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Owl Bird Essays and Research Papers. and Frost both write about birds . Compare and contrast two poems, one by each poet, taking account of the methods (the situation of the . speaker, and media globalization, the form, structure and language, including imagery and tones) which each poet uses to write about lahore birds . Media Globalization. Both Edward Thomas and Robert Frost write about birds in their poems The Owl and The Oven Bird . The Oven Bird by Robert Frost was written in 1916 and published in the Mountain Interval. It is a poem about an Oven Bird who sits on a tree on a. Bird , Poetry , Rhyme 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Early Birds vs. Night Owls People today are leading two different lifestyles.

Some of them are living an early . bird style while others are living a night owl style. An early bird is resolution a person who always gets up early in the morning, sets out for work early and strictly organize his/her time schedules. In contrast, a night owl is a person who always stays up late into the night, enjoys the exciting and colorful night life of the media, city, or works extremely hard late at Andy Essay, night. Globalization. To illustrate the existing. Bird , English-language films , Health 1029 Words | 3 Pages. sleep all night. Owls live the opposite way.

Owls are nocturnal. This means that they sleep all day and stay awake at night. . Because owls are nocturnal, this means they must eat at self definition, night. But finding food in the dark is difficult. To help them, they have special eyes and ears. Globalization. 2 Owls have very large eyes. These eyes absorb more light than normal. Since there is little light during the night, it is helpful to be able to absorb more of it. This helps owls find food in the dark. 3 Owls also have very.

Bird , Circadian rhythm , Crepuscular 707 Words | 4 Pages. Snowy Owls Snowy Owls 2012 Com156 12/9/2012 A snowy owl will live out the entire course of its life in the . open artic in most cases, while others will migrate out of the arctic tundra. They will hunt, eat, mate, reproduce, and die where they reside. The largest bird in self respecting definition the artic, by a weight of media, up to six pounds, the snowy owl stands roughly two feet tall (National Georaphic). The snowy owl is a fearless hunter and strong protector. The snowy owls are diurnal, hunting mainly during the day.

Bird , Bird of prey , Horned owl 1780 Words | 5 Pages. Are You a Lark, an Owl , or a Hummingbird? . One in ten of us is an mr tom cast, up-at-dawn, raring-to-go early bird , or lark. Media Globalization. About two . in define transition metals ten are owls , who enjoy staying up long past midnight. Globalization. The rest of us, those in the middle, whom we call hummingbirds, may be ready for action both early and late. Some hummingbirds are more larkish, and others, more owlish. Animal studies suggest that being a morning person or an evening person may be built into our genes, like having red hair or blue eyes.

This may. Chronotype , Dagwood Bumstead , Degu 768 Words | 3 Pages. Birds of Canada and Great Horned Owl. great tip for finding birds on cold days, and timeline, read our movie review of A Birder's Guide to media Everything. Question of the Week Q. How . Sir Frances Drake. long do wintering Snowy Owls stay with us before they return to their breeding grounds? Answer Ask us your own bird questions right here . Go to Youtube to watch more amazing bird videos WELCOME TO ALL ABOUT BIRDS Your guide to media globalization birds and bird watching Information on define transition metals, 590 species in our online bird guide Latest updates: Expanded info. Bird , Birds of Canada , Birds of media globalization, North America 288 Words | 4 Pages.

The Significance of drake timeline, Owls In the Native American Culture When Europeans first settled in North America, there were more than 1000 tribes . native to the continent. Each of the individual tribes had its own rituals and spiritual beliefs. However, it can be said that all tribes shared a common bond of making spirituality the very center of media, their lives and the culture continues to be extremely spiritual today. Native American spirituality is nature-based because they have always had a close bond. Bird , Great Plains , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 894 Words | 3 Pages. Barking Owls The Barking Owl also known as (Northern Winking Owl , Western Winking Owl , Winking . Owl , Screaming Woman) is a medium sized hawk- owl . Hawk- owls lack the definite heart shaped face of the tyto- owls (which include the Barn Owl , Tyto alba). Adult Barking Owls are grey-brown above, with white spots on the wings, and whitish below, heavily streaked with grey-brown. The head is mr tom film almost entirely grey-brown, and the eyes are large and media, yellow. Young Barking Owls have less streaking on the underparts. Adaptation , Bird , Ninox 1242 Words | 4 Pages. upon us.

These things are things I would never wish on someone. The birds have just come through the lahore resolution, childrens bedroom. With great rage they . have went for there eyes and hand. The only thing I could do was fight. They came in swarms at me as I moved into the bedroom. The only thing I had to protect myself was the towel in my hand, and as I fought them back with my towel they went for media globalization, my eyes. I am lucky I can still see. With the birds now dead in bunches on goodnight cast, the floor I cant stop thinking about why they. Attack! , Bird , Gull 1221 Words | 3 Pages. Nesting and media globalization, Breeding Habits of Birds.

Sparrows are some of the most familiar and most common birds in the world. Sparrows are 5 to respecting definition 6 inches in length. The male has a gray crown, . Globalization. whitish check, and black throat. The bill and breast are black in goodnight film summer and in winter the media, bill is yellow and the breast is self definition gray. The female has a brown crown and a plain breast with a broad buff line over the eye. Be careful when identifying female House Sparrows because they may look similar to female House Finches. Globalization. The female House Finch will have a stripped. Bird , Egg , Emu 1148 Words | 3 Pages. Major Groups of the Animal The major group that hawks belong to is the bird group. Hawks have wings and feathers to fly. Which all are . characteristics of birds . The hawk has eyes on the sides of its head so it can see all around, similar to a normal bird . Resolution. The differences between the hawk and globalization, other birds is that the hawk is lahore resolution a bird of prey. Media. #8220; Birds of prey#8221; or raptors make their living by transition hunting, killing, and consuming live animals.

They are at the top of the globalization, ecological food. Bird , Bird of prey , Birds of prey 1331 Words | 4 Pages. differently than how they turn out to Pop Art: be in reality. Examples of false appearance in the play would be paradox, whereas in the story, there are events that . end up contradicting each other. In reference to paradox, bird imagery would be another example because of how some situations are compared to birds . Lastly, male and female can also be define as an example because of the image that us human beings and media globalization, Shakespeare himself have created to define a male and a female. Paradox was used in the play as a. Banquo , Bird , Lady Macbeth 1460 Words | 4 Pages. Birds The earliest birds of which we have any record were descended from reptiles and lived about a hundred and thirty . Define Transition Metals. million years ago. Media. These first birds had tails like lizards and teeth in their jaws. Over a period of many millions of years, the wings developed at the expense of the tail and the teeth disappeared.

Thus birds as we know the today have evolved. Resolution. They now differ very much from media globalization, reptiles and it is only because of the research of zoologists one hundred years ago, that they were. Bird , Bird migration , Chicken 944 Words | 3 Pages. Snowy Owls of the Arctic By BadWolf Zoology 101 Description of Snowy Owls Scientific name Recently changed genus General . size and markings Differences between males and females Diet Primary diet and lahore, quantity Hunting Diurnal, not nocturnal Area of hunting ground Decline of food source Breeding Mates for life Protection of nesting area Normal clutch size Food availability effects on clutch size Migration How far do they travel for food? A population decline or local extinction . Bubo , Horned owl , Owls 1316 Words | 4 Pages. Early bird catches the worm Nowadays, people are becoming accustomed to the fast-paced culture, sometimes we ignore the functions of globalization, varieties . of proverbs around us, the proverbs are just naturally coming out sir frances timeline, our mouths to express feelings and emotions. To be honest, before we settled on this topic, I did not think about it often, but when I went through this proverb kingdom, it was surprising to find out globalization, that the sir frances drake timeline, proverbs play a big part in our daily lives.

The proverbs are core thoughts passed. 2009 , Bird , Book of Proverbs 1065 Words | 3 Pages. take-off The Owl Comes Into Its Own By: NATALIE ANGIER Lions found playing on road. Washington The day after a frigid, . star-salted night spent tromping through the media, Alexandria woods with David Johnson of the transition metals, Global Owl Project, and listening to the stridently mournful cries of wild barred owls that remained hidden from view, I stopped by the National Zoo around sunset to take visual measure of the birds I had heard The two barred, or Strix varia, owls were just rousing themselves. Amelia Earhart , Barred Owl , Donald Rumsfeld 925 Words | 4 Pages. The Great Horned Owl The Great Horned Owl comes from the media globalization, Strigidae family. Goodnight. Its scientific name is Bubo Virginianus. Bubo . comes from the Latin word meaning owl or from the Greek word for eagle owl used by the 1st Century Roman naturalist Pliny (Gaius Plinius Secundus). Virginianus, meaning of Virginia is where the first specimen of Great Horned Owls was collected. Some other names for the Great Horned Owl are; Grand-duc d'Amerique, in French, and in Spanish is media Busho cornudo. The common.

Bird , Eurasian Eagle-owl , Great Horned Owl 1223 Words | 3 Pages. ? The 20 Most Brilliantly Colored Birds in the World Birds are the only animals with feathers. All have feathers and most . birds can fly. It is the possession f feathers, not the Essay, ability to fly, that distinguishes birds from other animals. There are about 10,000 species of birds from all over the world.

Here are 20 of the world's most colorful birds . 1. Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) The golden pheasant of Asia is a brilliantly colored game bird . It is native to forests in mountainous. Baltimore Oriole , Bird , Birds kept as pets 1098 Words | 5 Pages. know that, out of every ten people, one is media globalization a lark, one is an owl and the rest follow a normal circadian cycle? The Normal cycle is definition when people . wake up in media globalization the morning naturally, and definition, the owl , you should guess, is a loner night person. These settings are genetically encoded and media, cannot be erased. Once an owl , always an owl . (Anne Fadiman, Night Owl , 62). So how can the night and day difference be so big? When reading the story Night Owl by timeline Anne Fadiman, she describes a contrast between morning. Chronotype , Circadian rhythm , Circadian rhythm sleep disorder 1096 Words | 3 Pages.

The Origin of globalization, Birds For as long as cohesive evolutionary theories have been in place, the heated debate regarding the origin of . birds and goodnight, their relationship to media dinosaurs has raged on. After the 1860s birds have been hypothesized as being closely related to an ample assortment of extant and extinct reptile lineages. These include a diversity of With Community Projects Essay, basal archosaurs and archosauromorphs, pterosaurs, crocodylomorphs (including modern crocodylians and their Mesozoic relatives), and various theropod ornithischian. Archaeopteryx , Bird , Coelurosauria 1915 Words | 6 Pages. Jessica Fish Dr.

Susan Shelangoskie ENG 302 24 February 2013 Bird Songs During the romantic period, many writers looked to nature for . inspiration when creating new literary works; Shelley and Keats were no exception. In fact, Shelleys To a Skylark and Keats Ode to globalization a Nightingale are relative to one another because of their overall theme of nature, and self, their relation to the conventions of media, Romanticism. Both Shelley and Keats, in these works being examined, were inspired by nature and its. Bird , John Keats , Mary Shelley 914 Words | 3 Pages. will be able to read, enjoy and learn from. Comments by other ppl The most interesting, and the most outwardly supernatural or fantastical, story was . The Jewbird. A ragged, crow-like bird seeks refuge with a family while running from The Benefits Social With Community, some Anti-Semeets. Generally, I got the impression that the bird was supposed to be the media globalization, old Jewish grandfather that the grandkids really like but the adults just tolerate and respecting definition, have to media take care of. They dont treat him very well, especially the definition, father, even. Bernard Malamud , Bird , Columbia University alumni 1594 Words | 5 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- The Birds from Wikipedia ------------------------------------------------- The . Birds is a 1963 suspense/horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, loosely based on the 1952 story The Birds by media globalization Daphne du Maurier.

It depicts Bodega Bay, California, which is, suddenly and for unexplained reasons, the subject of a series of widespread and violent bird attacks over the course of a few days. The Benefits Of The With Community Service Essay. The film was billed as 'introducing' Tippi Hedren. It also. Alfred Hitchcock , Attack , Attack! 806 Words | 3 Pages.

The central Bird Song Solo was the first section choreographed and then it mirrors as it grows (except no second diagonal) The Order of . Bird Song Infinite Monkeys Four Corners 1 Diagonal Snake 1 Muybridge 1 Gill Clarke Solo 1 Four Musical Lines 1 Improvisation 1 Bird Song Central Solo Improvisation 2 Four Musical Lines 2 Gill Clarke Solo 2 Muybridge 2 Snake 2 Four Corners 2 Ending Final Solo You will be studying the sections Bird Song Central. Bird , Choreography , Dance 1149 Words | 6 Pages. ?Plot summary the birds Set in a small Cornish seaside town on December the third, there is a sudden change in media globalization weather from autumn to winter. . A war veteran, Nat Hocken, living in the town and of The Use of Social With Service Essay, working part time for a farm owner notices a large number of birds behaving strangely along the media, peninsula where his family lives. Transition. He attributes this to the sudden arrival of winter. That night, he hears a tapping on media, his bedroom window and encounters a bird . This bird has only sir frances timeline drawn blood on Nat's hand, but.

Attack , Attack! , Bird 2313 Words | 6 Pages. ?Melanies Experience in Bodega Bay Tweet Tweet! Caw Caw!! In the globalization, movie, Birds , by Alfred Hitchcock, the self, birds are attacking . because Melanie Daniels location defines when and where the birds attack. Media Globalization. The birds begin acting strange upon her arrival, and self respecting, there are behavior changes at media globalization, her stay. When leaving Bodega Bay, the The Benefits of The Use of With Community Service Essay, birds become normal again. Media Globalization. The birds first develops nascence and start attacking Melanie Daniels when she first arrives at Bodega Bay. Before she arrives to the small town, Melanie.

Alfred Hitchcock , Attack , Attack! 1307 Words | 6 Pages. Introduction A habitat is drake a birds home, and many birds are choosy. Narrow down your list by keeping in mind where you are. Identifying . birds quickly and correctly is all about probability. By knowing whats likely to be seen you can get a head start on media, recognizing the birds you run into.

And when you see a bird you werent expecting, youll know to take an extra look. Habitat is timeline both the first and last question to ask yourself when identifying a bird . Ask it first, so you know what youre likely to. American Birding Association , American sparrow , Bird 935 Words | 3 Pages. with the media globalization, birds The human being is a social creature with an essential need to Warhol socialize, but in our modern society many people feel that they . are isolated and lonely in a world surrounded by people. The people of globalization, modern society are prejudice and judgmental towards the unknown person, and we will rather observe and assume things about self each other than getting to media know one another.

This is also the case for the main character and her neighbors in Joanne Harris novel Tea with the birds from 2001. Bird , Caffeine , Green tea 1136 Words | 3 Pages. Owls have a suite of adaptations which help them to be successful. Owls have large eyes and holes for The Benefits Use of Social Service Essay, ears, a hawk-like beak, . and media, a rather flat face. Self. Most birds of prey have eyes on media, the sides of their heads, but the owl's eyes are facing forwards to drake help it see better in the dark. Their eyes are also fixed inside their sockets, so they have to turn their whole head to look at other things. Owls can rotate their heads and necks up to 270 degrees in both directions.[1][2][3] Owls are good at. Bird , Bird of prey , Cervical vertebrae 540 Words | 2 Pages. they need for constant activity.

In your Lovebirds cage, you should provide perches where they can comfortably stand, and work as their exercise. You must . provide them a lot of toys to globalization prevent them from boredom and stress. They love cage mirrors, bird swings and cage ladders. Also keep a cuttle bone in your Lovebirds cage at all times as a beak conditioner and good addition for your list. Lovebirds need a variety of foods to keep them healthy. You might want to self respecting definition add to your Lovebirds care list.

Bird , Cage , Lovebird 1260 Words | 4 Pages. weaknesses. Have you ever seen a flock of media, geese heading south for the winter flying along in a V-formation? Scientists have learned some amazing things about . Definition. why they fly that way: By flying in a formation the whole flock can fly 71% further than if each bird flew alone when a goose flaps its wings it creates an updraft for the goose that follows. As the media globalization, lead goose gets tired he will rotate to the back and allow other goose to take the lead position. Whenever a goose falls out of formation it immediately. Anatidae , Animorphs , Anseriformes 548 Words | 3 Pages. How cinematography and sound are used in a scene from Alfred Hitchcocks The Birds (1963) to goodnight mr tom film cast create meaning and generate a response in media globalization an . audience For this essay I will be focusing on the scene in which Melanie is heading to the school to see Annie when they are suddenly attacked by define transition metals numerous birds while trying to get the school children to media globalization safety.

I will be focusing on goodnight, the two micro features, sound and cinematography. The sound that is used in a film can be used to deliver information about globalization what. Alfred Hitchcock , Diegesis , English-language films 1582 Words | 4 Pages. where I was fascinated to learn so much about different species of birds . I never knew so much about the birds of goodnight mr tom film, prey before, . what they eat, what they are known for, what significance their feathers and colors represent. I was glad to media learn so much and see the actual birds live, flying over my head. I learned that Castrol, is the transition, smallest bird of the bird prey family, he is mainly known for his speed. Castrol birds are distinguished male or female through the color represented on media, its. Bird , Bird of prey , Eagle 595 Words | 2 Pages. Birds throughout history have been seen as symbols of grace, peace, hope, trust, and beauty. Sir Frances. These symbols although seen in the eyes of many . and were once found in all of us, are no longer found through the media globalization, eyes who have ever experienced either tale of The Birds . Lahore Resolution. The celebrated short story The Birds by Daphne Du Maurier contrasts greatly with its film directed by Alfred Hitchcock.

When analyzing each tale in depth one might conclude many things about what effect both the author and director. Alfred Hitchcock , Attack , Attack! 1391 Words | 4 Pages. Birds are Worth a Thousand Words (picture from book) An image of birds , like this one, can elicit many thoughts and . emotions. In fact, birds are a common representation in fiction, but not often are they an actual image inserted into a narrative novel. Yet in Jonathan Safran Foers novel, Extremely Loud and media, Incredibly Close, there are three full-page images dedicated to of The Use of Social Media Community Service Projects birds , and birds are mentioned continuously throughout the media, book. Birds are ubiquitously accepted symbols of of The Use of Social Media Projects, freedom in. Bird , Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close , Film score 1337 Words | 4 Pages. including birds , the symbolism of Macbeth as an owl throughout the story, and the juxtaposition between birds , weak . Media Globalization. versus strong is represented by lahore resolution the motif of birds in Macbeth.

Birds are incorporated into other literary elements that Shakespeare utilizes, showing the true depth of his writing. Metaphors allow the media globalization, reader to paint a picture of written words referencing images that they are familiar with. Like any other animal, there is a hierarchy of strength and therefore power for birds . The metaphors. Bird , Duncan I of Scotland , Lady Macduff 875 Words | 3 Pages. If I were a bird If I were a bird , I would like to be one of the Use of Social Service Projects Essay, small species, cute and beautiful. I would love to be a tiny . maina who is beautiful, tiny and globalization, above all, it is a bird that man can keep as a pet. I would love to stay with men, study their ways and enjoy their company. This I would be able to do with men as, God has given the maina a power of speech just like men.

It talks like a human being, has a sweet voice and, above all also has a great capacity to learn whatever it is taught. Allahabad , Bird , Education 1421 Words | 4 Pages. ?Night Owls vs. Andy Warhol. Morning Larks ENG-101-03 Due: 9/16/14 Who gets up early? Farmers, bakers, doctors. Who stays up late? Muggers, . streetwalkers, cat burglars. (63). Anne Fadiman describes a humans perspective on being a morning person, or as she refers to media globalization it a morning lark, verses a night person or a night owl . So how would you classify yourself; a morning lark, a night owl or are you a little of Warhol Essay, both? When reading the article, Night Owl by Anne Fadiman, I found that she provides. Chronotype , Circadian rhythm sleep disorder , Circadian rhythms 836 Words | 4 Pages.

Birds of the Devil IB English Essay. ? Word Count:1,256 Birds of the Devil The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov starts with a visit from the devil to Moscow. The devil . takes many forms in the story and is known as the media, foreigner, the professor, Woland and the devil. Pop Art: Essay. The novel alternates between two settings; 1930s Moscow and Jerusalem of Pontius Pilate. The devil and his entourage which consist of; a grotesquely dressed valet Koroviev, a mischievous, fast talking cat Behemoth, the fanged hit man Azazello, the pale-faced Abdonna. Bird , Devil , Jesus 1260 Words | 4 Pages. The Birds: Comparisions between story and movie. ever been attacked by birds ? I have.

I was at the beach feeding bread crumbs to the seagulls, when I dropped the bag. The bread crumbs spilled . Media. everywhere and tens of birds swooped down around me. They practically formed a wall of feathers and flapping sounds. Pop Art: Essay. Luckily though, those birds weren't trying to media globalization peck my eyes out and kill me. That is exactly what happens in both the respecting definition, short story and the movie, both titled The Birds . Both of them are quite similar, in media globalization the aspect of birds attacking people and. Alfred Hitchcock , Attack , Attack! 663 Words | 5 Pages. the featherless truth bats vs birds.

Featherless Truth. Despite peoples beliefs Bats and self definition, Birds are very different, on media, the contrary the two animals do share some common . attributes. Many people from scientist's, to bird watchers, or just nature lovers look at Andy Essay, a bat, and for many of media, those people they have the same thought go through their mind, what is it a bird ?, a mammal?, or simply a freak of nature? The answer is yes, Bats are mammals! Definitely not freaks of self definition, nature. Although bats like birds fly around, eat insects, and media, pollinate flowers. Bat , Bird , Flying and gliding animals 1491 Words | 4 Pages. Psychoanalytic Critique of Alfred Hitcock's 'the Birds' Psychoanalytic Critique of Alfred Hitchcocks The Birds In the self respecting definition, late nineteenth century, Sigmund Freud developed the first framework for . psychoanalytic theory expressing that our unconscious mind is media truly responsible for our thoughts, desires, and overall emotions. His theory establishes that childhood experiences are crucial in individual development and sexual or aggressive drives shape all of mr tom film cast, our basic needs and feelings (Summers, 2006).

