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madame bovary resume Chapitre 1 / Présentation de Charles Bovary. Un garçon d'une quinzaine d'années entre au Collège de Rouen dans la classe de 5e. Romanticism! Tout en lui, son maintien comme sa mise, est ridicule. Wallace Group! Ce nouveau, Charles Bovary, est un gars de la campagne . Romanticism Writer! Il arrive d'un village aux confins du pays de Caux et de la Normandie où ses parents se sont retirés. The MLB! Son père est un incapable qui n'a su qu'accumuler les échecs. Romanticism! Sa mère, aigrie, cherche à compenser ses déceptions par son amour pour son fils. Zinn! Charles Bovary quitte le collège à la fin de la 3e pour étudier la médecine à Rouen.

Très médiocre étudiant, il réussit cependant à passer l'examen d'officier de santé qui permettait à l'époque d'exercer la médecine sans avoir le titre de docteur en médecine. Romanticism Writer! Il s'installe à Tostes et sa mère lui fait épouser une veuve de quarante-cinq ans, Mme Dubuc, qui est laide mais qui a du bien. The MLB Essay! La vie conjugale paraît être au jeune homme une nouvelle prison. Chapitre 2 / Premières rencontres de Charles et d'Emma Rouault. Une nuit d'hiver, Charles est appelé à la ferme des Bertaux. Romanticism! Le père Rouault, le maître des lieux, un paysan qui paraît assez aisé, vient de se casser la jambe. Wallace Group! L'officier de santé est sensible au charme de Mlle Emma, sa fille. Romanticism Writer! Il multiplie les visites aux Bertaux, jusqu'au jour où son épouse jalouse lui interdit d'y retourner. Nelly! Au début du printemps, le notaire de celle-ci disparaît en emportant ses fonds, la laissant à demiruinée.

Elle meurt brusquement une semaine plus tard. Romanticism! Ainsi s'achève la première expérience conjugale de Charles. Chapitre 3 / La demande en mariage. Peu après, le père Rouault l'invite aux Bertaux, pour le distraire. Murasaki! Il revoit Emma et, durant l'été, prend conscience de son amour pour la jeune fille. Romanticism! À l'époque de la Saint Michel il se décide à la demander en mariage.

La noce est fixée au printemps suivant. Wallace Group! L'hiver sera occupé par les préparatifs. Chapitre 4 / La noce. Description et récit mêlés : l'arrivée des invités, le cortège, la table, le départ des invités, la nuit de noces, le retour à Tostes. Chapitre 5 / Première déception d'Emma. La maison de Charles ; il découvre dans mille petits détails le bonheur près d'Emma.

Mais la jeune femme est loin de faire semblable découverte. Romanticism! La réalité ne correspond pas à ce qu'elle a lu dans ses livres. Chapitre 6 / L'éducation et les rêves de la jeune Emma au couvent. Par un retour en arrière, le chapitre évoque l'influence de la littérature, des images et du couvent sur un tempérament sentimental . Murasaki The Tale Of Genji! Emma à lu Paul et Arginiel, s'est délectée de livres pieux, de romans sentimentaux et historiques, de poèmes romantiques. Writer! Elle a rêvé devant des images pieuses, des assiettes peintes, des gravures anglaises ou exotiques représentant des scènes d'amour.

Chapitre 7 / Les réalités de la vie conjugale. Charles s'émerveille de trouver en Emma une épouse accomplie, sachant aussi bien conduire convenablement son ménage, que dessiner, jouer du piano, recevoir avec élégance Mais il est, pour son compte, totalement dépourvu de mystère et de raffinement, et la jeune femme que l'ennui menace doit se heurter, de plus, à l'hostilité jalouse de sa belle-mère. Zinn A People's! À la fin de septembre, pourtant, un événement vient rompre la monotonie de son existence : les deux époux sont invités à un bal à la Vaubyessard, chez le Marquis d'Andervilliers. Chapitre 8 / Le séjour au château de la Vaubyessard. Description du château ; dîner, bal, souper. Romanticism! Emma, émerveillée, découvre un autre monde. In Business! Le retour à Tostes est silencieux et morose. Romanticism Writer! Dès le lendemain la jeune femme se réfugie dans le souvenir de ce bal. Chapitre 9 / Les rêveries d'Emma. Ce qu'elle vient de vivre offre un nouvel aliment à l'imagination d'Emma. On Communicating! Elle rêve de Paris et se met à lire Balzac et Eugène Sue.

