will again be open exclusively for Berkshire shareholders on Sunday, May 5, and will be serving from practitioner, 4 p.m. Romanticism? until 10 p.m. Please remember that to nurse practitioner, come to Gorat's on Gatsby by F. Sunday, you must have a reservation. Nurse Perspective? To make one, call 402-551-3733 on April 1 ( but not before ). If Sunday is writer sold out, try Gorat's on perspective one of the other evenings you will be in town.

Show your sophistication by ordering a rare T-bone with a double order of jean, hash browns. The usual baseball game will be held at Rosenblatt Stadium at 7 p.m. on Saturday night. This year the nurse practitioner, Omaha Royals will play the Oklahoma RedHawks. Last year, in an attempt to emulate the on Film The Gatsby by F. Scott, career switch of Babe Ruth, I gave up pitching and tried batting. Bob Gibson, an nurse practitioner perspective, Omaha native, was on the mound and I was terrified, fearing Bob's famous brush-back pitch. Instead, he delivered a fast ball in the strike zone, and with a Mark McGwire-like swing, I managed to romanticism writer, connect for nurse practitioner a hard grounder, which inexplicably died in the infield. I didn't run it out: At my age, I get winded playing a hand of bridge. I'm not sure what will take place at the ballpark this year, but come out and be surprised.

Our proxy statement contains instructions for obtaining tickets to jean jacques, the game. Nurse? Those people ordering tickets to beware the dog, the annual meeting will receive a booklet containing all manner of information that should help you enjoy your visit in nurse practitioner, Omaha. There will be plenty of action in for Weed, town. So come for Woodstock Weekend and join our Celebration of Capitalism at the Civic. Finally, I would like to thank the practitioner, wonderful and incredibly productive crew at World Headquarters (all 5,246.5 square feet of beware the dog, it) who make my job so easy. Berkshire added about 40,000 employees last year, bringing our workforce to 110,000. Nurse Practitioner? At headquarters we added one employee and romanticism writer now have 14.8. Nurse Practitioner? (I've tried in vain to get JoEllen Rieck to change her workweek from romanticism, four days to five; I think she likes the practitioner, national recognition she gains by being .8.)

The smooth handling of the array of on Film The by F., duties that come with our current size and scope ? as well as some additional activities almost unique to nurse perspective, Berkshire, such as our shareholder gala and ethics designated-gifts program ? takes a very special group of nurse perspective, people. And that we most definitely have.