Of course humans do not directly recognize that their. Alfred Hitchcock , Bodega Bay , Bodega Bay, California 1228 Words | 3 Pages. The Oven Bird by Robert Frost and Encounter by media globalization Czeslaw Milosz. is for the Birds In literature, birds often stand as symbols for countless things, such as freedom or oppression - flying free . versus being constantly caged - love and peace - pigeons who will go to great lengths to resolution be with their mate and media, the dove from Noahs ark - or a warning sign of death - The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe or vultures who hover over lahore resolution dying or already dead creatures. In both of these two poems - The Oven Bird by Robert Frost and Encounter by Czeslaw Milosz - birds serve as symbols.

Bird , Death , Edgar Allan Poe 1502 Words | 4 Pages. explored natural selection using a laboratory. We wanted to media see what was the effect of the type of food available on the frequency of . Sir Frances Drake. different types of bird beaks. Our hypothesis was that If the type of the food available changes, then the frequency of beak types will change, because birds with beaks more suited to the available food will be more successful over time. Variables: Independent Variable: type of food available Dependent Variable: frequency of each type (size and shape) of beak . Albatross , Beak , Bird 432 Words | 3 Pages. Hitchcock Comparative Essay Between Strangers on a Train and Birds.

compared and contrasted on several platforms; these platforms include filming techniques, setting, characters, plot and the underlying messages. The two . Hitchcock films that are going to be compared and media globalization, contrasted are Strangers on a Train and The Birds . Hitchcock uses several techniques such as camera shots, mis-en-scene, imagery and others to distinguish between genders and portray gender segregation in both films. There are three different main points in which Hitchcock uses as a delivery mechanism. Alfred Hitchcock , Daphne du Maurier , Female 2663 Words | 7 Pages. I find the film, snowy owl to be quite an globalization, interesting animal. It belongs to the kingdom Animalia, the drake, phylum Chordata, the globalization, class Aves, the resolution, order . Strigiformes, the family Strigidae, the genus Nyctea, and the species Sandiaca along with boobooks, screeching owls , and earless owls . With a height reaching up to media 27 inches and a weight of define metals, 4 to 6 pounds, the snowy owl has a reputation as one of the biggest owls in the Arctic.

Its wingspan can spread out anywhere from 45-60 inches. Most people are familiar with. Animal , Bird , Chordate 743 Words | 2 Pages. The Difference in Bird Communities Using Climate as a Factor in Two Differing Habitats. Title: The difference in bird communities using climate as a factor in two differing habitats. Media. Introduction: Bird . communities are highly vulnerable to changes in climate as a variable. The factor of define, habitat type is also very important in determining the abundance and diversity of bird communities. Habitat features, elevation and variation in climates is seen to been ecologically important, as these particular three factors in differing combinations create diverse bird communities.

Varying climates. Biodiversity , Bird , Ecology 1634 Words | 6 Pages. Snowy owl mason coyne p.1 The common name of my species is media snowy owl the scientific name is drake timeline . (Nyctea scandiaca.) The snowy owl is threatened because of media globalization, collisions with automobiles, utility lines and transition metals, gunshot wounds. These birds are being i killed for their eyes and feet, which are traded in globalization Asian markets. There are about 290,000 snowy owls in the world. The snowy owl lives in Northern most Canada, Alaska, polar, tundra, grasslands, or frozen lakes. Snowy. Bird , Owls , Snowy Owl 616 Words | 2 Pages.

name for lahore, the owl . Media. The name patoo is transition given both for the Jamaican owl and another bird , the night jar, which is . sometimes mistaken for an owl . Media Globalization. It is said that patoo is the same name given to lahore the owl in media globalization parts of West Africa, particularly Ghana. Andy. It is media not surprising that the name is prevalent in The Benefits of The Use of Social With Essay Jamaica as this is media globalization due to our West African linkage. In Jamaica there are two types of Andy Warhol, owls to which the name patoo is given. They are the white owl or screech owl and globalization, the Jamaican brown owl . The latter. Bird , Birds of Jamaica , Columbidae 806 Words | 3 Pages. Robert Frosts Never Again Would Birds Song Be The Same

Robert Frost's Never Again Would Birds ' Song Be the Same? Never Again Would Birds ' Song Be the Same is goodnight mr tom a poem by media globalization Robert Frost, . which is lahore a love poem along with being a perfect sonnet. Media Globalization. It is about Eve, a Biblical creature who has come and The Benefits of The Use of Social Media Service Essay, left her own mark among birds . It tells a story in its words but also the sounds of media globalization, its words and metals, the way they play out and sound together. This sonnet by Robert Frost is different then all others because of its speakable tone, along with his cunning sounds. Because. Adam and Eve , Bird , Garden of Eden 1348 Words | 4 Pages.

Kingdom Animalia: Mammals, Insects, Birds , and Echinoderms [YOUR NAME HERE] [CLASS SUBJECT HERE] [PROFESSORS . NAME HERE] June 1, 2008 With the omission of media globalization, both prokaryotes and protists, Kingdom Animalia generally contains all sorts of animal species. It is timeline estimated that anywhere from nine to ten million exist on media globalization, Earth the exact number is define transition metals not precisely known. Kingdom Animalia includes the media, following species: mammals, insects, birds , echinoderms, and etcetera. This paper. Animal , Bird , Chordate 2287 Words | 7 Pages.

The Northern Spotted Owl Controversy. The Northern Spotted Owl Controversy ? Jobs Vs Environmental Protection Introduction The mere mention of the sir frances, creature's name brings . shudders to loggers and some local inhabitants, fear over media globalization its existence has incited rallies, garnered the attention of three government agencies, and caused people to tie themselves to trees. On April 2, 1993, President Bill Clinton embarked on The Benefits of The Use of Social Media Community Service Projects, a quest to globalization settle a long-standing battle. Define. The environmentalists on one side, and their attempts to globalization protect natural. Conservation , Ecology , Endangered species 805 Words | 3 Pages. Bird 1. He eats like a bird . 2.A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. 3.Were all early . birds in my family because we live on a farm. 4. Birds of a feather flock together. 5.Thats for the birds ! 6.Its an ill bird that fouls own nest. 7. A little bird told me. Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay. Horse 8. He eats like a horse. 9.Thats just a lot of horse and donkey dust! 10.Its time to study now and stop horsing around. 11.I got it straight from the globalization, horse s mouth. 12. Just hold your.

American films , Bird , Black-and-white films 575 Words | 5 Pages. exist throughout the play in define numerous motifs and symbols, including birds . What birds represent in literature varies; they can . mean a journey, freedom, positive omen, and everything humans quest to understand. Globalization. In Macbeth they can mean different things depending on the kind of bird , one sees less menacing birds appear around the mention of children, and birds of prey are referred to around the time of bad tidings. Although birds may be interpreted as symbols of freedom and innocence, their roles in. Bird , Chicken , Falcon 701 Words | 2 Pages. Shakespeare there is many mentions of birds in the dialogue. Pop Art: Warhol. As well it is media one of the themes in this play, used as a metaphor to different . Respecting. examples, such as when the characters use the word fly as an expression of escaping or leaving. Globalization. Furthermore the theme of birds is also used when speaking of specific birds having meanings, or birds in this play used to show pathetic fallacy. Specifically in act IV sense ii and iii there are various uses of the timeline, imagery of birds , such as Lady Macduff in her shock at. Bird , Lady Macduff , Macbeth 465 Words | 2 Pages. Bird Harrassment and Its Effects on Airports.

| The Effects of Bird Harassment on Airports | Bird deterrents methods | In this article, the globalization, main focus is on the . presence of birds on airfields and their negative effects on the airport. Birds can damage aircraft and risk the lives of human passengers. In response to this situation, wildlife management programs have been established to control wildlife. This article also identifies many different bird deterring techniques | | | Micah Harper | 11/15/2011 | | Table of Social Media Service Projects, Contents . Airport , Bird , Bird strike 2389 Words | 6 Pages. Spotted Owl, Flying Squirrel, Truffle Symbiosis. spotted owls (Strix Occidentalis), flying squirrels (Glaucomys Sabrinus), and truffles, which can include many varieties but especially Tuber . Gibbosum in the Pacific Northwest and media globalization, northern territories. Together, these animals and fungus are dependent on one another for both nutritional and The Benefits Use of With Projects Essay, reproductive reasons. The northern spotted owl , which is the dominant predator in this food chain, is media threatened, as it requires special conditions in Warhol Essay which to media globalization survive. The first condition for this owl is that.

Douglas-fir , Ecology , Flying squirrel 1762 Words | 5 Pages. A Case Study on respecting definition, Impact of Bird Flu on globalization, the Sales of Helvetia Fast Food Shop. Analysis of Strategic Decision on Business Crisis A Case Study on Impact of Bird flu on the Sales of Helvetia Fast Food Shop Sales in . the timeline, city's fast food shops have marked a sharp fall as customers continued to media ignore chicken items out of bird flu fear, hitting hard the booming fast-food business. - reports UNB, Financial Express. Ground of the Crisis In order to solve the unemployment problem poultry business is always prioritized. Bangladesh , Bird , Chicken 1627 Words | 6 Pages.

Birds (class Aves) are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals. With around 10,000 living . species, they are the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. All present species belong to the subclass Neornithes, and inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) Bee Hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) Ostrich. Metals. The fossil record indicates that birds emerged within theropod dinosaurs. Bird , Conservation biology , Dinosaur 446 Words | 2 Pages. THE WHITE BIRD John Berger From time to media globalization time I have been invited by institutions--mostly American--to speak about aesthetics.

On one . occasion I considered accepting and I thought of mr tom cast, taking with me a bird made of white wood. But I didn't go. Globalization. The problem is that you can't talk about The Benefits Use of Media Community Service Projects Essay aesthetics without talking about the principle of hope and media globalization, the existence of evil. During the long winters the peasants in drake certain parts of the globalization, Haute Savoie used to make wooden birds to hang in their kitchens and perhaps. 1927 in aviation , Aesthetics , Art 1782 Words | 5 Pages.

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The Neuroscience Revolution, Ethics, and globalization, the Law. There's no art to find the mind's construction in the face; He was a gentleman on Andy whom I built an absolute trust. 1. The lament of media, Duncan, King of Scotland, for resolution the treason of the Thane of Cawdor, his trusted nobleman, echoes through time as we continue to feel the sting of not knowing the minds of those people with whom we deal. From we have a deal to will you still love me tomorrow?, we continue to live in fundamental uncertainty about the media globalization, minds of others. Lahore? Duncan demonstrated this by globalization immediately giving his trust to The Benefits of The Use of Media With Essay, Cawdor's conqueror, one Macbeth, with fatal consequences. But at least some of globalization, this uncertainty may be about to lift, for better or for worse.

Neuroscience is rapidly increasing our knowledge of the goodnight film cast, functioning, and malfunctioning, of that intricate three-pound organ, the human brain. When science expands our understanding of something so central to human existence, these advances will necessarily cause changes in both our society and its laws. This paper seeks to forecast and explore the social and legal changes that neuroscience might bring in four areas: prediction, litigation, confidentiality and privacy, and patents. It complements the paper in this volume written by Professor Stephen Morse, which covers issues of personhood and responsibility, informed consent, the media, reform of Projects Essay, existing legal doctrines, enhancement of normal brain functions, and media globalization, the admissibility of neuroscience evidence. Two notes of caution are in order.

First, this paper may appear to paint a gloomy picture of future threats and abuses. The technologies discussed may, in fact, have benefits far outweighing their harms. It is the job of people looking for ethical, legal, and social consequences of new technologies to look disproportionately for troublesome consequences or, at lahore least, that's the convention. Second, as Nils Bohr (probably) said, It is always hard to predict things, especially the future. Media Globalization? 2 This paper builds on experience gained in sir frances timeline studying the ethical, legal, and social implications of human genetics over the last decade. That experience, for me and for media globalization the whole field, has included both successes and failures. In neuroscience, as in genetics, accurately envisioning the future is particularly difficult as one must foresee successfully both what changes will occur in the science and how they will affect society. Pop Art: Warhol Essay? I am confident about only two things concerning this paper: first, it discusses at length some things that will never happen, and, second, it ignores what will prove to be some of the most important social and legal implications of neuroscience. Nonetheless, I hope the paper can be useful as a guide to beginning to think about these issues.

Advances in neuroscience may well improve our ability to make predictions about an individual's future. Globalization? This seems particularly likely through neuroimaging, as different patterns of timeline, brain images, taken under varying circumstances, will come to be strongly correlated with different future behaviors or conditions. The images may reveal the structure of the living brain, through technologies such as computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or they may show how different parts of the brain function , through positron emission tomography (PET) scans, single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neuroscience might make many different kinds of predictions about people. It might predict, or reveal, mental illness, behavioral traits, or cognitive abilities, among other things. For the purposes of this paper, I have organized these predictive areas not by the nature of the prediction but by globalization who might use the predictions: the health care system, the criminal justice system, schools, businesses, and parents. The fact that new neuroscience methods are used to make predictions is not necessarily good or bad.

Our society makes predictions about people all the time: from a doctor determining a patient's prognosis, to a judge (or a legislature) sentencing a criminal, to colleges using the Scholastic Aptitude Test, to automobile liability insurers setting rates. But although prediction is common, it is not always uncontroversial. The Analogy to Genetic Predictions. The issues raised by predictions based on neuroscience are often similar to those raised by genetic predictions. Indeed, in some cases the two areas are the same genetic analysis can powerfully predict several diseases of the Pop Art: Warhol Essay, brain, including Huntington disease and some cases of media globalization, early-onset Alzheimer disease.

Experience of mr tom film cast, genetic predictions teaches at globalization least three important lessons. First, a claimed ability to predict may not, in Andy Warhol fact, exist. Many associations between genetic variations and various diseases have been claimed, only to globalization, fail the Essay, test of replication. Interestingly, many of media globalization, these failures have involved two mental illnesses, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Second, and lahore, more important, the strength of the predictions can vary enormously. For some genetic diseases, prediction is overwhelmingly powerful. As far as we know, the globalization, only way a person with the genetic variation that causes Huntington disease can avoid dying of that disease is to die first from something else. On the metals, other hand, the media globalization, widely heralded breast cancer genes, BRCA 1 and drake, BRCA 2, though they substantially increase the likelihood that a woman will be diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer, are not close to determinative. Somewhere between 50 and 85 percent of media, women born with a pathogenic mutation in respecting either of media, those genes will get breast cancer; 20 to 30 percent (well under half) will get ovarian cancer. Men with a mutation in BRCA 2 have a hundred-fold greater risk of breast cancer than average men but their chances are still under five percent. A prediction based on an association between a genetic variation and a disease, even when true, can be very strong, very weak, or somewhere between.

The popular perception of genes as extremely powerful is resolution, probably a result of ascertainment bias: the diseases first found to be caused by globalization genetic variations were very powerful because powerful associations were the easiest to find. Define Transition? If, as seems likely, the same holds true for media predictions from neuroscience, such predictions will need to be used very carefully. Finally, the Andy Essay, use of genetic predictions has proven controversial, both in medical practice and in social settings. Much of the debate about the uses of media globalization, human genetics has concerned its use to predict the future health or traits of patients, insureds, employees, fetuses, or embryos. Neuroscience seems likely to raise many similar issues. Much of health care is about prediction predicting the outcome of drake, a disease, predicting the results of a treatment for media a disease, predicting the risk of getting a disease. When medicine, through neuroscience, genetics, or other methods, makes an define, accurate prediction that leads to a useful intervention, the prediction is clearly valuable. But predictions also can cause problems when they are inaccurate (or are perceived inaccurately by media patients). Even if the predictions are accurate, they still have uncertain value if no useful interventions are possible. Goodnight Cast? These problems may justify regulation of predictive neuroscientific medical testing. Some predictive tests are inaccurate, either because the scientific understanding behind them is wrong or because the test is poorly performed.

In other cases the test may be accurate in globalization the sense that it gives an lahore resolution, accurate assessment of the globalization, probability of a certain result, but any individual patient may not have the most likely outcome. In addition, patients or others may misinterpret the test results. In genetic testing, for define transition metals example, a woman who tests positive for a BRCA 1 mutation may believe that a fatal breast cancer is inevitable, when, in fact, her lifetime risk of media globalization, breast cancer is between 50 and 85 percent and her chance of dying from a breast cancer is roughly one-third of the risk of diagnosis. Alternatively, a woman who tests negative for the mutation may falsely believe that she has no risk for resolution breast cancer and globalization, could stop breast self-examinations or mammograms to mr tom film, her harm. Even very accurate tests may not be very useful. Genetic testing to predict Huntington disease is quite accurate, yet, with no useful medical interventions, a person may find foreknowledge of Huntington's disease not only unhelpful but psychologically or socially harmful. Media Globalization? These concerns have led to of The Social With Community Service, widespread calls for media globalization regulation of genetic testing.

3. The same issues can easily arise through neuroscience. Neuroimaging, for example, might easily lead to predictions, with greater or lesser accuracy, of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Such imaging tests may be inaccurate, may present information patients find difficult to evaluate, and may provide information of dubious value and some harm. One might want to regulate some such tests along the lines proposed for genetic tests: proof that the test was effective at predicting the condition in question, assessment of the competency of those performing the tests, required informed consent so that patients appreciate the test's possible consequences, and assurance of post-test counseling to resolution, assure that patients understand the results. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has statutory jurisdiction over the use of drugs, biologicals, or medical devices. For covered products, it requires proof that they are both safe and effective. FDA has asserted that it has jurisdiction over media, genetic tests as medical devices, but it has chosen only to impose significant regulation on genetic tests sold by definition manufacturers as kits to clinical laboratories, physicians, or consumers.

Tests done as home brews by clinical laboratories have only been subject to very limited regulation, which does not include proof of safety or efficacy. Globalization? Neuroscience tests might well be subject to even less FDA regulation. If the test used an existing, approved medical device, such as an MRI machine, no FDA approval of this additional use would be necessary. The test would be part of the practice of medicine, expressly not regulated by Pop Art: Warhol the FDA. The FDA also implements the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments Act (CLIA), along with the Center for Disease Prevention and media globalization, Control and sir frances drake timeline, the Center for Medicare and globalization, Medicaid Services. CLIA sets standards for the training and working conditions of clinical laboratory personnel and requires periodic testing of laboratories' proficiency at different tests.

Unless the tests were done in mr tom film a clinical laboratory, through, for example, pathological examination of brain tissue samples or analysis of media, chemicals from the brain, neuroscience testing would also seem to avoid regulation under CLIA. At present, neuroscience-based testing, particularly through neuroimaging using existing (approved) devices seems to be entirely unregulated except, to a very limited extent, by malpractice law. One important policy question should be whether to regulate such tests, through government action or by professional self-regulation. The criminal justice system makes predictions about individuals' future behavior in Pop Art: Andy sentencing, parole, and other decisions, such as civil commitment for globalization sex offenders. 4 The trend in recent years has been to limit the discretion of judges and sir frances timeline, parole boards to use predictions by setting stronger sentencing guidelines or mandatory sentences. Neuroscience could conceivably affect that trend if it provided scientific evidence of a person's future dangerousness. Such evidence might be used to increase sentencing discretion - or it might provide yet another way to limit such discretion. Media? 5. One can imagine neuroscience tests that show a convicted defendant was particularly likely to commit dangerous future crimes by showing that he has, for Pop Art: Essay example, poor control over his anger, his aggressiveness, or his sexual urges.

This kind of evidence has been used in the past; neuroscience may come up with ways that either are more accurate or that appear more accurate (or more impressive). For example, two different papers have already linked criminality to variations in the gene for monoamine oxidase A, a protein that plays an important role in the brain. 6 Genetic tests may seem more scientific and more impressive to globalization, a judge, jury, or parole board than a psychologist's report. Andy Essay? The use of neuroscience to make these predictions raises at least two issues: are the neuroscience tests for future dangerousness or lack of self-control valid at all and, if so, how accurate do they need to be before they should be used? The law has had prior experience with claims of tests for media inherent violent tendencies. The XYY syndrome was widely discussed and , accepted, , in the literature though not by the courts 7 , in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Men born with an define metals, additional copy of the media globalization, Y chromosome were said to be much more likely to become violent criminals. Further research revealed, about Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay a decade later, that XYY men were somewhat more likely to have low intelligence and to have long arrest records, typically for petty or property offenses.

They did not have any higher than average predisposition to violence. If, unlike XYY syndrome, a tested condition were shown reliably to predict future dangerousness or lack of control, the question would then become how accurate the test must be in media globalization order for it to be used. Drake? A test of dangerousness or lack of control that was only globalization slightly better than flipping coins should not be given much weight; a perfect test could be. At what accuracy level should the line be set? In the drake timeline, context of media, civil commitment of sexual offenders, the Supreme Court has recently spoken twice on resolution this issue, both times reviewing a Kansas statute. Globalization? 8 The Kansas act authorizes civil commitment of a sexually violent predator, defined as any person who has been convicted of or charged with a sexually violent offense and who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder which makes the With Community Service Projects, person likely to engage in repeat acts of sexual violence. 9 In Kansas v. Hendricks , the Court held the Act constitutional against a substantive due process claim because it required, in addition to proof of dangerousness, proof of the defendant's lack of control. This admitted lack of volitional control, coupled with a prediction of future dangerousness, adequately distinguishes Hendricks from other dangerous persons who are perhaps more properly dealt with exclusively through criminal proceedings. 10 Id. at media globalization 360. It held Hendricks's commitment survived attack on ex post facto and double jeopardy grounds because the commitment procedure was neither criminal nor punitive.

11. Five years later, the Court revisited this statute in Kansas v. Crane . 12 It held that the Kansas statute could only be applied constitutionally if there were a determination of the defendant's lack of control and not just proof of the existence of a relevant mental abnormality or personality disorder: It is enough to say that there must be proof of goodnight cast, serious difficulty in controlling behavior. And this, when viewed in media light of respecting, such features of the case as the nature of the psychiatric diagnosis, and the severity of the mental abnormality itself, must be sufficient to distinguish the dangerous sexual offender whose serious mental illness, abnormality, or disorder subjects him to globalization, civil commitment from the dangerous but typical recidivist convicted in an ordinary criminal case. 13. We know then that, at least in civil commitment cases related to prior sexually violent criminal offenses, proof that the Use of Social Media With Service Projects Essay, particular defendant had limited power to control his actions is constitutionally necessary. There is no requirement that this evidence, or proof adduced in sentencing or parole hearings, convince the trier of fact beyond a reasonable doubt. The Court gives no indication of how strong that evidence must be or how its scientific basis would be established. Would any evidence that passed Daubert or Frye hearings be sufficient for civil commitment (or for enhancing sentencing or denying parole) or would some higher standard be required?

It is also interesting to speculate on how evidence of the accuracy of such tests would be collected. It is unlikely that a state or federal criminal justice system would allow a randomized double-blind trial, performing the media globalization, neuroscientific dangerousness or volition tests on goodnight mr tom all convicted defendants at the time of their conviction and then releasing them to see which ones would commit future crimes. Media Globalization? That judges, parole boards, or legislatures would insist on rigorous scientific proof of connections between neuroscience evidence and future mental states seems doubtful. It is conceivable that neuroscience could provide other methods of testing ability or aptitude. Of course, the standard questions of the accuracy of those tests would apply. Define Transition Metals? Tests that are highly inaccurate usually should not be used.

But even assuming the tests are accurate, they would raise concerns. Those tests might be used only positively, as Dr. Binet intended his early intelligence test to be used to identify children who need special help. To the extent they were used to deny students, especially young children, opportunities, they seem more troubling. It is not clear why a society that uses aptitude tests so commonly for admission into elite schools should worry about their neuroscience equivalents. The SAT and other similar aptitude tests claim that student preparation or effort will not substantially affect student results, just as, presumably, preparation (at least in media globalization the short term) seems at least as unlikely to alter neuroscience tests of aptitude.

The existing aptitude tests, though widely used, remain controversial. Neuroscience tests, particularly if given and sir frances timeline, acted upon at an early age, are likely to exacerbate the discomfort we already feel with predictive uses of aptitude tests in media education. The possibilities for neuroscience discrimination seem at least as real as with genetic discrimination. A predictive test showing that a person has a high likelihood of goodnight mr tom film, developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, early-onset Alzheimer disease, early-onset Parkinson disease, or Huntington disease could certainly provide insurers or employers with an incentive to avoid that person. To the extent one believes that health coverage should be universal or that employment should be denied or terminated only for good cause, banning neuroscientific discrimination might be justified as an incremental step toward this good end. Otherwise, it may be difficult to say why people should be more protected from adverse social consequences of neuroscientific test results than of cholesterol tests, x-rays, or colonoscopies.

Special protection for genetic tests has been urged on media globalization the ground that genes are more fundamental, more deterministic, and less the result of personal actions or chance than other influences on health. Metals? Others have argued against such genetic exceptionalism, denying special power to genes and contending that special legislation about genetics only confirms the public a false view of genetic determinism. Still others, including me, have argued that the public's particularly strong fear of genetic test results, even though exaggerated, justifies regulation in order to media globalization, gain concrete benefits from reducing that fear. The same arguments could be played out with respect to predictive neuroscience tests. Although this is an open empirical question, it does seem likely that the public's perception of the fundamental or deterministic nature of genes does not exist with respect to neuroscience. One other possible business use of neuroscience predictions should be noted, one that has been largely ignored in genetics. Neuroscience might be used in marketing. Firms might use neuroscience techniques on test subjects to enhance the appeal of their products or the effectiveness of their advertising.

Individuals or focus groups could, in the future, be examined under fMRI. At least one firm, Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences, has embraced this technology, and, in a press release from 2002, announced its intentions of revolutionizing the marketing industry. 17. More alarmingly, if neuro-monitoring devices were perfected that could study a person's mental function without his knowledge, information to predict a consumer's preferences might be collected for define transition marketing purposes. Privacy regulation seems appropriate for media globalization the undisclosed monitoring in the latter example. Regulating the timeline, former seems less likely, although it might prove attractive if such neuroscience-enhanced market research proved too effective an aid to media globalization, selling. The prenatal use of genetic tests to predict the future characteristics of fetuses, embryos, or as-yet unconceived offspring is one of the most controversial and interesting issues in human genetics. Neuroscience predictions are unlikely to have similar power prenatally, except through neurogenetics. It is possible that neuroimaging or other non-genetic neuroscience tests might be performed on a fetus during pregnancy.

Structural MRI has been used as early as about 24 weeks to look for major brain malformations, following up on earlier suspicious sonograms. At this point, no one appears to have done fMRI on the brain of a fetus; the classic method of stimulating the subject and watching which brain regions react would be challenging in utero, though not necessarily impossible. Lahore? In any event, fetal neuroimaging seems likely to give meaningful results only for serious brain problems and even then at fairly late stage of globalization, fetal development so that the most plausible intervention, abortion, would be rarely used and only in the most extreme cases. Lahore? 18. Parents, however, like schools, might make use of predictive neuroscience tests during childhood to help plan, guide, or control their children's lives. Of course, parents already try to guide their children's lives, based on everything from good data to wishful thinking about media a child's abilities. Would neuroscience change anything?

It might be argued that parents would take neuroscience testing more seriously than other evidence of a child's abilities because of its scientific nature, and thus perhaps exaggerate its accuracy. More fundamentally, it could be argued that, even if the lahore resolution, test predictions were powerfully accurate, too extreme parental control over media, a child's life is a bad thing. From this perspective, any procedures that are likely to add strength to parents' desire or ability to exercise that control should be discouraged. On the define, other hand, society vests parents with enormous control over media, their children's upbringing, intervening only in strong cases of abuse. To some extent, this parental power may be a matter of Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay, federal constitutional right, established in a line of cases dating back 80 years.

19. This issue is globalization, perhaps too difficult to Essay, be tackled. It is worth noting, though, that government regulation is not the only way to approach it. Professional self-regulation, insurance coverage policies, and parental education might all be methods to discourage any perceived overuse of children's neuroscience tests by their parents. Predictions may themselves be relevant in some litigation, particularly the criminal cases discussed above, but other, non-predictive uses of neurosciences might also become central to litigated cases. Neuroscience might be able to globalization, provide relevant, and possibly determinative, evidence of a witness's mental state at of The With Community Service Projects Essay the time of testimony, ways of eliciting or evaluating a witness's memories, or other evidence relevant to media globalization, a litigant's claims. This section will look at a few possible litigation uses: lie detection, bias determination, memory assessment or recall, and respecting definition, other uses.

Whether any of these uses is scientifically possible remains to be seen. It is also worth noting that the extent of the use of any of media globalization, these methods will also depend on their cost and intrusiveness. A method of, for example, truth determination that required an intravenous infusion or examination inside a full scale MRI machine would be used much less than a simple and portable headset. The implications of any of drake, these technologies for media globalization litigation seem to sir frances drake timeline, depend largely on four evidentiary issues. First, will the technologies pass the media, Daubert 20 or Frye 21 tests for respecting definition the admissibility of scientific evidence? (I leave questions of media globalization, Daubert and Frye entirely to Professor Morse.) Second, if they are held sufficiently scientifically reliable to pass Daubert or Frye , are there other reasons to forbid or to compel the admissibility of the results of such technologies when used voluntarily by a witness? Third, would the refusal or the agreement of a witness to use one of these technologies itself be admissible in evidence?

And fourth, may a court compel witnesses, under varying circumstances, to use these technologies? The answers to these questions will vary with the setting (especially criminal or civil), with the technology, and with other circumstances of the case, but they provide a useful framework for The Benefits of The Media With Community Service Projects Essay analysis. Detecting Lies or Compelling Truth. The concept behind current polygraph machines dates back to the early 20th century. 22 They seek to measure various physiological reactions associated with anxiety, like sweating, breathing rate, and blood pressure, in the expectation that those signs of nervousness correlate with the speaker's knowledge that what he is saying is false. American courts have generally, but not universally, rejected them, although they are commonly used by the federal government for various security clearances and investigations. Globalization? 23 It has been estimated that their accuracy is about 85 to drake timeline, 90 percent.

24. Now imagine that neuroscience leads to new ways to determine whether or not a witness is telling a lie or even to compel a witness to tell the globalization, truth. A brain imaging device might, for example, be able to detect patterns or locations of brain activity known from experiments to be highly correlated with the subject's consciousness of falsehood. (I will refer to this as lie detection.) Alternatively, drugs or other stimuli might be administered that made it impossible for a witness to do anything but tell the truth an effective truth serum. Andy Warhol? (I will refer to this as truth compulsion and to the two collectively as truth testing.) Assume for the moment, unrealistically, that these methods of truth testing are absolutely accurate, with neither false positives nor false negatives. How would, and should, courts treat the results of media globalization, such truth testing? The question deserves much more extensive treatment than I can give it here, but I will try to sketch some issues. Consider first the non-scientific issues of admissibility. One argument against Warhol admissibility was made by four justices of the Supreme Court in United States v. Scheffer 25 , a case involving a blanket ban on the admissibility of globalization, polygraph evidence.

Scheffer, a enlisted man in the Air Force working with military police as an informant in drug investigations, wanted to introduce the results of a polygraph examination at his court-martial for illegal drug use. 26 The polygraph examination, performed by drake timeline the military as a routine part of his work as an informant, showed that he denied illegal drug use during the same period that a urine test detected the presence of methamphetamine. 27 Military Rule of Evidence 707, promulgated by President George H.W. Bush in 1991, provides that Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the results of a polygraph examination, the opinion of a polygraph examiner, or any reference to an offer to take, failure to take, or taking of media globalization, a polygraph examination, shall not be admitted into evidence. The court-martial refused to goodnight mr tom film, admit Scheffer's evidence on the basis of media, Rule 707. Pop Art: Andy? His conviction was overturned by the Court of globalization, Appeals for The Benefits Social With Service Projects the Armed Forces, which held that this per se exclusion of all polygraph evidence violated the Sixth Amendment. 28 The Supreme Court reversed in turn, upholding Rule 707, but in a fractured opinion. Media Globalization? Justice Thomas wrote the transition metals, opinion announcing the decision of the Court and finding the rule constitutional on media three grounds: continued question about the reliability of polygraph evidence, the need to preserve the respecting definition, jury's core function of media, making credibility determinations in criminal trials, and the avoidance of collateral litigation.

29 Justices Rehnquist, Scalia, and Souter joined the Thomas opinion in full. Justice Kennedy, joined by Justices O'Connor, Ginsburg, and Breyer, concurred in lahore the section of the media globalization, Thomas opinion based on resolution reliability of media, polygraph evidence. Those four justices did not agree with the other two grounds. 30 Justice Stevens dissented, finding that the reliability of polygraph testing was already sufficiently well established to invalidate any per se exclusion. 31. Our hypothesized perfect truth testing methods would not run afoul of the reliability issue.

Nor, assuming the rules for its admissibility were sufficiently clear, would collateral litigation appear to be a major concern. It would seem, however, even more than the polygraph, to evoke the metals, concerns of four justices about invading the sphere of the jury even when the witness had agreed to the use. Although at media globalization this point Justice Thomas's concern lacks the fifth vote it needs to become a binding precedent, the lahore resolution, preservation of the jury's role might be seen by some courts as rising to a constitutional level under a federal or state constitutional right to media, a criminal, or civil, jury trial. It could certainly be used as a policy argument against allowing such evidence and, as an underlying concern of the transition, judiciary, it might influence judicial findings under Daubert or Frye about the reliability of the methods. 32 Assuming robust proof of reliability, it is hard to see any other strong argument against the admission of this kind of evidence. Globalization? (Whether Justice Thomas's rationale, either as a constitutional or a policy matter, would apply to non-jury trials seems more doubtful.) On the other hand, some defendants might have strong arguments for the admission of such evidence, at least in lahore criminal cases. Media Globalization? Courts have found in the Sixth Amendment, perhaps in combination with the Fifth Amendment, a constitutional right for criminal defendants to present evidence in their own defense. Scheffer made this very claim, that Rule 707, in define transition metals the context of his case, violated his constitutional right to present a defense. Media Globalization? The Supreme Court has two lines of cases dealing with this right. Self? In Chambers v. Media Globalization? Mississippi , the Court resolved the defendant's claim by balancing the importance of the self respecting definition, evidence to the defendant's case with the reliability of the evidence.

33 In Rock v. Arkansas , a criminal defendant alleged that she could remember the events only after having her memory hypnotically refreshed. Globalization? 34 The Court struck down Arkansas's per se rule against hypnotically refreshed testimony on the ground that the rule, as a per se rule, was arbitrary and therefore violated the Sixth Amendment's rights to present a defense and to testify in her own defense. The Rock opinion also stressed that the With Community, Arkansas rule prevented the defendant from telling her own story in media any meaningful way. That might argue in mr tom favor of the admissibility of a criminal defendant's own testimony, under truth compulsion, as opposed to media globalization, an examiner giving his expert opinion about the truthfulness of the witness's statements based on film the truth detector results. These constitutional arguments for media the admission of such evidence would not seem to The Benefits Media Projects Essay, arise with the prosecution's case or with either the plaintiff's or defendant's case in a civil matter (unless some state constitutional provisions were relevant). Globalization? 35. Assuming truth tested testimony were admissible, should either a party's, or a witness's, offer or refusal to undergo truth testing be admissible in evidence as relevant to their honesty? Consider how powerful a jury (or a judge) might find a witness's refusal to sir frances drake, be truth tested, particularly if witnesses telling contrary stories have successfully passed such testing.

Such a refusal could well prove fatal to the witness's credibility. The Fifth Amendment would likely prove a constraint with respect to criminal defendants. The fact that a defendant has invoked the Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination cannot normally be admitted into globalization evidence or considered by define metals the trier of fact. Otherwise, the courts have held, the globalization, defendant would be penalized for mr tom film cast having invoked the privilege. A defendant who takes the stand might well be held to have waived that right and so might be impeached by his refusal to undergo truth testing. To what extent a criminal defendant's statements before trial could constitute a waiver of his right to avoid impeachment on this ground seems a complicated question, involving both the Fifth Amendment and the effects of the rule in Miranda v. Media Globalization? Arizona . 36 These complex issues would require a paper of their own; I will not discuss them further here. Apart from a defendant in a criminal trial, it would seem that any other witnesses should be impeachable for their refusal to be truth tested; they might invoke the privilege against self-incrimination but the trier of fact, in weighing their credibility in this trial, would not be using that information against them. Goodnight Cast? And this should be true for media prosecution witnesses as well as defense witnesses.

Both parties and non-party witnesses at civil trials would seem generally to be impeachable for their refusal to be truth-tested, except in some jurisdictions that hold that a civil party's invocation of the Fifth Amendment may not be commented upon even in a civil trial. It seems unlikely that a witness's willingness to sir frances timeline, undergo truth testing would add anything to the results of a test in most cases. It might, however, be relevant, and presumably admissible, if for media some reason the test did not work on that witness or, unbeknownst to the witness at the time she made the offer, the test results turned out to be inadmissible. The questions thus far have dealt with the admissibility of evidence from witnesses who have voluntarily undergone truth testing or who have voluntarily agreed or refused to undergo such testing. Could, or should, either side have the power to timeline, compel a witness to undergo either method of truth testing? At its simplest, this might be a right to re-test a witness tested by globalization the other side, a claim that could be quite compelling if the results of these methods, like the results of polygraphy, were believed to be significantly affected by the means by which it was administered not just the scientific process but the substance and style of the questioning. More broadly, could either side compel a witness, in The Benefits of The Use of Social With Essay a criminal or a civil case, to undergo such truth testing as part of either a courtroom examination or in pretrial discovery? Witnesses certainly can be compelled to testify, at trial or in deposition. Globalization? They can also be compelled, under appropriate circumstances, to undergo specialized testing, such as medical examinations. (These latter procedures typically require express authorization from the court rather than being available as of right to the other side.) Several constitutional protections might be claimed as preventing such compulsory testimony using either lie detection or truth compulsion.

A witness might argue that the method of truth testing involved was so great an metals, intrusion into the person's bodily (or mental) integrity as to shock the media globalization, conscience and violate the Fifth or Fourteenth Amendment, as did the stomach pumping in Rochin v. California . 37 A test method involving something like the wearing of headphones might seem quite different from of The Social Essay one involving an intravenous infusion of media, a drug or envelopment in the coffin-like confines of metals, a full-sized MRI machine. Globalization? The strength of such a claim might vary with whether the process was lie detection and merely verified (or undercut) the witness's voluntarily chosen words or whether it was truth compulsion and interfered with the witness's ability to choose her own words. The Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination would usually protect those who choose to invoke it (and who had not been granted immunity). As noted above, that would not necessarily protect either a party in a civil case or a non-defendant witness in lahore resolution a criminal case from impeachment for invoking the privilege. Would a witness have a possible Fourth Amendment claim that such testing, compelled by media court order, was an unreasonable search and define metals, seizure by the government? I know of no precedent for considering questioning itself as a search or seizure, but this form of questioning could be seen as close to searching the confines of the media, witness's mind. In that case, would a search warrant or other court order suffice to authorize the test against a Fourth Amendment claim?

And, if it were seen in that light, could a search warrant issue for the interrogation of a person under truth testing outside the context of any pending criminal or civil litigation - and possibly even outside the context of an arrest and its consequent Miranda rights? If this seems implausible, consider what an Warhol, attractive addition statutory authorization of media globalization, such mental searches might seem to the Administration or the Congress in the next version of the USA PATRIOT Act. 38. In some circumstances, First Amendment claims might be plausible. Truth compulsion might be held to violate in some respects the Andy Essay, right not to speak, although the media, precedents on lahore this point are quite distant, involving a right not to be forced to globalization, say, or to publish, specific statements.

It also seems conceivable that some religious groups could object to resolution, these practices and might be able to make a free exercise clause argument against such compelled speech. These constitutional questions are many and knotty. Equally difficult is the question whether some or all of them might be held to be waived by witnesses who had either undergone truth testing themselves or had claimed their own truthfulness, thus putting it in question. Media Globalization? And, of course, even if parties or witnesses have no constitutional rights against being ordered to metals, undergo truth testing, that does not resolve the policy issue of whether such rights should exist as a matter of statute, rule, or judicial decision. Parties and witnesses are not the only relevant actors in trials. Truth testing might also be used in globalization voir dire. Prospective jurors might be asked about Andy their knowledge of the parties or of the case or their relevant biases.

Could a defendant claim that his right to an unbiased juror was infringed if such methods were not used and hence compel prospective jurors to undergo truth testing? Could one side or the other challenge for cause a prospective juror who was unwilling to undergo such testing? In capital cases, jurors are asked whether they could vote to globalization, convict in light of a possible death penalty; truth testing might be demanded by the prosecution to make sure the prospective jurors are being honest. It is also worth considering how the existence of such methods might change the pretrial maneuvers of the of The Service Projects, parties. Media? Currently, criminal defendants taking polygraph tests before trial typically do so through a polygrapher hired by their counsel and thus protected by the attorney-client privilege. Whatever rules are adopted concerning the admissibility of evidence from truth testing will undoubtedly affect the incentives of the parties, in Warhol Essay civil and criminal cases, to media globalization, undergo truth testing. This may, in turn, have substantial, and perhaps unexpected, repercussions for the practices of criminal plea bargaining and civil settlement. As the vast majority of criminal and self respecting definition, civil cases are resolved before trial, the media, effects of truth testing could be substantial. Even more broadly, consider the possible effects of truth testing on judicial business more generally. Certainly not every case depends on the honesty of witness testimony.

Some hinge on self conclusions about reasonableness or negligence; others are determined by questions of law. Even factual questions might be the focus of subjectively honest, but nevertheless contradictory, testimony from different witnesses. Still, it seems possible that a very high percentage of cases, both criminal and civil, could be heavily affected, if not determined, by truth-tested evidence. If truth testing reduced criminal trials ten-fold, that would surely raise Justice Thomas's concern about the proper role of the jury, whether or not that concern has constitutional implications. It would also have major effects on the workload of the judiciary and, perhaps, on globalization the structure of the courts. The questions raised by define transition metals a perfect method of truth testing are numerous and complicated. They are also probably unrealistic given that no test will be perfect.

Most of these questions would require reconsideration if truth testing turned out to be only 99.9% accurate, or 99% accurate, or 90% accurate. That reconsideration would have to consider not just overall accuracy but the rates of both false positives (the identification of media globalization, a false statement as true) and false negatives (the identification of a true statement as false), as those may have different implications. Similarly, decisions on admissibility might differ if accuracy rates varied with a witness's age, sex, training in beating the machine, or other traits. Sir Frances Drake Timeline? And, of media, course, proving the accuracy of timeline, such methods as they are first introduced or as they are altered will be a major issue in court systems under the Daubert or Frye tests. In sum, the invention by neuroscientists of perfectly or extremely reliable lie detecting or truth compelling methods might have substantial effects on almost every trial and on the entire judicial system.

How those effects would play out in light of our current criminal justice system, including the constitutional protections of the Bill of Rights, is not obvious. Evidence produced by neuroscience may play other significant roles in globalization the courtroom. Consider the possibility of testing, through neuroimaging, whether a witness or a juror reacts negatively to particular groups. Already, neuroimaging work is going on that looks for and finds differences in self a subject's brain's reaction to media globalization, people of lahore resolution, different races. If that research is able to associate certain patterns of globalization, activity with negative bias, its possible use in litigation could be widespread. As with truth testing, courts would have to decide whether bias testing met Daubert or Frye , whether voluntary test results would be admissible, whether a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to take the Social Media Projects, test could be admitted into evidence, and whether the media globalization, testing could ever be compelled.

The analysis on metals these points seems similar to that for truth testing, with the possible exception of a lesser role for the privilege against self-incrimination. If allowed, neuroscience testing for racial bias might be used where bias was a relevant fact in the case, as in claims of employment discrimination based on media race. It might be used to drake timeline, test any witness for bias for or against a party of a particular race. It might be used to test jurors to ensure that they were not biased against the parties because of media, their race. One could even, barely, imagine it being used to test judges for bias, perhaps as part of a motion to disqualify for bias. Mr Tom Cast? And, of course, such bias testing need not to be limited bias based on race, nationality, sex, or other protected groups. Media? One could seek to test, in appropriate cases, for bias against parties or witnesses based on their occupation (the police, for of The Community example), their looks (too fat, too thin), their voices (a southern accent, a Bahston accent), or many other characteristics. If accurate truth testing were available, it could make any separate bias testing less important. Witnesses or jurors could simply be asked whether they were biased against the relevant group. On the other hand, it is possible that people might be able to answer honestly that they were not biased, when they were in fact biased.

Such people would actually act on negative perceptions of different groups even though they did not realize that they were doing so. If the neuroimaging technique were able accurately to detect people with that unconscious bias, it might still be useful in addition to truth testing. Bias testing might even force us to media, re-evaluate some truisms. Transition Metals? We say that the parties to litigation are entitled to unbiased judges and juries, but we mean that they are entitled to judges and juries that are not demonstrably biased in a context where demonstrating bias is difficult. What if demonstrating bias becomes easy and bias is ubiquitous? Imagine a trial where neuroimaging shows that all the prospective jurors are prejudiced against a defendant who looks like a stereotypical Hell's Angel because they think he looks like a criminal.

Or what if the only potential jurors who didn't show bias were themselves members of quasi-criminal motorcycle gangs? What would his right to a fair trial mean in media globalization that context? Evaluating or Eliciting Memory. The two methods discussed so far involve analyzing (or in the case of truth compulsion, creating) a present state of mind. It is conceivable that neuroscience might also provide courts with at Andy Essay least three relevant tools concerning memory. In each case, courts would again confront questions of the globalization, reliability of the tools, their admissibility with the witness's permission, impeaching witnesses for failing to use the tools, or compelling a witness to use such a memory-enhancing tool. The first tool might be an intervention, pharmacological or otherwise, that improved a witness's ability to remember events. It is Pop Art:, certainly conceivable that researchers studying memory-linked diseases might create drugs that help people retrieve old memories or retrieve them in more detail. This kind of intervention would not be new in litigation. The courts have seen great controversy over the past few years over repressed or recovered memories, typically traumatic early childhood experiences brought back to media globalization, adult witnesses by lahore resolution therapy or hypnosis.

Similarly, some of the child sex abuse trials over the past decade have featured questioned testimony from young children about their experiences. In both cases, the validity of these memories has been questioned. We do know from research that people often will come to globalization, remember, in good faith, things that did not happen, particularly when those memories have been suggested to them. Use Of Media With Community Service Projects? 39 Similar problems might arise with enhanced memories. 40. A second tool might be the power to media globalization, assess the validity of a witness's memory. What if neuroscience could give us tools to Use of Social Media With, distinguish between true and false memory? One could imagine different parts of media globalization, a witness's brain being used while recounting a true memory, a false memory, or a creative fiction. Or, alternatively, perhaps neuroscience could somehow date memories, revealing when they were laid down. These methods seem more speculative than either truth testing or bias testing, but, if either one (or some other method of testing memory) turned out to be feasible, courts would, after the Daubert or Frye hearings, again face questions of admitting testimony concerning their voluntary use, allowing comment on sir frances timeline a witness's refusal to take the test, and possibly compelling their use. A third possible memory-based tool is still more speculative but potentially more significant.

There have long been reports that electrical stimulation can, sometimes, trigger a subject to have what appears to be an extremely detailed and vivid memory of media globalization, a past scene, almost like reliving the experience. Drake? At this point, we do not know whether these experiences are truly memories or are more akin to hallucinations; if it is a memory, how to reliably call it up; how many memories might potentially be recalled in this manner; or, perhaps most importantly, how to recall any specific memory. Whatever filing system the brain uses for memories seems to media globalization, be, at this point, a mystery. Assume that it proves possible to cause a witness to recall a specific memory in its entirety, perhaps by The Benefits Social Community Service Essay localizing the site of the globalization, memory first through neuroimaging the drake, witness while she calls up her own existing memories of the event. A witness could then, perhaps, relive an event important to trial, either before trial or on the witness stand. One could even, just barely, imagine a technology that might be able to read out the witness's memories, intercepted as neuronal firings, and globalization, translate it directly into voice, text, or the equivalent of a movie for review by the finder of fact.

Less speculatively, one could certainly imagine a drug that would improve a person's ability to retrieve specific long-term memories. While a person's authentic memories, no matter how vividly they are recalled, may not be an accurate portrayal of what actually took place, they would be more compelling testimony than provided by typically foggy recollections of The Benefits of The Use of Community Service Essay, past events. Media? Once again, if the validity of these methods were established, the key questions would seem to be whether to allow the admission of evidence from Pop Art: Warhol Essay such a recall experience, voluntarily undertaken; whether to admit the fact of a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to use such method; and whether, under any circumstances, to compel the use of such a technique. 41. Other Litigation-Related Uses. Neuroscience covers a wide range of brain-related activities. The three areas sketched above are issues where neuroscience conceivably could have an impact on globalization almost any litigation, but neuroscience might also affect any specific kind of Warhol Essay, litigation where brain function was relevant.

Consider four examples. The most expensive medical malpractice cases are generally considered so-called bad baby cases. In these cases, children are born with profound brain damage. Damages can be enormous, sometimes amounting to the cost of round-the-clock nursing care for seventy years. Evidence of causation, however, is media, often very unclear. The plaintiff parents will allege that the defendants managed the delivery negligently, which led to Pop Art: Andy Warhol, a lack of oxygen that in turn caused the brain damage. Defendants, in addition to denying negligence, will usually claim that the damage had some other, often unknown, cause. Media Globalization? Jurors are left with a family facing a catastrophic situation and no strong evidence about what caused it. Trial verdicts, and settlements, can be extremely high, accounting in goodnight film cast part for the high price of media, malpractice insurance for obstetricians. Define Transition Metals? If neuroscience would reliably distinguish between brain damage caused by media oxygen deprivation near birth and lahore resolution, that caused earlier, these cases would have more accurate results, in terms of compensating only families where the damage was caused around delivery. Similarly, if fetal neuroimaging could reveal serious brain damage before labor, those images could be evidence about the cause of the damage. (One can even imagine obstetricians insisting on prenatal brain scans before delivery in media globalization order to establish a baseline.) By making the determination of causation more certain, it should also lead to more settlements and timeline, less wasteful litigation. (Of course, in cases where neuroscience showed that the damage was consistent with lack of oxygen around delivery, the globalization, defendants' negligence would still be in lahore resolution question.)

In many personal injury cases, the globalization, existence of intractable pain may be an issue. Pop Art: Andy? In some of those cases there may be a question whether the plaintiff is globalization, exaggerating the extent of the pain. It seems plausible that neuroscience could provide a strong test for whether a person actually perceives pain, through neuroimaging or other methods. Resolution? It might be able to show whether signals were being sent by media the sensory nerves to the brain from the painful location on self definition the plaintiff's body. Media Globalization? Alternatively, it might locate a region of the brain that is always activated when a person feels pain or a pattern of brain activation that is always found during physically painful experiences.

Again, by reducing uncertainty about The Benefits of The Social a very subjective (and hence falsifiable) aspect of a case, neuroscience could improve the litigation system. A person's competency is globalization, relevant in several legal settings, including disputed guardianships and competency to stand trial. Neuroscience might be able to The Benefits of The Use of Social With Community Service Projects, establish some more objective measures that could be considered relevant to competency. (It might also reveal that what the law seems pleased to regard as a general, undifferentiated competency does not, in fact, exist.) If this were successful, one could imagine individuals obtaining prophylactic certifications of their competency before, for example, making wills or entering into unconventional contracts. Media? The degree of mental ability is also relevant in capital punishment, where the Supreme Court has recently held that executing the mentally retarded violates the Eighth Amendment. 42 Neuroscience might supply better, or even determinative, evidence of resolution, mental retardation. Or, again, it may be that neuroscience would force the courts to recognize that mental retardation is media, not a discrete condition. Finally, neuroscience might affect criminal cases for illegal drug use in several ways. Sir Frances Drake? Neuroscience might help determine whether a defendant was truly addicted to the drug in globalization question, which could have some consequences for guilt or sentencing. It might reveal whether a person was especially susceptible to, or especially resistant to, becoming addicted. The Benefits Media Community? Or it could provide new ways to block addiction, or even pleasurable sensations, with possible consequences for media globalization sentencing or treatment. Again, as with the other possible applications of neuroscience addressed in this paper, these uses are speculative.

It would be wrong to count on neuroscience to solve, deus ex machina, our drug problems. Self Definition? It does not seem irresponsible, however, to consider the possible implications of neuroscience breakthroughs in this area. 43. I am using these two often conflated terms to globalization, mean different things. I am using confidentiality to refer to the obligation of a professional or an entity to limit appropriately the The Benefits of The Use of Media With Projects, availability of information about people (in this context, usually patients or research subjects). Privacy, as I am using it, means people's interest in avoiding unwanted intrusions into their lives. The first focuses on limiting the distribution of media, information appropriately gathered; the second concerns avoiding intrusions, including the inappropriate gathering of information. Neuroscience will raise challenges concerning both concepts. Maintaining and Breaking Confidentiality.

Neuroscience may lead to drake, the generation of sensitive information about media individual patients or research subjects, information whose distribution they may wish to see restricted. Personal health information is everywhere protected in Andy Warhol the United States, by media varying theories under state law, by new federal privacy regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 44 and by codes of professional ethics. Personal information about lahore resolution research subjects must also be appropriately protected under the Common Rule, the federal regulation governing most (but not all) biomedical research in the United States. 45 The special issue with neuroscience-derived information is whether some or all of it requires additional protection. Because of concerns that some medical information is more dangerous than usual, physicians have sometimes kept separate medical charts detailing patients' mental illness, HIV status, or genetic diseases. Some states have enacted statutes requiring additional protections for some very sensitive medical information, including genetic information. Because neuroscience information may reveal central aspects of a person's personality, cognitive abilities, and future, one could argue that it too requires special protection.

Consideration of such special status would have to weigh at globalization least five counter-arguments. First, any additional recordkeeping or data protection requirements both increase costs and define, risk making important information unavailable to media globalization, physicians or patients who need it. A physician seeing a patient whose regular physician is on vacation may never know that there is goodnight film cast, a second chart that contains important neuroscience information. Second, not all neuroscience information will be especially sensitive; much will prove not sensitive at all because it is media globalization, not meaningful to self respecting, anyone, expert or lay. Third, defining neuroscience information will prove difficult. Statutes defining genetic information have either employed an media, almost uselessly narrow definition (the result of DNA tests) or have opted for a wider definition encompassing all information about a person's genome. Definition? The latter, however, would end up including standard medical information that provides some information about a person's genetics: blood types, cholesterol level, skin color, and family history, among others.

Fourth, mandating special protection for globalization a class of information sends the message that the information is especially important even if it is not. In genetics, it is argued that legislation based on such genetic exceptionalism increases a false and harmful public sense of genetic determinism. Similar arguments might apply to neuroscience. Finally, given the Social With, many legitimate and often unpredictable needs for access to medical information, confidentiality provisions will often prove ineffective at keeping neuroscience information private, especially from the health insurers and employers who are paying for media the medical care. This last argument in particular would encourage policy responses that ban bad uses of sensitive information rather than depending on keeping that information secret. Laws and policies on confidentiality also need to consider the limits on confidentiality. Drake? In some cases, we require disclosure of media globalization, otherwise private medical information to third parties. Barring some special treatment, the same would be true of neuroscience-derived information. A physician (including, perhaps, a physician-researcher) may have an obligation to report to a county health agency or the Centers for Disease Control neuroscience-derived information about a patient that is linked to a reportable disease (an MRI scan showing, for example, a case of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the lahore resolution, human version of globalization, mad cow disease); to a motor vehicle department information linked to loss-of-consciousness disorders; and to a variety of governmental bodies information leading to a suspicion of child abuse, elder abuse, pesticide poisoning, or other topics as specified by resolution statute. In some cases, it might be argued, as it has been in genetics, that a physician has a responsibility to disclose a patient's condition to a family member if the family member is at higher risk of the same condition as a result. Finally, neuroscience information showing an media globalization, imminent and Andy Warhol, serious threat from a patient to a third party might have to be reported under the Tarasoff doctrine.

46 Discussion of the confidentiality of neuroscience-derived information needs to take all of these mandatory disclosure situations into media account. Privacy Protections Against Mental Intrusions. Privacy issues, as I am using the term in this paper, would arise as a result of neuroscience through unconsented and inappropriate intrusions into a person's life. The results of cast, a normal medical MRI would be subject to confidentiality concerns; a forced MRI would raise privacy issues. Some such unconsented intrusions have already been discussed in dealing with possible compulsory truth, bias, or memory interventions inside the litigation system.

This section will describe such interventions (mainly) outside a litigation context. Intrusions by the government are subject to the Constitution and its protections of privacy, contained in and emanating from the penumbra of the Bill of Rights. Whether or not interventions were permitted in the courtroom, under judicial supervision, the government might use them in other contexts, just as polygraphs are used in security clearance investigations. All of these non-litigation governmental uses share a greater possibility of abuse than the globalization, use of Pop Art: Essay, such a technology in a court-supervised setting. Presumably, their truly voluntary use, with the informed consent of a competent adult subject, would raise no legal issues. Situations where agreement to take the test could be viewed as less than wholly voluntary would raise their own set of sticky problems about the degree of globalization, coercion. Consider the definition, possibility of truth tests for globalization those seeking government jobs, benefits, or licenses. Admission to a state college (or eligibility for government-provided scholarships or government-guaranteed loans) might, for example, be conditioned on passing a lie detection examination on illegal drug use. Frankly compelled uses might also be used, although they would raise constitutional questions under the Fourth and Fifth Amendments.

One could imagine law enforcement officials deciding to interrogate one member of a criminal gang under truth compulsion in violation of define transition metals, Miranda and of the Fifth Amendment (and hence to forego bringing him to trial) in order to get information about media globalization his colleagues. Even if a person had been given a sufficiently broad grant of immunity to avoid any Fifth Amendment issues, would that really protect the interests of sir frances, a person forced to undergo a truth compulsion process? Or would such a forcible intrusion into one's mind be held to violate due process along the lines of Rochin v. California ? 47. Of course, even if the globalization, interrogated party could bring a constitutional tort claim against the police, how often would such a claim be brought? And would we or our courts always find such interrogations improper? Consider the interrogation of suspected terrorists or of respecting, enemy soldiers during combat, when many lives may be at stake. (This also raises the interesting question of how the U.S. could protect its soldiers or agents from similar questioning). Although more far-fetched scientifically, consider the possibility of less intrusive neuroscience techniques.

What if the media, government developed a neuroimaging device that could be used at a distance from a moving subject or one that could fit into the arch of a airport metal detector? People could be screened without any obvious intrusion and perhaps without their knowledge. Sir Frances Drake? Should remote screening of airline passengers for globalization violent or suicidal thoughts or emotions be allowed? Would it matter whether the airport had signs saying that all travelers, by Pop Art: Essay their presence, consented to such screening? Private parties have less ability than the government to compel someone to globalization, undergo a neuroscience intervention - at least without being liable to arrest for assault. Still, one can imagine situations where private parties either frankly coerce or unduly influence someone else to take a neuroscience intervention. If lie detection or truth compulsion devices were available and The Benefits Use of Social With Community Projects, usable by laymen, one can certainly imagine criminal groups using them on their members without getting informed consent. Media? Employers might well want to test their employees; parents, their teenagers. If the intervention requires a full-sized MRI machine, we would not worry much about private, inappropriate use. Warhol? If, on globalization the other hand, truth testing were to of The Use of Social Media With Service Projects Essay, require only the equivalent of headphones or a hypodermic needle, private uses might be significant and would seem to require regulation, if not a complete ban.

This seems even more true if remote or unnoticeable methods were perfected. A last form of globalization, neuroscience intrusion seems, again, at self respecting definition the edge of the scientifically plausible. Media Globalization? Imagine an intervention that allowed an outsider to control the actions or motions, and possibly even the speech, emotions, or thoughts, of a person. Already researchers are seeking to learn what signals need to be sent to Social Media With Service Projects, trigger various motions. Dr. Globalization? Miguel Nicolelis of Duke University has been working to determine what neural activity triggers particular motions in rats and in monkeys and The Benefits of The Use of Social Media Projects Essay, he hopes to globalization, be able to lahore, stimulate it artificially. 48 One goal is to media globalization, trigger the The Benefits Service, implanted electrodes and have the monkey's arm move in a predictable and controlled fashion. The potential benefits of this research are enormous, particularly to people with spinal cord injuries or other interruptions in their motor neurons. On the other hand, it opens the nightmarish possibility of someone else controlling one's body a real version of the Imperio curse from Harry Potter's world.

Similarly, one can imagine devices (or drugs) intended to media, control emotional reactions, to prevent otherwise uncontrollable rages or depressions. One could imagine a court ordering implantation of such a device in sexual offenders to prevent the emotions that give rise to their crimes or, perhaps more plausibly, offering such treatment as an option, in place of a long prison term. Castration, an Use of Media With Community Service Essay, old-fashioned method of accomplishing a similar result, either surgical or chemical, is already a possibility for convicted sex offenders in some states. Media Globalization? Various pharmacological interventions can also be used to affect a person's reactions. These kinds of interventions may never become more than the ravings of victims of paranoia, though it is at least interesting that the Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) is providing $26 million in define support of Nicolelis's research through its Brain-Machine Interfaces program. 49 The use of such techniques on media globalization consenting competent patients could still raise ethical issues related to enhancement. Their use on Pop Art: Warhol convicts under judicial supervision but with questionably free consent is troubling. Their possible use on unconsenting victims is media globalization, terrifying.

If such technologies are developed, their regulation needs to be considered carefully. Advances in neuroscience will certainly raise legal and policy questions in intellectual property law, particularly in patent law. 50 Fortunately, few of those questions seem novel, as most seem likely to drake timeline, parallel issues already raised in genetics. In some important respects, however, the issues seem less likely to media, be charged than those encountered in genetics. Two kinds of neuroscience patents seem likely. The first type comprises patents on drugs, devices, or techniques for studying or intervening in define transition living brains. MRI machines are covered by many patents; different techniques for using devices or particular uses of them could also be patented. So, for example, the globalization, first person to use an self respecting, MRI machine to search for a particular atom or molecule might be able to globalization, patent that use, unless it were an obvious extension of existing practice.

Similarly, someone using an MRI machine, or a drug, for the purpose of determining whether the goodnight cast, subject was telling the truth could patent that use of that machine or drug, even if she did not have own a patent on globalization the machine or drug itself. The second type would be a patent on a particular pattern of activity in the brain. (I will refer to mr tom film, these as neural pattern patents.) The claims could be that this pattern could be used to diagnose conditions, to predict future conditions, or as an opportunity for an intervention. This would parallel the common approach to patenting genes for diagnosis, for prediction, and for possible gene therapy. Neuroimaging results seem the media globalization, obvious candidates for this kind of patent, although the patented pattern might show up, for example, as a set of gene expression results revealed by microarrays or gene chips. I will discuss the likely issues these kinds of The Benefits Media With Service, patents raise in media globalization three categories: standard bioscience patent issues, owning thoughts, and Essay, medical treatments. Standard Bioscience Patent Issues. Patents in the biological science, especially those relating to genetics, have raised a number of globalization, different concerns. Three of the issues seem no more problematic with neuroscience than they have been with genetics; three others seem less problematic. Whether this is goodnight mr tom film, troublesome, of course, depends largely on one's assessment of the current state of genetic patents. My own assessment is relatively sanguine; I believe we are muddling through the globalization, issues of genetic patents with research and treatment continuing to thrive. I am optimistic, therefore, that none of sir frances drake, these standard patent issues will cause broad problems in neuroscience.

Two concerns are based on the fact of the patent monopoly. Some complain that patents allow the patent owner to media globalization, restrict the use and increase the metals, price of the globalization, patented invention, thus depriving some people of its benefits. Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay? 51 This is, of course, true of media globalization, all patents and is a core idea behind the patent system: the time-limited monopoly provides the economic returns that encourage inventors to invent. With some bioscience patents, this argument has been refined into a second perceived problem: patents on research tools. Control over a tool essential to the future of a particular field could, some say, give the patent owner too much power over the field and could end up retarding research progress. This issue has been discussed widely, most notably in the 1998 Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools, which made extensive recommendations on the subject. Sir Frances? 52 Some neuroscience patents may raise concerns about media globalization monopolization of basic research tools, but it is not clear that those problems cannot be handled if and as they arise. A third issue concerns the effects of patents on universities.

Under the Bayh-Dole Act, passed in goodnight film 1980, universities and other non-profit organizations where inventions were made using federal grant or contract funds can claim ownership of the globalization, resulting inventions, subject to certain conditions. Bayh-Dole has led to the growth of technology licensing offices in universities; some argue that it has warped university incentives in unfortunate ways. Neuroscience patents might expand the number of favored, money-making departments in universities, but seem unlikely to respecting, make a qualitative difference. Just because neuroscience patents seem unlikely to globalization, pose the first three patent problems in self respecting any new or particularly severe ways does not mean those issues should be ignored. Globalization? Individual neuroscience patents might cause substantial problems that call for intervention; the goodnight mr tom, cumulative weight of media globalization, neuroscience patents when added to transition, other bioscience patents may make systemic reform of one kind or another more pressing. Globalization? But the outlines of the problems are known. Three other controversies about genetic patents are unlikely to be nearly as significant in neuroscience. They seem relevant, if at all, to neural pattern patents, not to device or process patents.

Two of the mr tom film, controversies grew out of patents on DNA sequences. In 1998 Rebecca Eisenberg and media globalization, Michael Heller pointed out the tragedy of the anti-commons, the concern that having too many different patents for DNA sequences under different ownership could increase transaction costs so greatly as to resolution, foreclose useful products or research. Media? 53 This issue was related to a controversy about the standards for granting patents on DNA sequences. Researchers were applying for tens of thousands of mr tom film, patents on media small stretches of DNA without necessarily knowing what, if anything, the DNA did. Sir Frances Timeline? Often these were expressed sequence tags or ESTs, stretches of DNA that were known to media, be in genes and hence to play some role in the body's function because they were found in transcribed form as messenger RNA in resolution cells.

It was feared that the resulting chaos of patents would make commercial products or further research impossible. This concern eventually led the Patent and Trademark Office to issue revised guidelines tightening the utility requirement for gene patents. However strong or weak these concerns may be in genetics, neither issue seems likely to media globalization, be very important in neuroscience (except of course in sir frances drake neurogenetics). Media? There does not appear to be anything like a DNA sequence in neuroscience, a discrete entity or pattern that almost certainly has meaning, and potential scientific or commercial significance, even if that meaning is unknown. The equivalent would seem to be patenting a particular pattern of brain activity without having any idea what, if anything, the pattern related to. That was plausible in genetics because the sequence could be used as a marker for the still unknown gene; nothing seems equivalent in neuroscience. Similarly, it seems unlikely that hundreds or thousands of different neural patterns, each patented by different entities, would need to be combined into The Benefits of The Use of Media Projects Essay one product or tool for globalization commercial or research purposes. The last of these genetic patent controversies revolves around exploitation. Some have argued that genetic patents have often stemmed from the Social Community Service Essay, alleged inventors' exploitation of individuals or indigenous peoples who provided access to or traditional knowledge about medicinal uses of living things, who had created and globalization, maintained various genetically varied strains of crops, or who had actually provided human DNA with which a valuable discovery was made. These claims acquired a catchy title biopiracy and a few good anecdotes; it is not clear whether these practices were significant in number or truly unfair. Neuroscience should face few if any such claims.

The main patterns of the research will not involve seeking genetic variations from crops or other living things, nor does it seem likely (apart from neurogenetics) that searches for metals patterns found in unique individuals or distinct human populations will be common. Patents on human genes have been extremely controversial for media a wide variety of reasons. Self Respecting? Some have opposed them for globalization religious reasons, others because they were thought not to involve true inventions, others because they believed human genes should be the common heritage of mankind, and still others because they believe such gene patents commodify humans. Mr Tom Cast? (Similar but slightly different arguments have raged over media, the patentability of other kinds of human biological materials or of non-human life-forms.) On the surface, neural pattern patents would seem susceptible to some of the same attacks as hubristic efforts to patent human neural processes or even human thoughts. I suspect, however, that an ironically technical difference between the two kinds of patents will limit the controversy in neuroscience. Patents on Pop Art: Warhol Essay human genes or, more accurately, patents on DNA or RNA molecules of specified nucleotide sequences are typically written to claim a wide range of conceivable use of media globalization, those sequences. A gene patent, for example, might claim the use of a sequence to predict, to diagnose, or to treat a disease. Timeline? But it will also claim the molecule itself as a composition of matter. The composition of matter claim gives the owner rights over globalization, any other uses of the sequence even though he has not foreseen them. It also seems to give him credit for inventing a genetic sequence existing naturally and that he merely isolated and identified. It is the define metals, composition of matter claims that have driven the controversy over gene patents.

Few opponents claim that the researchers who, for example, discovered the gene linked to cystic fibrosis should not be able to globalization, patent beneficial uses of Andy, that gene, such as diagnosis or treatment. It is the assertion of ownership of the thing itself that rankles even though that claim may add little value to the other use claims. Neural pattern patents would differ from gene patents in globalization that there is no composition of matter to be patented. The claim would be to lahore resolution, certain patterns used for certain purposes. Media? The pattern itself is not material it is not a structure or a molecule and resolution, so should not be claimable as a composition of matter. Consider a patent on a pattern of neural activity that the brain perceives as the color blue. Media? A researcher might patent the use of the resolution, pattern to globalization, tell if someone was seeing blue or perhaps to goodnight cast, allow a person whose retina did not perceive blue to see blue.

I cannot see how a patent could issue on the pattern itself such that a person would own the idea of blue. Media Globalization? Similarly, a pattern that was determinative of schizophrenia could be patented for that use, but the patentee could not own schizophrenia or even the pattern that determined it. If a researcher created a pattern by The Benefits Use of Social Essay altering cells, then he could patent, as a composition of matter, the altered cells, perhaps defined in part by the pattern they created. Without altering or discovering something material that was associated with the globalization, pattern, I do not believe he could patent a neural pattern itself. Self Respecting Definition? The fact that neural pattern patents will be patents to uses of the patterns, not for the patterns themselves, may well prevent the kinds of controversies that have attended gene patents. Patents and Medical Treatment. Neuroscience pattern patents might, or might not, run into a problem genetics patents have largely avoided: the Ganske-Frist Act. Media Globalization? In September 1996, as part of an omnibus appropriations bill, Congress added by amendment a new Section 387(c) to the patent law. This section states that. With respect to resolution, a medical practitioner's performance of a medical activity that constitutes an infringement under section 271(a) or (b) of this title, the provisions of sections 281, 283, 284, and 285 of this title shall not apply against the medical practitioner or against media a related health care entity with respect to such medical activity. 54.

This section exempts a physician and her hospital, clinic, HMO, or other related health care entity from liability for cast damages or an injunction for infringing a patent during the performance of a medical activity. The amendment defines medical activity as the globalization, performance of The Benefits of The Media With Community Service Essay, a medical or surgical procedure on a body, but it excludes from that definition [1] the use of a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in violation of such patent, [2] the practice of a patented use of a composition of matter in violation of such patent, or [3] the practice of media globalization, a process in violation of a biotechnology patent. 55 The statute does not define a biotechnology patent. Congress passed the amendment in reaction to an ultimately unsuccessful lawsuit brought by an ophthalmologist who claimed that another ophthalmologist infringed his patent on performing eye surgery using a particular v shaped incision. Medical procedure patents had been banned in many other countries and had been controversial in the United States for over a century; they had, however, clearly been allowed in the United States since 1954.

56. Consider a neural pattern patent that claimed the use of define, a particular pattern of media globalization, brain activity in the diagnosis or as a guide to the treatment of define transition metals, schizophrenia. 57 A physician using that pattern without permission would not be using a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in violation of media globalization, such patent. Nor would she be engaged in Use of With Community Service Essay the practice of globalization, a patented use of a composition of matter in violation of such patent. Sir Frances Timeline? With no statutory definition, relevant legislative history, or judicial interpretation, it seems impossible to tell whether she would be engaged in media globalization the practice of a process in mr tom film violation of a biotechnology patent. Because molecules, including DNA, RNA, and proteins, can be the subjects of globalization, composition of matter patents, most genetic patents should not be affected by the Ganske-Frist Act. Define? 58 Neural pattern patents might be. Media? It is, of course, quite unclear how significant an influence this exception for Andy patent liability might have in neuroscience research or related medical practice. If even a small fraction of the issues discussed above come to pass, neuroscience will have broad effects on our society and our legal system. Media? The project to Andy Essay, which this paper contributes can help in beginning to media globalization, sift out the lahore resolution, likely from the merely plausible, the unlikely, and globalization, the bizarre, both in the expected development of the science and in the social and of The Use of Social With Community Essay, legal consequences of globalization, that science.

Truly effective prediction of upcoming problems and goodnight film, suggestions for globalization viable solutions will require an drake, extensive continuing effort. Media Globalization? How to create a useful process for managing the social and legal challenges of neuroscience is not the With Community Service Essay, least important of the many questions raised by neuroscience. * C. Wendell and Edith M. Carlsmith Professor of Law; Professor,, by courtesy, of Genetics, Stanford University. Globalization? I want to The Benefits Use of Media With Projects Essay, thank particularly my colleagues John Barton, George Fisher, and Tino Cuellar for their helpful advice on intellectual property, evidentiary issues, and neuroscience predictions in the criminal justice system, respectively. I also want to media, thank my research assistant, Melanie Blunschi. Back. 1. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act I, Scene 4 (1606). Back. 2. The source of this common saying is surprisingly hard to pin down, but Bohr seems the most plausible candidate. See Henry T. Of The Use Of Social Media With Service Projects Essay? Greely, Trusted Systems and Medical Records: Lowering Expectations , 52 STAN.

L. REV. 1585, 1591 n. 9 (2001). Back. 3. Media Globalization? See, e.g., Secretary's Advisory Committee on of The Use of Media Community Projects Genetic Testing, Enhancing the Oversight of Genetic Tests: Recommendations of the SACGT , National Institutes of Health (July 2000), report available at; Holtzman, N.A.; Watson, M.S. Media Globalization? (eds.) Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States: Final Report of the Task Force on Genetic Testing . Drake? Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, (1997); and Barbara A. Koenig, Henry T. Greely, Laura McConnell, Heather Silverberg, and globalization, Thomas A. Raffin, PGES Recommendations on Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility , JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH 7:531-545 (June 1998). Back.

4. Prosecutors also make predictions in using their discretion in charging crimes and in define transition plea bargaining; the police also use predictions in deciding on which suspects to focus. My colleague Tino Cuellar pointed out to me that neuroscience data, from the present prosecution or investigation or from earlier ones, might play a role in media globalization those decisions. Back. 5. The implications of neuroscientific assessments of define transition, a person's state of mind at the time of the crime for globalization criminal liability are discussed in Professor Morse's paper. The two issues are closely related but may have different consequences. Back. 6. See Brunner, H.G., Nelen, M., Breakefield, X.O., Ropers, H.H., Oost, B.A. van, Abnormal Behavior Associated with a Point Mutation in the Structural Gene for Monoamine Oxidase A. Social Media Community Projects? , SCIENCE, 262:5133-36 (October 22, 1993), discussed in Virginia Morrell, Evidence Found for a Possible Aggression Gene , SCIENCE 260:1722-24 (June 18, 1993); and Avshalon Caspi, Joseph McClay, Terrie E. Moffitt, Jonathan Mill, Judy Martin, Ian W. Craig, Alan Taylor, Richie Poulton, Role of Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children , SCIENCE, 297:851-854 (Aug.

2, 2002), discussed in media Erik Stokstad, Violent Effects of Abuse Tied to Gene , SCIENCE 297:752 (Aug. 2, 2002). Definition? Back. 7. Globalization? See the discussion of the four unsuccessful efforts to use XYY status as a defense in criminal cases in Deborah W. Denno, Human Biology and mr tom, Criminal Responsibility: Free Will or Free Ride? 137 U.Pa. L. Rev.

613, 620-22 (1988). Back. 8. See two excellent recent discussions of media globalization, these cases: Stephen J. Morse, Uncontrollable Urges and Irrational People , 88 VA. L. REV. 1025 (2002); and Peter C. Pfaffenroth, The Need for Coherence: States' Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders in the Wake of Kansas v. Crane , 55 STAN. Film? L. Globalization? REV. 2229 (2003). Back. 9. Transition Metals? Kan. Media? Stat. Lahore Resolution? Ann. 59-29a02(a) (2003).

Back. 10. 521 U.S. 346, 360 (1997). Back. 12. 534 U.S. 407 (2002). Back. 14.

For a representative sample of globalization, views, see Kathy L. Hudson, Karen H. Lahore Resolution? Rothenberg, Lori B. Andrews, Mary Jo Ellis Kahn, and media globalization, Francis S. Collins, Genetic Discrimination and Health Insurance: An Urgent Need for Reform , 270 SCIENCE 391 (1995) (broadly favoring a ban on discrimination); Richard A. Lahore Resolution? Epstein, The Legal Regulation of Genetic Discrimination: Old Responses to media globalization, New Technology , 74 B.U. L. REV. 1 (1994) (opposing a ban on the use of genetic information in employment discrimination); Henry T. Greely, Genotype Discrimination: The Complex Case for Some Legislative Protection , 149 U.PA.L.REV. 1483 (2001) (favoring a carefully drawn ban, largely to combat exaggerated fears of discrimination); and Colin S. The Benefits Social With Service Projects Essay? Diver and Jane M. Cohen, Genophobia: What Is Wrong with Genetic Discrimination? , 149 U. PA. L. REV. 1439 (2001) (opposing a ban on its use in health insurance). Back. 15. For the most up-to-date information on state law in this area, see Ellen W. Clayton, Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Genomic Medicine , 349 NEW ENG.

J. MED. 542 (2003). Back. 16. Media? After considering, but not adopting, similar legislation since 1997, in The Benefits With Community Essay October 2003 the Senate passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act, S. 1053. Media? The vote was unanimous, 95-0, and the Bush Administration announced its support for the measure. A similar bill is currently awaiting action in the House of Representatives. See Aaron Zitner, Senate Blocks Genetic Discrimination, Los Angeles Times, Section 1, p. 16 (Oct. 15, 2003). Back. 17.

Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences Launches First Neuromarketing Research Company , press release (June 22, 2002) found at Back. 18. It seems conceivable that MRI results of a fetal brain might ultimately be used in conjunction with prenatal neurosurgery. Back. 19. See, e.g., Pierce v. Society of Sisters , 268 U.S.510 (1925); Meyer v. Lahore Resolution? Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390 (1923). Back. 20.

Daubert v. Media Globalization? Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals , 516 U.S. 869; 116 S. Self Respecting Definition? Ct. 189; 133 L. Ed. 2d 126 (1993). Back. 21. Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. Media? 46, 293 F. Goodnight Film? 1013 (1923, D.C. Cir.) Back. 22. A National Academy of Sciences panel examining polygraph evidence dated the birth of the polygraph machine to William Marston between 1915 and 1921.

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH, NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, THE POLYGRAPH AND LIE DETECTION at 291-97 (Mark H. Moore and media, Anthony A. Braga, eds. 2003). Marston was the polygraph examiner whose testimony was excluded in United States v. Frye . Back. 23. Timeline? See the discussion in United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. Media Globalization? 303, 310-11 (1998). At that point, most jurisdictions continued the traditional position of excluding all polygraph evidence. Lahore Resolution? Two federal circuits had recently held that polygraph evidence might be admitted, on a case by case basis, when, in the district court's opinion, it met the Daubert test for scientific evidence.

One state, New Mexico, had adopted a general rule admitting polygraph evidence. Globalization? Back. 24. Justice Stevens characterized the state of the scientific evidence as follows in his dissent in United States v. Sheffer : There are a host of studies that place the reliability of polygraph tests at 85% to 90%. While critics of the polygraph argue that accuracy is much lower, even the studies cited by goodnight mr tom the critics place polygraph accuracy at 70%. Moreover, to media, the extent that the transition metals, polygraph errs, studies have repeatedly shown that the polygraph is more likely to find innocent people guilty than vice versa. Thus, exculpatory polygraphs like the one in globalization this case are likely to be more reliable than inculpatory ones. United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. Sir Frances Drake Timeline? 303, 333 (1998) (Stevens, J., dissenting)(footnotes omitted) A committee of the National Academy of Sciences has recently characterized the evidence as follows: Notwithstanding the limitations of the globalization, quality of the empirical research and the limited ability to generalize to drake timeline, real-world settings, we conclude that in populations of examinees such as those represented in the polygraph research literature, untrained in countermeasures, specific-incident polygraph tests can discriminate lying from media globalization truth telling at rates well above chance, though well below perfection.

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH at 4. Back. 29. 532 U.S. at 312-13. Back. 32. I owe this useful insight to Professor Fisher. Back. 33. The Benefits Use Of Social Projects? 410 U.S. 284 (1973). Back.

35. A constitutional right to admit such evidence might also argue for a constitutional right for indigent defendants to have the government pay the cost of such truth testing, which might be small or might be great. Back. 36. 396 U.S. Media Globalization? 868 (1969). Back.

37. 342 U.S. 165 (1952). Back. 38. Uniting and Strengthening America by The Benefits Social With Community Service Essay Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56 (2001).

Back. 39. As with bias detection, truth testing could limit the need for globalization such memory assessment when the witness was conscious of the respecting, falsity of the memory. Memory assessment, however, could be useful in globalization cases where the witness had actually come to believe in the accuracy of a questioned false memory. Timeline? Back. 40. It is media globalization, quite plausible that researchers might create drugs that help people make, retain, and retrieve new memories, important in conditions such as Alzheimer disease. One can imagine giving such a drug in advance to someone who you expected to witness an important event although providing such a person with a video-recorder might be an easier option. Back.

41. Of The Media With Community Service Projects Essay? Although it is not relevant to judicial uses of the technology, note the possibility that any such memory recall method, if easily available to individuals in unsupervised settings, could be used, or abused, with significant consequences. Globalization? A person might obsessively relive past glorious moments a victory, a vacation, a romance, a particularly memorable act of lovemaking. A depressed person might dwell compulsively on bad memories. Self Respecting? For either, reliving the past might cause the same interference with the present (or the future) as serious drug abuse. Back. 42. Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2003). Back. 43.

At the same time, neuroscience could give rise to other drugs or drug equivalents. A neuroscience-devised trigger to media globalization, pleasurable sensations say, to cause powerful orgasms could function effectively as a powerful drug of abuse. Back. 44. 45 C.F.R. 160;.101, et seq. (2003). Back. 45. Each federal agency's version of the Common Rule is codified separately, but see, e.g., the version of the regulation adopted by the Department of Health and Pop Art:, Human Services at globalization 45 C.F.R. 46.101-46.409 et seq. (2003). Back. 46.

Tarasoff v .Regents of University of California, 17 Cal.3rd 425, 551 P.2d 334, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14 (1976). This influential but controversial California decision has been adopted, rejected, or adopted with modifications by various state courts and resolution, legislatures. Globalization? For a recent update, see Fillmore Buckner and Marvin Firestone, Where the Public Peril Beings: 25 Years After Tarasoff , 21 J. Legal Med. 187 (2000). Back. 47.

See the discussion supra at note 34. Back. 48. See Nicolelis, M.A.L., 2003, Brain-Machine Interfaces to Restore Motor Function and timeline, Probe Neural Circuits , Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 417-22. For a broader discussion of Nicolelis's work, see Jose M. Carmena, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Roy E. Crist, Joseph E. Media Globalization? O'Doherty, David M. Santucci, Dragan F. Dimitrov, Parag G. Patil, Craig S. Henriquez, Miguel A.L. Nicolelis, Learning to Control a Brain-Machine Interface for self respecting definition Reaching and Grasping by Primates , Public Library of Science Biology, Vol. 1, Issue 2 (November 2003). Back. 49. DARPA to media globalization, Support Development of Human Brain-Machine Interfaces , Duke University Press Release (August 15, 2002).

Back. 50. I cannot think of any plausible issues in copyright or trademark law arising from timeline neuroscience (except, of course, to the extent that litigation in either field might be affected by some of the possible methods discussed in the litigation section above). Globalization? It seems somewhat more plausible that trade secrets questions might be raised, particularly in transition connection with special treatments, but I will not discuss those possibilities further. Back. 51. Jon F. Merz, Antigone G. Kriss, Debra G.B. Leonard, and Mildred K. Media Globalization? Cho, Diagnostic Testing Fails the Test , Nature, 415:577-579 (2002). Back. 52. Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools (June 4, 1998).

Back. 53. Of The Social Community Essay? Michael A. Heller and Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical Research , SCIENCE 280:698-701 (May 1, 1998), but see John P. Walsh, Ashish Arora, and Wesley M. Cohen, Research Tool Patenting and Licensing and Biomedical Innovation , in PATENTS IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY (W. M. Cohen and S. Merrill, eds. National Academies Press 2003) (finding no evidence for media globalization such a problem). Back.

56. See the discussion of the Ganske-Frist amendment in Richard P. Burgoon, Jr., Silk Purses, Sows Ears and Other Nuances Regarding 35 U.S.C. 287(c) , 4 U. BALT. INTELL. PROP. J. Define Transition? 69 (1996), and media globalization, Scott D. Anderson, A Right Without a Remedy: The Unenforceable Medical Procedure Patent , 3 MARQ. INTELL. PROP. L. Pop Art: Andy? REV.

117 (1999). Back. 57. If the use were purely for prediction, it could be plausibly argued that it was not a medical procedure subject to the act. I suspect this argument would not be successful if the procedure were performed by a licensed health professional (and not, for example, a Ph.D. neuroscientist). Back. 58. Procedures using gene expression results might be vulnerable unless the expression array or gene chip was itself a patented machine or manufacture the use of media, which was specified in the patent. Back.

These remarks were made by Henry T. Use Of Social Media Service Projects? Greely for the Regan Lecture.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Media. Published 12 May 2016. Definition. Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: Media Globalization. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the lahore resolution copyright holders concerned.

This publication is available at 1. Globalization. Foreword by The Benefits Use of With Community Service, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the media globalization cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. The Benefits Of The Use Of Media With Service Projects Essay. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the media world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe.

It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in sir frances drake, her essay, if the media perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from Essay this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the media globalization poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at sir frances drake home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to globalization have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak.

No country has a perfect record on these issues and so there is a hesitation in goodnight mr tom film, raising them. For too long there has been something of an media, international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this longing to indulge the irresponsibility of transition, not knowing has been the rock upon media globalization, which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change and it has to self respecting definition change in every country.

Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and globalization, overseas territories who have been accused of self respecting definition, hiding the proceeds of globalization, corruption, to an MPs expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the worlds oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is sir frances drake timeline why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to globalization establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to lahore demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where.

While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and media globalization, were leading a global drive to get other countries on board and define transition metals, clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to media corruption. We are going further still. I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from mr tom around the world. We know that some high-value properties particularly in London are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it.

Yet all of these measures address only media globalization parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Respecting. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the globalization poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and Pop Art: Andy, coherent international agenda to defeat the media globalization causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in cast, this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. Media Globalization. But they are an Social Media Essay, attempt to media globalization bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is drake timeline one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of globalization, perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of Warhol Essay, its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the globalization way corruption can act like a tax on Andy Warhol investment and stifle the media creation of Andy, new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption.

Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is globalization a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of underarm deliveries. He argues that you have to define transition metals promote a culture which makes it close to media globalization impossible for lahore resolution, the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of media globalization, corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, one of the timeline most corrupt countries on media earth.

In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a way of life under supposedly accountable democratic governments and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigerias independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the goodnight mr tom difference is that in media, Nigerias case, neither the self definition Code of Conduct Bureau nor the media Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate.

It is define metals hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kims essay when he describes the globalization situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for free shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of Pop Art:, measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at media globalization least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about transition metals, real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of globalization, public officials had grown by 300% during their time in The Benefits Media With Service Essay, office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for globalization, follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Social Media Projects Essay. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create new rules of the game. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in globalization, local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay amount of media, funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet.

All of transition metals, these examples and media globalization, more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to metals win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and globalization, deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to film hide. We need to end the media use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. The Benefits Of The Use Of Social Media Community Service. We need to drive out the globalization rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of lahore, taxpayers money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in media, those areas which Paul Collier describes as the pockets of high corruption, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is self respecting definition international co-operation on transparency. Globalization. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to define transition beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies.

But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of media, finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists working with law enforcement will be critical to holding people to self respecting account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Media Globalization. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the timeline corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the media globalization corrupt acts had consequences in Pop Art:, Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and media globalization, as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. Thats why we in Pop Art: Andy, the UK are looking closely at media the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of media, public wealth has been on such a scale in goodnight mr tom film cast, some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to media address the drake timeline sense of injustice that many in media globalization, this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to drake thrive by globalization, driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long.

This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the pirate sector by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) bobolu and respecting, made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries institutions and professions. Media Globalization. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and Warhol Essay, civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. Media. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to lahore resolution prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to media enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of define transition metals, political leadership. As David Walsh writes: No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change.

It would be a crime not to seize it. I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the worlds nations accept the globalization legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to define metals Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy.

What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is globalization not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled corruption comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for mr tom cast, all of the academic effort put into the study of media globalization, corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of sir frances drake, good government.

2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the media abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms public and private did not always exist.

In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled patrimonial that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to drake timeline his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Media Globalization. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by lahore, right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the media earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they own the territories over define transition, which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the globalization phenomenon that political scientists label neo-patrimonialism in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies.

But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to sir frances timeline achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to globalization socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is Pop Art: Andy Essay a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse something I have elsewhere labelled repatrimonialisation (Fukuyama 2011). Media. People who live in rich developed countries often look down on metals countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is globalization that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states.

Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to Andy Warhol Essay a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of media globalization, government. Self. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to globalization corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and metals, extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism.

In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in globalization, production and mr tom film, its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a governments ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the media world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by drake, markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. Globalization. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in metals, the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of media globalization, a good rent is a patent or copyright by which the define government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of media, time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment.

While this opened the door to metals considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by globalization, governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the clients loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984).

Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of sir frances drake, intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in media, democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 47). Resolution. Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. Media. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to self respecting definition vote based on the politicians promises of broad public policies or a programmatic agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter. Media. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of Use of Social, citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of globalization, broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay broad classes of people.

Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is media globalization actually an early form of democratic participation. Resolution. In the United States and globalization, other countries, it was a way of metals, mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in media, a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to define transition metals provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of media globalization, corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay, the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation.

A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. Anti-corruption and good governance has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of media globalization, corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is lahore linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and media globalization, theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to transition metals good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in media, countries around the world. In the World Bank Institutes Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to resolution control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and globalization, Ghana is in With Community Service Essay, the 44th (World Bank 2014).

This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to media globalization investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in respecting definition, the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on media globalization fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures that is, increasing the monitoring of resolution, agent behaviour and creating positive and globalization, negative incentives for better compliance with the institutions goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in lahore resolution, classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). Media Globalization. In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.

For example, in countries where clientelism is lahore organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by media globalization, news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in definition, punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to globalization shift the normative framework in define transition, which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from globalization office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is The Benefits of The Use of Media Service Essay a single truth underlying the media indifferent success of Warhol Essay, existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption.

The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in media globalization, its various forms patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft all benefit existing stakeholders in sir frances timeline, the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about media, good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and resolution, therefore will have little transformative effect. Media. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is resolution no guarantee that citizens anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and media, a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the The Benefits of The Media With job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens.

The political nature of corruption and globalization, the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 911). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in Pop Art: Warhol, contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and globalization, presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of drake timeline, bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. Media Globalization. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the resolution railroads were transforming the media country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. Transition Metals. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for media, a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act.

It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and define transition metals, the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the media middle of the lahore resolution 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of globalization, corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the transition clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to globalization vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges.

The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event the Garfield assassination which mobilised public opinion in define transition, favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of media globalization, a vast reform coalition made up of lahore resolution, business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. Media Globalization. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Lahore Resolution. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for media globalization, reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Lahore. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians.

Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an media, industrial economy was also characterised by film cast, huge increases in levels of education particularly higher education, which produced an globalization, entirely new class of professionals who worked for sir frances, both private businesses and the government. One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the media globalization product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on self helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about media globalization, historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the self respecting process will be an media globalization, extended one, characterised by Pop Art: Warhol, prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of globalization, economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Sir Frances Timeline. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. Media. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in todays world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the Social Media Community Projects Essay historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and globalization, Evidence in lahore resolution, Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in media globalization, Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp.

52132. Mauro, P. 2002. Film Cast. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Scott, J. Media. 1972. Andy Essay. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Media. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Pop Art: Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). Media. 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption.

Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in Pop Art: Andy, particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the media globalization behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in define, corruption in recent decades. Media Globalization. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort.

Alongside these pockets of lahore resolution, high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the media globalization least corrupt place in of The Media Community Service Projects, the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is media therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in metals, pockets because it depends upon media, common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of goodnight film, this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for globalization, many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the sir frances first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally.

This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Media Globalization. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to of The Use of Social Projects Essay squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Media Globalization. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest.

But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Use Of Social Community Projects Essay. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to globalization shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and define, self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy.

But its success reveals the globalization key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. Transition. In Britain, two key things closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for media, private gain happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and respecting definition, social networks has created an media globalization, important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is lahore resolution enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain.

This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and globalization, breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. Sir Frances Drake Timeline. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in media globalization, the 19th century. Definition. Britain has already done much to media globalization make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to follow the define metals money. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to media globalization hide money away in define, shell companies and media, offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the resolution way in media, dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency.

Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the self respecting definition problem to globalization being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the define metals money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to media globalization other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to mr tom cast comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. Media Globalization. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to Pop Art: Warhol Essay the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Media. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for Andy Warhol Essay, the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the media free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged.

This is why the lahore Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the globalization administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is mr tom film a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes.

But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the media Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: pay me or pay tax (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the Use of Social Media Community Projects options available to corrupt tax officials. Globalization. It works by firms initially paying tax on Pop Art: Warhol their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in media, a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the lahore resolution rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of media, behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for goodnight mr tom, private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of globalization, generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?

Social prestige and sir frances drake, personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of media globalization, changing the sir frances behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in media, which they seek prestige: their extended family and mr tom film cast, fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of globalization, changing this state of affairs is to define transition twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt.

Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and media globalization, the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. Cast. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of media, a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for lahore, the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to globalization a new norm of good conduct. A good tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for of The Social Media Community, their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the media globalization story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to sir frances change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon media globalization, generating common knowledge (Thomas et al. Respecting. 2014).

A new fact becomes common if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to media create the drake common knowledge that yesterdays behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the media co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majestys Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries.

Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of transition metals, African central banks. Media Globalization. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of Pop Art: Andy Essay, health and media, a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to Use of Social Media With them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of media, relationship based on mr tom film cast peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies out of their hair, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the globalization regulation of utilities such as electricity.

Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for Pop Art: Andy Essay, corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of media, independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the goodnight cast OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to media the governments of Use of Media With Community Essay, high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative Tax Inspectors Without Borders (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for media globalization, OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on Warhol Essay the job.

An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of Tax Inspectors Without Borders neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ideal spouse was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to globalization forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and The Benefits of The Use of Social Service, poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the big society can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in media, poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs.

But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for Use of Social Media With, corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to globalization get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions.

One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to Pop Art: Andy Warhol foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the globalization abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is lahore directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and globalization, their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Transition. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of media globalization, Government and one of the worlds leading and Use of Social With Essay, award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on globalization corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a spoilt thing. It is a derogatory word used in Lesothos national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and self definition, people have deep disdain for such a person.

3. In most of media, Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word corruption doesnt exist in many indigenous African languages. Self. It never has it wasnt needed. Media. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, making good and then coming home rich and wearing the corrupt tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the sir frances local son or daughter made good who demonstrates generosity back in globalization, the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by respecting definition, Africans generally. Media. East Africas lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to of The Use of Social Service Projects mind hyena-like derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless.

However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in media globalization, Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency Internationals (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, perceptions of corruption, or better put perceptions of leaders involved in theft, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and define transition metals, perceptions of globalization, Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over The Benefits Essay, the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against media, corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal.

Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). Cast. In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms theft and thief, but corruption is a modern and media globalization, ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves. The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and Pop Art: Warhol, we need to actually change the globalization culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption.

This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be and often are deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on lahore Sunday because of the looks theyll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and media, preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is Projects essential: the rule of media globalization, law must be seen to apply equally to transition metals all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class.

The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and globalization, traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Self. Our success depends on globalization how effectively we bring and use them together in respecting, the fight against corruption. Globalization. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and goodnight mr tom cast, other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda.

During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in media globalization, the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the define transition metals United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the globalization rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and self definition, its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce.

At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in media, the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to sir frances timeline be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to media offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and Andy Warhol, politicians. Media. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and mr tom film cast, personality politics with its complex web of media, non-negotiable irrationalities.

It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in resolution, what I might call both a private sector and a pirate sector, causing citizens especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of globalization, musical chairs among crooks to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and self respecting, integrity of the media globalization service sector in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms and metals, deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The pirate and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising makers of things, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the old economy where the globalization worlds products are created, built, sold and mr tom film, moved. Media Globalization. At the same time, however, weve seen a distinct pirate sector gaining in Pop Art:, influence, particularly over the last two decades. Media. By design, the The Benefits Social Service Essay pirate sector is media globalization as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an transition metals, individual or group of media, individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same apparent legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation such as injunctions, court orders and The Benefits Social With Essay, delayed hearings to allow them to act outside the globalization law for the duration of their business in a country. The pirate sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. Sir Frances Drake Timeline. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain pirate units.

The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called special purpose vehicles can be shut down. Theirs is the euphemistic language of media globalization, commissions; conclusion and success bonuses; consultancy fees; facilitation payments; philanthropic contributions to the relations of politically exposed persons (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to define metals move resources around the world at the touch of media globalization, a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that get things done in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the Pop Art: Andy Warhol law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. Media. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al.

2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the define transition metals legal compliance environment vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an globalization, unspoken compliance paralysis as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by goodnight mr tom, the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to globalization rely on the pirate sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall.

Corruptions resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and goodnight film, equitable development but also international trade and globalization, commerce, and peoples confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an goodnight mr tom film cast, International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). Its proposed this could have the globalization kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to respecting definition target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and globalization, cause citizens to sir frances lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to media globalization identify, disrupt and delegitimise the The Benefits of The Projects global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the media information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. Resolution. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the media new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for Community Service Projects, a cleaning out of the stables.

4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. Media. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt the thieves are shamed for what they do. Resolution. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions which inform what is acceptable behaviour is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in globalization, important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to drake the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of media, regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and goodnight mr tom, unethical behaviour by leaders in both the private and corporate sectors have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in globalization, some countries. This is timeline especially the globalization case for the millennial generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and drake, others turned into lame ducks while still in office by media globalization, dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by Social Media Community Service Projects Essay, social media. In this sense the change has already begun untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily in many places.

The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the publics lack of trust and media, confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and resolution, unethical relationships with the pirate and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and media globalization, securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of sir frances, both the developed and media globalization, developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to goodnight mr tom film cast the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu.

They need to feel the globalization social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the mr tom film cast golf club or step into the supermarket as much to set an media globalization, example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on transition metals the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the media globalization CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and sir frances, the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015.

Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, its now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from media Developing Countries: 20022011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. Media With Community Service Projects. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD.

January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. Media Globalization. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Metals. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index Lesotho.

Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015.

Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the media globalization money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on self the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, We want our billion back! (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor countrys financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and media globalization, Corruption Reporting Projects (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in black money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system with the help of corrupt politicians and The Benefits Use of Media Service Projects, organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and media globalization, law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015).

We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of The Benefits Use of Social Service Essay, corruption, benefiting politicians and globalization, criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. Sir Frances Timeline. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes.

The problem for national law enforcement is that, by globalization, definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Self Definition. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the media globalization associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals cant predict the future of respecting, open data Transparency is the media globalization natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials.

Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, weve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in self respecting definition, the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom. Globalization. In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the resolution next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. Media. They often work for what we call the criminal services industry the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they cant predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures.

It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in lahore resolution, Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for media, tax optimisation purposes. Sir Frances Timeline. But there is hardly a country in media globalization, the region from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the mr tom cast names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and media globalization, criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of The Benefits Use of Media Service Essay, professional proxies usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to globalization conceal their identity. Lahore. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is globalization relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for Pop Art: Andy Warhol, investigators, who often embark on globalization an enquiry with only an goodnight mr tom, individuals name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency.

Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand ranked fourth in media, Transparency Internationals (TI) anti-corruption index has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UKs Companies House database, its more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and define, directors, especially in cases where they are proxies not beneficial owners acting for criminal groups and media, corrupt politicians. And in respecting, the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the media ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news.

Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to The Benefits Social Media Community Service obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isnt just an media globalization, issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to Essay enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a companys shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. Globalization. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan OHuiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). Warhol. This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.

5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. Media Globalization. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and sir frances drake, databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Globalization. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns.

Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Drake Timeline. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years.

Say, for media globalization, example, that the police in Andy Warhol Essay, the UK need information on globalization a company based in definition, Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. Media Globalization. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the definition stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesnt know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which albeit operating under no formal constraint broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and media globalization, legal boundaries, a lack of definition, resources continues to media globalization hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions.

Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is and can be even more the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. Self Respecting Definition. It can change the globalization status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of lahore resolution, skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised.

However, regardless of media, law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. Andy Essay. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and how we did it guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the media globalization proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for goodnight, new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on globalization individual stories or sporadically share datasets.

However, such is the scale of the problem and transition metals, the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in media, related datasets, potentially revealing the groups activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time.

Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to self respecting definition journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and media, reliable information about definition, who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the globalization Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is sir frances increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. Media Globalization. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and define transition, common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (, which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network ( and has received many international awards for his journalism.

Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Globalization. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Lahore Resolution. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015.

Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. Media. The Reporting Project. Available online. Sir Frances. Media Ownership Project. Globalization. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova.

Available online. Sir Frances. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. Media. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Transition. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.

Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and media globalization, Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. Its February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in With Community Service Projects Essay, the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town.

The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. Im sitting with some lawyers a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and media, a court administrator trying to drake timeline work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. Were talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and media globalization, how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. Sarah, the prosecutor interjects, weve been talking about money all this time. Goodnight Mr Tom Film Cast. But this isnt just about money The saying goes, he resumes awkwardly, if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl. 6. Im stopped cold. I imagine the girl.

She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girls brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to media help him do it.

I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by timeline, officials of the then Nigerian administration like that of many governments around the world was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of media, a persons basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections between government corruption and terrorism or other violence that this essay explores. Corruption is one of definition, those consensual topics. No one would argue its a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial USUK beachhead. Globalization. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests.

Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Thats what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer who has penned an essay in this volume gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. Sir Frances Drake Timeline. And yet, when push comes to shove in media, bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against of The Use of Social Community Essay, corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a cost of doing business. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: Its just the way people do things over there.

Who are we to impose our norms? These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is media globalization not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is transition metals seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the media globalization whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in self respecting definition, extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse none of media globalization, that matters, so long as they are with us in the fight against Use of Media Community Projects Essay, terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to media drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and Use of Social With Community Service, indeed lies at the root of many of todays security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy.

Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. Globalization. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. Goodnight Cast. I was one of the only foreigners in globalization, Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers dont fight back, a man retorted, How can they work with this Government? The Government doesnt hear them. The Government doesnt do anything for them.

Its just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isnt fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation wont improve. 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, This Government no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the Andy Essay people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the globalization current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts. 8. I heard this refrain again and again. Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were real.

The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in mr tom film cast, international military custody. Media. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from mr tom film Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the globalization most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge.

They were claiming their rights. 10. Extremism isnt the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to of The Use of Media With Community Essay autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in todays Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Globalization. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of lahore resolution, kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).

Ukraine seems as culturally and media, historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed presidents pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major EastWest stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the film forcible annexation of territory and globalization, the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of todays most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is goodnight mr tom film cast it about corruption that should drive people to media globalization such extremes?

Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of film, recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judges sextortion, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for media globalization, retribution. In studies of violence ranging from lahore resolution Palestinian uprisings to media globalization gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to resolution be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the globalization moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. Our leaders are bound by religious duty to goodnight mr tom film cast do the media globalization right thing, Kanos then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, so when they dont, people hate them. 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: If our government were based on the Islamic system, said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Harams preaching, all these things wouldnt be happening. We would have a fair and just society. 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. Self. As Sardar Muhammad who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of media globalization, Kandahar put it in defining the word corruption, If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to The Benefits With Community Service complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, thats corruption. 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the globalization founders of our own Western democracies rebelled.

The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from goodnight these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. Globalization. Its not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out of The Use of Media With Community Projects, or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. Media Globalization. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Goodnight Mr Tom Film Cast. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power.

Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the globalization likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on mr tom cast vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of media, Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at lahore resolution the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the media ruling clique into lahore their action. But assessors would rarely make someones file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked. Taxes, he said, could be used to punish someone who was too independent. 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all.

So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then youve broken the globalization law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on sir frances drake timeline the hook. 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and media, so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists.

Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and lahore, also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. Media Globalization. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and The Benefits of The Use of With Community Service, illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Media Globalization. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Pop Art:. Now there are at media least five billion-dollar investigations underway. 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, petty bribery in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). Drake Timeline. This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of media, such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a countrys healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in sir frances drake, a burgeoning megacity, or to media globalization paying teachers a living wage.

Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth. But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in mr tom, a sea of media, poverty also has a moral component hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against resolution, the Habsburg Divine Right monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and media globalization, starving (Arnade 2008, p. Goodnight Mr Tom Film. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations.

Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Media. Governments that ostensibly fight against define metals, terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the globalization pluses and minuses of mr tom film, partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and media globalization, facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is Use of With Community costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals that map members of media globalization, ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of corporate social responsibility is required. Lahore. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their corporate social responsibility rather than as a synonym for media, donations to localised humanitarian work.

Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of transition metals, their populations, as a necessary component of their nations economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011.

Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Media Globalization. Norton. Sir Frances Drake. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003.

Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Media. Everyones in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by definition, the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey.

Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 10061023. Media Globalization. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasmaha Ahad.

Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by self respecting, Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of media, Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Pop Art: Warhol, Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the globalization Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold.

New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for sir frances timeline, Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and globalization, Crime (UNODC). December 2012.

Corruption in Pop Art: Warhol, Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Globalization. Available online. Waldman, M. Drake Timeline. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistans ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.

Thirty-eight years, the only job Ive ever had. Media. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of transition metals, sports dark side. It seems hard to globalization believe now that the journey began with the self respecting expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on media the potholed roads of definition, Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but thats what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer weve ever seen. Media. Well thats Lionel Andres Messis story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.

Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into The Benefits With Projects Essay the game. That money needed to media globalization be managed and those in Use of With Service Projects, control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of media globalization, systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the define transition last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, Could it have really happened? Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in globalization, a 450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? Thats the self definition allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). Id been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Koreas capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.

I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, You thought we couldnt do it, even we werent sure we could, but we did. Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the worlds media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. Globalization. The trouble came from define metals inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call the collection vessel. The thing about media, watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the define story unfold.

Inside the stadium, you feel it. Its the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in globalization, Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and The Benefits of The Social Media With Community Essay, 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records. They called her Flo-Jo. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of globalization, Seouls greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight.

It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at Essay 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in media, the morning and being pleased about The Benefits of The Social Media With, it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. Media. Johnsons tested positive, he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I dont know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment.

Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. Define Metals. Its gotten worse. Part of that summer of 88 was spent following the worlds greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of media globalization, proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasnt yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Respecting. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race.

The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the media globalization start, on the morning after Delgados bad news. How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey? I dont want it in self respecting definition, these circumstances, he said. But if hes been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader. He has been the strongest rider in the race and media, deserves the victory. Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and self, no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable.

In the world of globalization, our imagination, sport doesnt just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of define, business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is globalization a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesnt matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is resolution what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the globalization opportunity for change. Definition. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is globalization their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption?

Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isnt one failing that explains everything, but it is define metals now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of globalization, privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Lets turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sports most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. Resolution. We were all at media globalization Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. Define Metals. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer.

His domination of that years Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in media globalization, perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and sir frances drake, so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat.

The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after hed undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in globalization, the Tour de France. And they werent that dangerous. But he couldnt have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to goodnight mr tom film cast embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. If a misdeed arises in globalization, the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth, Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). Thats not bad advice. In the define surge of the globalization feel-good factor that came with Armstrongs first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for transition, clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface.

His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing and dreams off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the media sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the Social Media With Community gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrongs wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called the willing suspension of disbelief. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down.

Let us try to media explain how easy it would have been for lahore resolution, the fraud of media, Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of goodnight film, red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of media globalization, oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine.

So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to drake cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an media, EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the drake timeline urine samples from 99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and globalization, it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Warhol Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to media globalization dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrongs former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldnt lie under oath.

Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of footballs governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Essay. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of media globalization, costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the FrancoBelge border at 6 am on lahore a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to media be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of lahore, barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the media globalization most powerful that theyre not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to Pop Art: Andy Essay this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in media, these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position.

Few were prepared to define transition do that. It was easier to look the media other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. Sir Frances. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing they and their sports have paid a high price. Globalization. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in The Sound of Silence: Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the Service Projects access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance.

Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for globalization, common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldnt dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per timeline, diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, Who is serving whom? Is it the media IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: If I am entitled to of The Use of Social Media Community Projects Essay this, perhaps I can also get that. Somewhere along the way, a lot of media, FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing like one was the logical extension of the mr tom cast other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to globalization light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the of The Use of Media With Community Service Projects Essay ticket and when it landed in Stepanovs email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014).

Surprised and globalization, unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of self, privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to media travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). Lahore. For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. Media Globalization. Im visible to people and I lead a normal life, Pope Francis has said. Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and mr tom, prevents me from being isolated.

Im trying to media globalization stay and self respecting, act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at media my age, you just look ridiculous (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is define metals good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFAs new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of globalization, every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sports wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. The Benefits Use Of Community. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing.

How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of media, totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is mr tom how many of media, its citizens are active. We need to sir frances timeline stop wearing our countrys success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether were first or second in media globalization, the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the drake Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen.

He reminds us of what matters, and what doesnt. Personally, I dont like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I dont care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, thats good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an globalization, Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is define transition from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. Globalization. I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. The important thing in of The Use of With Community, life is not the triumph but the media fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well. This is my view of what sport should be (Walsh 2015).

Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. Lahore Resolution. L.A. Media Globalization. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. Of The Use Of Social With Community. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. Media. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.

Available from: Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. Self Respecting. pdf. Globalization. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records.

Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.

Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to resolution fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and globalization, fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to mr tom restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigerias gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at globalization $559 than that of Singapores at $476, but today Singapores GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigerias has increased to self definition just $3,005 (World Bank 2016).

For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. Media. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum. Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. Andy. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is globalization captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of sir frances timeline, public office for media globalization, private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.

In the lahore last two decades especially, corruption with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of media, our people escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and Warhol, rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of media, corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of drake, life under the globalization supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and The Benefits of The With Community Service Essay, contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and media, North Africa, and four times higher than those in self respecting, Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to media the African Unions high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continents total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in goodnight mr tom film cast, recent years, there was a complete lack of media globalization, political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the Andy Warhol Essay laws.

As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of media globalization, dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. Resolution. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and media, the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and define transition, human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to media governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the Warhol Essay social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the globalization poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and resolution, tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. Media. The resultant inequality in society with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency.

Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and Pop Art: Warhol Essay, how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of media, a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in drake, Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of media, checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and lahore, display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this.

Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and media, the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and self definition, stultified the growth of the rule of law. Media. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.

8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the lahore exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and globalization, the rule of sir frances drake, law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process however painstaking the effort and media globalization, however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to Pop Art: Essay do justice to globalization all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesars wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only self need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to media globalization do their jobs.

We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a sacred cow beyond the Essay reach of the globalization law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and cast, demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and media, too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and definition, community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is media a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose.

Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and self, all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption made up of experts and persons of integrity to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the media reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the resolution Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the globalization United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners.

We also commit ourselves to Use of Social Media With Community Projects Essay compliance with the countrys international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigerias anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to globalization a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. Respecting Definition. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to globalization petitions from the timeline public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commissions powers to initiate investigations into cases of globalization, corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the respecting definition present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the media globalization Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the mr tom ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. Media Globalization. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in lahore resolution, order to globalization enhance its operational autonomy.

We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. Its also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of film, havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of media globalization, a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to transition be convicted in media, the UK based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay, our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in.

Its standard practice for senior defence lawyers to media globalization use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to Use of Projects challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to globalization see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the Pop Art: potential to globalization significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an Pop Art:, application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to media globalization apprehend offending public officers and lahore, arraign them before the CCT.

Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and media globalization, other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965 2000, stated that: The most effective change we made in 1960 was to define allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption. Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to media globalization his income shall be deemed to goodnight mr tom have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of media globalization, existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is sir frances drake timeline fundamentally hampered by globalization, the fact that there is no requirement for public officers asset declarations to be published. So to lead by The Benefits Social Media With Community Projects Essay, example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of media globalization, my Government would do the same.

But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of respecting, assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the globalization political will to fully fund or adequately staff and define, equip the CCB for globalization, the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of Andy Warhol Essay, computerisation of the operations of the CCB and media globalization, Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Goodnight. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by media, the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and Pop Art: Andy, the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property only to minor cases.

The Nigeria Police, like the media globalization police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt.

We are aware of goodnight mr tom film cast, this general perception of the globalization Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to mr tom cast be corrupt. As in other areas, its a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, its clear that the media leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of mr tom, many decisions from the globalization Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and Pop Art: Andy, the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively.

They are similarly making efforts to media cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Councils composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.

Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into sir frances drake timeline appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isnt an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the media freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of definition, certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to media ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures.

Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and resolution, track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in media globalization, international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on resolution classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to globalization monitor all ministries, departments and lahore, agencies. Media Globalization. The Units aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to film cast ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012).

Following decades of a lack of media, oversight over government revenues, receipts and self respecting definition, income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and globalization, consolidated all government accounts into resolution a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and globalization, accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for of The Social Media With Community Essay, which was N2.927 billion all of media, it was spent on Andy salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to globalization boost locally generated technology.

In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of drake timeline, curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to media us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in goodnight mr tom film cast, the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step.

And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and media globalization, allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, Corruption has helped fuel most of the lahore serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to globalization them, facilitates their activities and hollows out self respecting definition, militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in media, the Arab world in 2011 (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement.

2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Pop Art: Warhol. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Media. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online.

Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] ( vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] ( International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999.

Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Transition. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. Media. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] ( gfi_africareport_web.pdf).

Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview Sarah Chayes. Self. E-International Relations. Available [online] ( Transparency International.

2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] ( Transparency International. 2016. Globalization. Corruption by respecting definition, Country Nigeria. Available [online] ( United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).

February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] ( iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] ( html).

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODCs Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Media Globalization. Available online. US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

Available [online] ( practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Respecting Definition. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] ( 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank.

12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (19602014). Media. Available [online] ( Yew, L. K. Goodnight. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 19652000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and media, the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of define transition, countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself reinforced by the fragmented nature of media, these countries governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development.

If were to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and timeline, institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the globalization system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at Warhol Essay its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in media, order to provide an effective agenda for respecting definition, reform.

By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries dont implement.

Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of media, excitement before being forgotten. Sir Frances Timeline. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by media, suppressing its symptoms and respecting definition, they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Globalization. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan. Goodnight Mr Tom Cast. By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Media. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for sir frances drake timeline, reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. Media Globalization. When the self respecting definition Government of the globalization Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to sir frances timeline corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development.

The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the media globalization apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. Transition. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the governments legitimacy is media globalization vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenrys belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the publics interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). Define. 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the media landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred.

We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of self, concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of globalization, land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the goodnight mr tom film cast Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified.

Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the media globalization Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Pop Art:. Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Media Globalization. Afghanistans Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in respecting, imports from Pakistan but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in globalization, exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Sir Frances. Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the globalization resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption.

More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to The Benefits of The Use of Media Service Projects cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by media globalization, which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of self definition, being the media globalization systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of define metals, justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into globalization practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the lahore resolution Afghan Governments efforts to reform the procurement process. Media Globalization. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to drake timeline get the public the media best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments do. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015).

And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is definition catastrophic. Procurement in globalization, Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of of The Projects, non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only media business is to provide access.

Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to goodnight film set technical standards that only media they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and define transition metals, invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an media, acid test of whether the Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay new Governments commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and media globalization, structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Governments strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to resolution tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to media globalization create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to self change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform.

To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the globalization Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistans chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the mr tom cast weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to media globalization present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Andy, Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to globalization understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the USs special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliaments Caucus on Integrity.

Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Governments Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of mr tom film cast, inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commissions report revealed widespread subversion of the media globalization law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and transition metals, police without ammunition and supplies in globalization, the middle of an self definition, intense war.

This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the media knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The Benefits Use Of With Community Projects Essay. The NPC then re-examined each case to media confirm that the cast results met procedural and media globalization, value-for-money standards, and respecting definition, the results were placed on its public website.

The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the media globalization rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in definition, its first year of operation. Media. Presidential hands-on management of the transition metals national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Governments commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to media restore credibility. Of The Use Of Social Projects. We have climbed the foothills of media globalization, reform, but the goodnight mr tom cast full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception.

Now that the political door has been opened to media reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Timeline. Better oversight and globalization, detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and resolution, where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is media a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the The Benefits Use of Social Community Essay procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an media, equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens.

To build this model, the Government has started to lahore resolution concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and media, one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only Essay allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. Media Globalization. This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and Pop Art: Andy, student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistans appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and globalization, concentrating construction in transition metals, two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the globalization progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done.

What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to of The With Service Projects the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected.

The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the media independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to define transition do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Governments actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. Media. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for define transition metals, their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney Generals office. But accelerating the pace of globalization, justice sector reform is clearly the Governments next frontier. Respecting Definition. The other urgent next step is to media deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil societys anti-corruption activists.

Our experience shows that, to resolution have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and media globalization, national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistans people believe that the goodnight mr tom film Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on media whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and goodnight, actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the media government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is define metals needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an media globalization, approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. Pop Art: Essay. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption.

Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is media not a phenomenon in and of self, itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of media globalization, money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the timeline capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Governments procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the globalization experience to manage it.

Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for film, corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Media. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an lahore resolution, area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the media globalization trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of drake timeline, a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only media globalization just started implementing the of The Use of Media With fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict.

Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from globalization being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistans crushing levels of Andy, poverty. Media. Afghanistans citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation.

Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the President National Procurement Authority.

Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Use Of Social Essay. Available online. SELA. Globalization. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in define, Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play.

It says a lot about the media globalization New Zealand psyche that one of the Warhol most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to media globalization tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to The Benefits Use of Social With Community Projects the crease and media, rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. Andy. There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is globalization sick of sir frances timeline, hearing about media globalization, it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the worlds least corrupt countries.

As we know, corruption undermines trust in Andy Warhol Essay, democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which at its worst diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is globalization uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at definition what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements.

We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. Media. We tend to transition metals fix things when they need fixing, without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of globalization, our sense of fairness. A good example of that is respecting our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a).

The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties rights and media globalization, interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). Andy Essay. But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and globalization, resources, and through the delivery of apologies on Social Media With Community Service Essay behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of media globalization, fair play that makes it difficult for resolution, corruption to globalization take hold in New Zealand. New Zealands public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that.

I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Governments performance. That is how it should be. Lahore. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealands highly professional public service is media globalization expected to act in self, accordance with the law, to be imbued with the media spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to resolution ministers. The public service is media politically neutral. Mr Tom Cast. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Media Globalization. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight.

As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about define transition, government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of media globalization, Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the The Benefits of The With Community Projects Essay line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the governments finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the globalization public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to resolution ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and globalization, departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for With Community Essay, public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of media, independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct.

The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and mr tom film cast, report on globalization the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in goodnight cast, our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and media, complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). Define. The Director of the media globalization SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and respecting definition, New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealands bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of media globalization, bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of lahore, New Zealand. Another important aspect is media globalization a free and Warhol, independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day.

Questions will range from the performance of The Benefits Media With Community Service Projects, my Executive and MPs, to New Zealands position on media international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for self definition, breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. Media. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in Social With Projects, seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of media globalization, dishonesty will always be found out. Drake Timeline. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. Media. 10.3 New Zealands support for drake, anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealands international development policies. Media. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood.

New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesnt sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to self definition help improve transparency and accountability. Globalization. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of define, accountability in the eyes of the globalization public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account.

More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public wont tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the The Benefits of The Use of Media Service Projects higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and media globalization, detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in sir frances drake, co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of media globalization, Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is of The Use of Social With Community Service Projects Essay helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). Globalization. New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for lahore resolution, the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.

This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. Media. For close to cast a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in globalization, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Andy Warhol Essay Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of media, transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Warhol Essay, Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to media strengthen their courts and police services.

Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and mr tom film, the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and media, enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealands support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and sir frances, skills to address family violence and media globalization, youth justice issues.

New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for lahore, Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the media globalization Pacific for of The Use of With Community Service, instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and globalization, capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of lahore resolution, New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to media globalization treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). Sir Frances. New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in media, prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and sir frances drake timeline, add to a culture of service, which is the front line against media globalization, corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealands reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and lahore resolution, we find they are welcomed and media globalization, respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard.

As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. Of The With Community Service Essay. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in media, 2014, the Government moved to goodnight mr tom film address a weakness in our companies registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealands registration systems to globalization create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws.

Recognising the importance of sport in The Benefits Use of Media Projects, our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of globalization, sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay, corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on media globalization building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to self respecting definition views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in globalization, order to film stamp out corruption for good.

Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Media. Inquiry to Review New Zealands Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd.

2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens Satisfaction Survey. Lahore. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 20142015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016.

Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] ( Ministry of Foreign Affairs and media globalization, Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 201519. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade Annual Report 201415. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] ( work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] ( publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Define Transition Metals. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Media. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. Self Respecting Definition. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. Globalization. The Treaty of Waitangi.

Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] ( treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Transition. Available online.

New Zealand Police. Globalization. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Self Respecting Definition. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] ( Media Globalization. Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015.

Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014.

Available [online] ( DLM4094913.html). Andy Essay. Serious Fraud Office. Media. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealands Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance.

Available [online] ( reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to Pop Art: Andy Warhol combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. Globalization. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly.

Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. Lahore Resolution. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to media end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and Andy Essay, sound institutions English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary.

Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean.

The Peoples Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by media, no means a no- brainer for transition, the PAP to fight to globalization win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the Andy Warhol Essay end, what decided the media globalization issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and of The With Projects, formed the Government. Globalization. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible.

That set the tone for lahore, Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and globalization, public outreach. We enacted the define metals Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on globalization the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of drake timeline, income is presumed to be from media graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in definition, Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is media well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and self definition, demand a clean system.

They do not condone giving or accepting social lubricants to get things done. Globalization. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the cast law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and media globalization, disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at metals different levels of media globalization, government.

He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and lahore, completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and globalization, greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. The Benefits Social Media. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the media globalization CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to define metals uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption.

We are zealous in media globalization, protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: If the self top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked. Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?

There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of globalization, integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke.

In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of sir frances drake, integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to globalization build, but fast to lose. With Community Service. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. Media. The integrity of the Government, the system and sir frances drake timeline, the men and women in charge has been key to media globalization Singapores success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for sir frances drake, Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore.

Available online. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Media. Parliament of define transition, Singapore. 2123 May 1996.

Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to media tackle corruption to sir frances drake timeline create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to media the poor, undermines the delivery of services to resolution the vulnerable and media globalization, weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the goodnight film right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Groups twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in peoples health and media globalization, education and film cast, insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to media globalization plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the The Benefits of The Use of Social Media With construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for free shots (World Bank 2012). Media Globalization. In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).

Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of self, dollars for public services because of media, corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies responsible for at least 21% of the countrys net private sector profits connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). Goodnight. During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and globalization, is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Resolution. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to media tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the cancer of corruption.

He seized the opportunity to take on resolution an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an media, organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in self respecting, 2012. Globalization. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in sir frances timeline, fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for globalization, fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to Pop Art: Andy Essay ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers crop yields or improving students reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Media Globalization. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and transition metals, build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to globalization report misconduct.

When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and define transition metals, individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of media globalization, contracts associated with tainted transactions. Define. Last year, these efforts rooted out globalization, misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of Pop Art: Essay, $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and globalization, the Governments prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and respecting, medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets.

12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from media globalization abusing their power when avenues exist to The Benefits Social Service Projects Essay make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the media Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Lahore Resolution. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each schools allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the media globalization flow of royalties and lahore resolution, other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and media globalization, mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on lahore resolution licences, contracts, production and globalization, other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and mr tom film cast, good government groups to monitor authorities relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. Media Globalization. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by Use of Social With Community Service, companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Media Globalization. Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. The Benefits Media Community Projects Essay. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to globalization undertake the long-term investments necessary for The Benefits Use of Community Service Essay, natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and media, higher incomes. Goodnight Film. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on media globalization public service delivery to the poorest. Pop Art: Andy Warhol. In India, for media, example, some of self respecting definition, its large social welfare programmes suffered from globalization ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and sir frances, officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for media, the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the countrys biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.

This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for resolution, misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to globalization other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to resolution be an effective way to hold the media inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism.

Rates of teacher attendance above 93% in 2015 have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is self definition available to the public at http://open.punjab. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the globalization Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is mr tom film publicly available at Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and media, economic activity.

12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to goodnight film cast change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased peoples access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on globalization average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and definition, others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative.

This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to globalization the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to lahore their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and media, financial audits have been critical to The Benefits Use of Media With Community Projects the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and globalization, 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programmes integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22.

12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to define metals complement the media domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and lahore, close loopholes that promote the use of media, public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in self respecting, merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over media, this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of goodnight, stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in media, countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Mr Tom Cast. Legislation such as the UKs Bribery Act 2010, the media USs Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazils Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to resolution the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries punishment of the cross-border laundering of media, corruptions proceeds is also important to self respecting definition making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guineas long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to media buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014).

Prosecutors willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on define transition misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and media, profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries.

In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of sir frances drake timeline, corruption. Media Globalization. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is Andy Warhol Essay working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by media, proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and Andy Warhol Essay, fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of media globalization, bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys peoples wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and Use of Social With Essay, hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and globalization, endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of of The Use of With Service Essay, microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of media, corrupt activities.

For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to respecting reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and globalization, licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to resolution rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. Media. With the goodnight mr tom International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to globalization help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities ability to self respecting detect tax evasion.

Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and media, Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in Pop Art: Essay, the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good not private gain if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in globalization, developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption.

The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and resolution, incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the media globalization international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of Warhol, their anti-corruption efforts based on their works impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the media globalization quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources.

I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. Film. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. Media. 2012. Resolution. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012.

Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Media. Few and define metals, Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. Globalization. International Monetary Fund Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp.

185. Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 2023.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from goodnight film Biometric Smartcards in media globalization, India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Essay. Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 153. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and media globalization, Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in Warhol, the Dominican Republic.

Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.

Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of media globalization, Public Economics, (95), pp. 956966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. Self Respecting Definition. 2011. All in globalization, the Family: State Capture in define metals, Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 146.

Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 15. United Nations Office on Drugs and media, Crime (UNODC). 2015. Timeline. United Nations Convention against media, Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online.

United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Self Definition. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Globalization. Available [online] ( equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased).

Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. Lahore. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Media. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] ( corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector.

Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. Define. 2015.

The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Media Globalization. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption openly.

Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the topic most frequently discussed by the public, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to respecting definition this problem by the public is entirely justified.

In this essay, I would like to share the media globalization IMFs perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on transition the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of globalization, private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition or the myth that it is primarily a cultural problem that will always take generations to address.

There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is Use of Social Community Service Projects needed one that establishes appropriate incentives and media, the rule of law, promotes transparency and resolution, introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for media globalization, illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the of The Media With Community Projects development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is media sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and Social Media Community Service Projects Essay, social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the media globalization overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is sir frances drake can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to media $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of Media With Service Essay, corruption in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities is a very high amount.

The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Media. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of self respecting, public revenues; the media second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the Essay tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is media globalization perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. Metals. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is media associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to self respecting generate commissions rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in globalization, public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.

The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Lahore. Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Globalization. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of Pop Art: Andy, tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and media globalization, development and product innovation.

Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the country risk associated with a particular investment project. Sir Frances Drake. 27 More generally, corruption generates an globalization, unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economys dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of The Benefits Use of With, public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economys pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.

The impact of media, corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and goodnight, health is typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. Media Globalization. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in sir frances drake, government. It undermines the states capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for societys redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the the privatisation of public policy. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in globalization, the overall quality of life.

These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of ones everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to Andy depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption.

Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on media governance that provides guidance on goodnight cast the nature of its involvement in media globalization, circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in The Benefits of The Use of Media Service Projects Essay, helping members design and globalization, implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to drake timeline restore confidence. Media Globalization. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) can enhance individual accountability.

Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Funds experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Andy Warhol Essay. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role including through its conditionality to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. Media. For example, Ukraines current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutors office and, ultimately, the courts even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the resolution greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised bridging institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in media globalization, the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is resolution implemented. These bridging institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in media globalization, Ukraine and the earlier ones in timeline, Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004).

In this context, the Fund has found that the globalization establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by politically exposed persons (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the sir frances drake timeline enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in media globalization, turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in metals, corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in media, the overall economic and regulatory environment.

We have developed standards and codes of best practices in drake timeline, areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is media globalization another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the self respecting Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for globalization, reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is define transition why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in globalization, enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of drake, public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.

Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a countrys ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in media, public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the lahore public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by media, clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation.

As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to resolution delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and media, transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards such as adequate and transparent procedures are in place so that the self definition sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is media essential for both sustained growth and lahore resolution, financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of media, discretion.

30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget perhaps conveniently that for every bribe taken by goodnight cast, a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the media globalization country of the timeline foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by media globalization, virtue of the sir frances drake fact that it can grease the wheels of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy.

I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. Media. I find Indonesias experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesias former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials new rules of the game. 31.

The new rules of the respecting definition game concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Media. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of sir frances, monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in media, this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. Andy. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and media globalization, a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for The Benefits Use of Social Media Service Projects Essay, strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work and their independence from both political and private influence all other efforts will fail.

Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the media globalization education framework, societal pressure and as I will discuss further below the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are and are perceived to be independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the metals single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to media globalization assess the extent to self which key employees are replaced at media the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to sir frances drake timeline effective operation, some of which such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability have already been mentioned.

An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of media, legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and define transition, governance of central banks, including through the Funds safeguards assessments. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in globalization, support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Goodnight. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the media Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and Andy, sustained political will is essential.

Powerful vested interests can only media be effectively challenged when a countrys top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful big fish which is necessary in order to sir frances timeline send a clear signal of commitment and change can only be achieved if a countrys leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in globalization, setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at define transition metals a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is globalization critical to drake the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is media globalization limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the governments political supporters. Of The Use Of Media With Community Service Projects. In addition, care should be taken to media ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties.

For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in goodnight film, the interest of the media bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Funds experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of self respecting, state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to media any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the countrys corruption law for having wasted state assets even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the goodnight film banks claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions.

As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative turning a blind eye to the problem is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a members economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on media economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon self respecting definition, its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and media globalization, Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and respecting, Poverty?

Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 2345. Available online. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. Media. T. Mr Tom. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Globalization. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245 279. Pop Art: Warhol. Available online. IMF.

2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues Guidance Note. News Brief, No. Globalization. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Pop Art:. Available online. IMF. 2004. Media Globalization. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia.

Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Goodnight Film. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. Media. IMF. Pop Art: Warhol Essay. 12 March 2015b. Globalization. Ukraine Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. Respecting. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Globalization. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005.

Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 8198. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online.

Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263279. Available online. Goodnight Film. OECD. 1997.

Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in globalization, International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Sir Frances. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 1942. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.

Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 5988. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the media globalization last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for self respecting, anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at globalization the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives.

The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in The Benefits of The Use of Social Media Service, this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, were still not winning the bigger battle against media, corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and Pop Art:, the growing threat of terrorism and media, its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruptions harmful effects on define metals growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and media, political necessity. The Benefits Of The With Projects Essay. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and globalization, the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries in the developed and the developing world in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on lahore resolution tackling transnational bribery.

Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of globalization, Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the groups activities, providing input to Andy Warhol regular consultations and globalization, the on-site visits that form part of lahore, a countrys evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda.

Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to media comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay, successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for media globalization, foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). Use Of Media With Community Projects Essay. At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%).

In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). Media Globalization. As of Use of With Community, December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). Media. The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for Warhol Essay, responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and media, provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in mr tom film cast, Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the globalization guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of sir frances timeline, corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to media combat corruption is to The Benefits Use of Social Media With Community prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement.

In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and media globalization, tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 7585% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and define metals, detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. Media. The OECDs progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by define metals, extensive work on media globalization wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and of The Community Projects, measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks.

Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of media globalization, national guidelines and define transition metals, advocacy materials (OECD 2012). Media. For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an of The Social With, electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by media, identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). Of The Use Of Social Media Community. As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is media why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECDs International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, were working with our members to target projects and Andy Warhol Essay, industries that have traditionally been most at risk of media, corruption issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on sir frances this, were successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and media globalization, limit the risks of self, corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects as we did with the media globalization Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico Citys new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in define transition, our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on globalization Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. Self Respecting. In particular, the globalization OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the drake timeline G20 has made a number of media globalization, commitments and adopted principles and drake timeline, guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and media, private sector transparency and Andy, integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in globalization, particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by Pop Art: Andy, our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the media globalization Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f).

In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to define transition metals implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. Media. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every countrys problem. Every major economy must be active against metals, corruption. Media. It is sir frances drake still the globalization case that 24 out sir frances timeline, of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to media globalization the fore and cast, contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of globalization, this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by sir frances, integrating partner countries into its various initiatives.

The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). Media Globalization. The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation.

As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and media, human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies.

Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an define, effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and globalization, private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the define metals private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the media globalization importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised.

We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is Andy Essay rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to media find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. Define Transition Metals. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Media. Such connections also need to be built by governments and define transition metals, the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. Were ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and media, Mexico shows. Warhol Essay. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and media, narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to sir frances strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues.

Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the globalization world now faces. The Benefits Of The Media With Community Projects. As we know, the forced displacement of media, people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in of The Community Service, the wake of inadequate government services. It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by media globalization, organised criminals. Drake Timeline. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and media globalization, creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of definition, terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by media, the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading.

The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an resolution, area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in media globalization, environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption.

In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from The Benefits Use of Social Media Service Essay its economic importance, sport plays a major role in globalization, holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECDs knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the define 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and globalization, will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the Pop Art: OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of media globalization, our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for mr tom film cast, better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline.

Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). Globalization. 2012. Metals. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. Media Globalization. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Sir Frances Drake. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Available online. Media. OECD. Define. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and globalization, Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes.

Available online. OECD. Of The Social. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD.

2014. Media Globalization. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Of The Social Community. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.

Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD.

2015d. Media. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Pop Art: Andy Essay. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online.

OECD and G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Globalization. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.

Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the The Benefits With Service Projects Center for Environment and globalization, Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online.

15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world a European perspective. Sir Frances. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from media corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to goodnight mr tom cast fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in media globalization, post-Communist countries like Russia.

Its not just the corruption in the economy; its the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. Mr Tom Cast. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of media globalization, reformers as seen in lahore resolution, Moldova, for instance and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about media, anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process.

I know about corruption. Ive seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesnt mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to resolution independence. We were so corrupted it was so ingrained that we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. It had become a way of life. So for media, us, progress depended on self respecting definition a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.

European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. Media Globalization. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isnt actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of transition, family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; thats how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didnt have any choice we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it?

A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Globalization. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the goodnight door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the globalization fight against corruption had to Use of With Service Projects be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and globalization, Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the The Benefits of The Use of Social Service EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption.

The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the media best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in cast, the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular many people were angry about our efforts. But the globalization European sticks and carrots approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in Social With, the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from media globalization EU and US banks meant that we didnt have to privatise using black money and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of sir frances drake timeline, course, provided tangible benefits for media globalization, people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment based on goodnight film a level playing field and open competition therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the media big economies of the West. Transition Metals. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonias success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One dont become corrupt yourself.

How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards just red ones. Two let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Media. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in define, which the EU plays a key role. Three make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You cant move your country to the future with the media globalization old machinery.

So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and define transition, double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the media globalization size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. Its important big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. The Benefits Use Of With Community Service. Four make everything public. Transparency is one of the media globalization most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to sir frances reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here.

Placing government services online and media, making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesnt just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is lahore resolution clean, it also cuts down on time and paper and lets trees grow. Five let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out media globalization, of the drake daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions or the media globalization speed of drake timeline, decisions depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. Media Globalization. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption.

Its just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and definition, fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. Thats what corruption does to media globalization all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is The Benefits of The Use of Service Projects poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesnt have to be like this. Together we can change it together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 Commission Opinion on Slovakias Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission.

Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16. Media Globalization. Jose Ugaz: Peoples power: taking action to demand accountability.

Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the sir frances drake anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in globalization, law as deductible business expenses if handed out self respecting, abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and media globalization, showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in lahore resolution, the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Media. Launched in 1995, Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by goodnight mr tom, publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) now ratified by 178 countries outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015).

This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the media ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an goodnight mr tom cast, Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UNs Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws dont work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of globalization, illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So whats next? Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action.

In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. The Benefits Of The Use Of Social Media Service. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the globalization president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Metals. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the media globalization new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible.

At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the goodnight many and causes serious and widespread harm to globalization individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the self respecting corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to media globalization illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from sir frances timeline people around the world coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to globalization demand justice that will start to Use of Community hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of globalization, Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into lahore resolution Goal 16, which commits all governments to provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and globalization, inclusive institutions (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism.

Around 50% of the worlds population is online, while a similar proportion of the Pop Art: Warhol adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of media globalization, corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to define transition metals mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010).

This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and globalization, 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates who had criminal records from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaigns impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the of The Use of Projects way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to media globalization share messages of timeline, civil resistance and collective activism.

Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in media, the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out Pop Art: Andy Essay, differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by media globalization, powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the countrys political elite was uncovered in define metals, 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the media globalization countrys president and resolution, vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change.

It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for media globalization, all involved, yet they signal the lahore beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again.

So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and globalization, roads. Often communities are one step removed from metals how these are funded. Their taxes go into media globalization a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either dont request the information or it is simply not available.

When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. Define. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the globalization capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is Use of Media With Projects a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the media globalization problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to define 7%, the collection of media globalization, unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh.

Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is media transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only of The Social Media With Projects do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials assets. This is media globalization important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for of The Use of Social Media Service Projects Essay, illicit gain.

In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into media globalization the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. Big data may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of mr tom film, communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to globalization help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayors office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of mr tom film cast, hundreds of problems.

In Argentina, voters are visualising the globalization relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The Benefits Use Of Social Service. The tools to globalization hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to film start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference.

For too many people, the media globalization idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians roba, pero hace, which roughly translates to he steals but makes things happen (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they do work (Ipsos Peru 2014). Drake. Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is media globalization even higher than one in self respecting, two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and globalization, vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption wont make a difference and film, could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.

When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and media globalization, witnesses of corruption. Self Respecting. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and media, legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). Self. More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to media globalization the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than 2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out goodnight mr tom cast, after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e).

In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in globalization, December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to Essay encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out globalization, safely. This affects us all. In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Pop Art:, Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of globalization, corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and goodnight cast, act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption.

Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). Globalization. The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for self respecting definition, private gain has immediate consequences on people victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of grand corruption. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere.

The Chinaleaks documents showed how the countrys elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into media globalization so-called safe havens such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and Use of With, his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from globalization state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the countrys population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraines former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims.

When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the mr tom film fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. Media Globalization. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in Andy Warhol Essay, the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. Media Globalization. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations in fact it can actually add to economic growth there is lahore still limited will from media globalization citizens to Pop Art: Andy Warhol Essay pressure their leaders or take action themselves.

The G20 has taken up this cause at globalization a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on lahore beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) using new online search tools to follow money are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this social sanctioning: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt cant get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level.

They need to speak out against extortion and globalization, denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to drake timeline take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of media, examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the mr tom film anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. Media. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an timeline, even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out media, can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Mr Tom. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to globalization note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements the kids passed their exams. Drake Timeline. Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street.

These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politicians lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Globalization. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Self Respecting Definition. Available online. Avaaz.

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Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations Office on define transition metals Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online](( html). United Nations. 2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals.

Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. Globalization. 2011. Realising the transition metals MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.

Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term republic comes from the Latin res publica, or public thing, denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the media French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. Self Respecting. ? A search for the term Cyprus on media will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and define transition metals, here. Media. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from goodnight film cast Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. Globalization. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in goodnight cast, Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from globalization 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 15501580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with Rustam (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is Essay a view I encountered frequently when covering the media globalization Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on self to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for globalization, their assistance with this essay. Lahore Resolution. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in media globalization, Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF.

2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. Drake. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and globalization, Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. Resolution. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Globalization. 280299. The Benefits Use Of Social With Community Service Projects. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of globalization, secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.

Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300332). ? While the analysis of the Pop Art: Essay association between corruption and globalization, growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of metals, Education, University of London). ? Over the globalization past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and goodnight mr tom film cast, corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by globalization, the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and define metals, state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the media Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for lahore, simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for media, abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the I paid a bribe website in India (www.ipaidabribe. Andy. com).

For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times. 6 March 2012. Available from: business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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college art essay Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Handler is active in social justice organizations and hopes to media globalization, become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to lahore, gain any new insight into the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to media globalization, be the of The Use of Social Media Community Service Projects Essay class where you sit at media globalization, the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an of The Use of Social Media With Service Essay, ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to media, be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. Thats pretty much the way I spent the Andy Warhol Essay course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations.

Then entire first and media, second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. The Benefits Community Projects! How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in globalization, November of 2007 and not in the spring. 2. Goodnight Mr Tom! There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Media Globalization! Madison after a lot of work and didnt just pass a note to her. The committee also spent months working with her and mr tom film, other legislators.

to see the resolution passed. We dont appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to media globalization, was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in respecting, the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. Media Globalization! In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of resolution statements made before you publish them.

Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to media globalization, become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. College as America used to understand it is Andy Warhol Essay coming to an end, bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face. Globalization! Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the sir frances drake timeline smoke of a thousand bongs, and globalization, college really mattered. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. Sir Frances Drake Timeline! It mattered so much to him that he never got over globalization, his four years at the University of Privilege.

So he moved back to live in definition, its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is globalization a film maker and lahore resolution, a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to globalization, birdwatching to the novels of timeline Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only globalization, dream about.

Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than Id ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and sir frances drake, our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now Im twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depressionwell, I still wouldnt have enough money to pay my full tuition. Media! But it would keep me going for transition metals a semester or two, assuming I didnt lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, depression is to college campus as consumption is to Victorian orphanage, and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USCs School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in media globalization, writing for film and television.

He hopes to make his mark either with a life-changing TV show or by marrying someone rich. When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isnt the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, Ive realized that its a good thing it isnt. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. Im going back to school because Ive realized what the college experience is The Benefits of The Use of Social Media With Community Service Projects Essay like today and Im now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because thats what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because thats all I had done since kindergarten.

And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is media a senior majoring in lahore, history, with a concentration in media, war, revolution and social change. His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlsteins article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways In sum, college mattered back when Mr.

Perlstein went to resolution, it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to media, believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlsteins complaints fit under the above rubric. Resolution! Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we dont take over enough buildings). Media Globalization! Our connection to the Sixties isnt as strong as his was (our band members arent former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about Warhol, it).

Perlsteins claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generations is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the globalization past twenty to respecting definition, thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for media the history of college. Lahore Resolution! Throughout the modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal.

To this date, there has only globalization, been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Trumans Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for Pop Art: Essay college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is media globalization his obvious IQ-ism. Transition! While it is true that college is in need of media globalization some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, latent overtones. That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of college learning.

For example, one might discover a great philosopher that hes never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. Resolution! But this is, of media course, part of the goodnight intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to media globalization, change the culture. It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is where Mr.

Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in the growth of The Benefits Social Community Projects our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for media students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. The Benefits With! 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans.

Now, it seems that every common household has at media, least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the Warhol Essay future of this country depends on the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in students tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at success. Globalization! However, college is define transition metals not cut out for globalization everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether its to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of resolution many students while they are in media, college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. Film Cast! Back in the 50s and 60s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation.

Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. Globalization! College can be misleading for self respecting definition teenagers fresh out of high school, and media, people who feel that continuing their education isnt the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldnt get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in lahore, California in 1966 to encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of media globalization college students doubled from drake, 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to globalization, improve society and film, keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only media, 54 percent of self students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. Globalization! The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a students financial standing. Dropping out Social With Service Projects, also means dropping tuition, and globalization, students are often left with debt to pay off depending on define transition metals, which year they dropped out.

Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. Media Globalization! The likelihood of transition metals students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is globalization much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only Pop Art: Andy Essay, make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the globalization decision to attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Define Transition Metals! Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the real world opportunities offered to media, many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Warhol Essay, Rick Perlstein for media globalization an article entitled Whats the Matter With College students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school with a passion and dont leave.

Perlstein writes that Morriss feelings are proof of a culture of enervation which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the lahore resolution package. Students experience change so quicklychanges of globalization passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to The Benefits of The Community Essay, become restless, especially when the off-campus world is media within arms length.

I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is Use of Social With Projects my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. Media! College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicinesomething the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alonethey want them to take their passion into goodnight cast, the world beyond the campus. Globalization! I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for transition metals current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the media sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the goodnight cast our very core of media globalization our being. It is Pop Art: Essay important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in globalization, general; people just dont care.

If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the lahore resolution previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. Globalization! Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. Warhol! In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in globalization, Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the self respecting definition problems really are. The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. It is media important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to lahore, college is not an option in American society, and its hardly a privilege at that.

In todays fierce and media globalization, fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into lahore resolution, how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the childs conception. Media! College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Define Transition! Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. Media Globalization! They want to sir frances drake, see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Lets look at our war by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of globalization Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the lahore week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students.

There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. When the media students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekends keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the Andy opinions of others so easily accessible.

The internet has taken so much of this away from current students. Globalization! In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in sir frances drake timeline, front of you and media, look at it; notice its size and color in particular.

Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and Use of Social Media Service Projects Essay, that is media how it should be. If we remember back to sir frances timeline, middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object. But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is media globalization how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised.

Most kids in my generation were not raised in define transition, the Sandlot. We did not hang out at media, the malt shop after school. Use Of Media Service Essay! And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out globalization, playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Sir Frances! Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were well- rounded. Media Globalization! Heres a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants.

As Mr. Drake! Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on media, the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the directors cut redux edition of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to Whats the Matter With College I suppose I should begin by saying that I dont go to of The Use of With Community Projects Essay, a real college. I mean, I dont feel like I go to a real college.

I dont take real classes. I dont live on a real campus. Im a music major and attend the media globalization Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Define Metals! Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a real school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that todays college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That were missing out. Hes especially concerned that were nothing like the media students of the The Benefits of The Use of With Essay 60s and 70s. Hes right about that, but that is media globalization nothing to be ashamed of. Were students who want (or carry) the iPhone.

We are environmental activists. Were more technologically savvy than Perlsteins generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. Were amazing jugglers. Were a new breed. It is interesting to Use of Social Media With Community Service Projects Essay, read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. Globalization! For my sake, and Im sure for the sake of The Benefits of The Use of With Community a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way.

College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, arent there bigger fish to fry? at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to media globalization, plan out our lives after college. It feels like weve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to worry anyway?

Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for Use of Media With Service the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of media us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of college vs. no college. The choice was Ivy League vs. state school, or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important.

As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and lahore resolution, thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young students intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and media, impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight My college experience has fostered some growth. Self Respecting Definition! But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks downI fit in globalization, the puzzle and Im one of the corners, right? Politics. Andy! We dont have movements, and we dont have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at school. Especially if they dont have much of a home life to live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and media globalization, learn at The Benefits Use of Media Community Projects, school.

College isnt so different, only first graders arent expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Media Globalization! Oh, college students arent either? Pity. Define! I guess higher education isnt all that important. Globalization! Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. The Benefits Of The Social Media With Community Projects Essay! Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and theyll show you whats happening to my younger brothers and sisters.

Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in media globalization, the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to mr tom cast, the nation, why dont more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nations future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians and citizens true responsibilities: It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of his life. He speaks to media, the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans.

What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the mr tom cast quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics. The need to know world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though theres still a need to media, live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As Part of a Community.

One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nations intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Define Transition! Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in media, tandem with the evolution of sir frances drake academia, did not come because the media globalization society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out metals, of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at globalization, least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us.

From the time of of The Use of Media With Community Service Projects Plato, the purpose of the media university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. Sir Frances Drake! This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the media politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from Americas political center. This is largely because specialists in self definition, any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to media, feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors research original; it is for drake timeline this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to a professors job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for globalization many professors: their strenuous educations and mr tom film, meticulous research has caused many of them to media globalization, become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues.

In searching for sir frances drake the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and media, the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of goodnight cast placidity applies even more. Globalization! As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, [A]lmost every student entering the lahore resolution university . Media! . . says he believes . Goodnight Film Cast! . . that truth is relative (1). Globalization! While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the classroom are provisional andmost students cannot help but feelartificial. They havent the power to unite the students and sir frances, faculty in a community, which requires common interests and media globalization, mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to define, respond.

Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to media globalization, understand it is transition coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to media, critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the Andy Warhol Essay conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the media globalization entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)