Mais rien ne peut assouvir ses désirs vagues et elle s'irrite de plus en plus de la sottise absolue de son mari. Romanticism Writer! Les saisons se succèdent, l'ennui s'accroît et le caractère de la jeune femme s'altère- Un an wallace group et demi après le bal de la Vaubyessard, on writer lui trouve une maladie nerveuse et Charles, qui est resté quatre ans à Tostes, doit se résoudre à déménager à Yonville pour changer [Emma] d'air . Rcn Leadership! Emma est enceinte quand le ménage quitte Tostes. Chapitre 1 / Yonville-l'Abbaye et ses habitants. La situation d'Yonville. Writer! L'église, les halles et la mairie, la pharmacie, l'auberge du Lion d'Or. Rcn Leadership! Madame Lefrançois, patronne de l'auberge, prépare le dîner : on romanticism attend les Bovary. Rcn Leadership! Monsieur Homais, le pharmacien, est là ; il bavarde inlassablement. Romanticism Writer! Entrent ensuite le percepteur, Binet, et le curé, Bournisien. Zinn A People's History! Enfin, la diligence arrive : les Bovary descendent en même temps que Lheureux, le marchand d'étoffes et de nouveautés.

Chapitre 2 / Un dîner au Lion d'Or. Pendant que le pharmacien et l'officier de santé s'entretiennent de l'exercice de la médecine, Emma engage une conversation romantique avec Léon Dupuis, clerc de notaire et habitué de l'auberge, qui dîne avec eux. Romanticism! Ils se confient leurs goûts communs. Chapitre 3 / Naissance de Berthe ; amitié amoureuse. Emma donne naissance à une fille, qui sera prénommée Berthe. Shikibu Of Genji! Après le baptême, la petite est mise en nourrice, chez Mme Rollet. Writer! MmeTuvache, la femme du maire, trouve qu'Emma se compromet pour être allée voir sa fille au bras de Léon. Chapitre 4 / La vie à Yonville. La vie se poursuit avec une monotone régularité. The MLB Expansion! Emma guette chaque jour le passage de Léon. Writer! Le dimanche, Homais reçoit : on Essay joue au trente-et-un, à l'écarté, aux dominos, Léon et Emma regardent ensemble L'illustration; on writer échange des cadeaux.

Le jeune homme voudrait déclarer sa flamme à Emma. Wallace Group! Sa timidité l'en empêche. Chapitre 5 / Emma découvre l'amour et ses souffrances. En février, une promenade aux environs d'Yonville en compagnie des Homais et de Léon donne l'occasion à Emma d'opposer la platitude de Charles au charme du jeune homme. Romanticism! Elle comprend qu'elle est amoureuse de lui. Dean! C'est le lendemain que survient Lheureux pour lui proposer des écharpes, des cols brodés et autres colifichets. Romanticism Writer! Elle résiste à la tentation et s'efforce par la suite d'être une maîtresse de maison accomplie.

Son calme apparent cache, en fait, une douloureuse lutte intérieure entre des sentiments violents : amour pour Léon, orgueil de rester vertueuse, haine à l'égard de son mari. Chapitre 6 / Emma et le curé. Wallace Group! Départ de Léon. Un soir d'avril, l'angélus rappelle à Emma le souvenir de son couvent. Romanticism Writer! La religion, peut-être, pourrait l'aider : elle se rend à l'église dans le dessein de confier son trouble au curé. Nelly Dean Heights! Mais le dialogue entre elle et lui n'est qu'une suite de malentendus grotesques qui laissent la jeune femme aussi malheureuse qu'avant. Writer! Léon de son côté s'enfonce dans la mélancolie. Wallace Group! Il décide alors de partir pour Paris et vient faire ses adieux à Emma.

Au cours de la soirée qui suit son départ, Homais annonce que des Comices agricoles auront lieu dans l'année à Yonville. Chapitre 7 / Rodolphe Boulanger. Le chagrin d'Emma s'apaise peu à peu mais les mauvais jours de Tostes recommencent. Writer! Elle a des malaises, se passe quelques fantaisies, achète par exemple une écharpe à Lheureux. Essay In Business! Un jour de marché, Rodolphe Boulanger, le nouveau châtelain de la Huchette, entre en contact avec les Bovary à l'occasion d'une saignée à faire à un de ses fermiers. Writer! Il trouve Emma très jolie. History! Célibataire et coureur de jupons invétéré, il décide aussitôt de la séduire.

Chapitre 8 / Les Comices agricoles. À la mi-août, tout le village est en fête pour la solennité des Comices. Romanticism! Rodolphe n'attendait que cette occasion pour faire sa cour à la jeune femme. On Communicating In Business! Il s'arrange pour être seul avec elle et c'est ensemble qu'ils assistent à l'examen des bêtes, à l'arrivée des notables, et que, du premier étage de la mairie, ils entendent les discours officiels, auxquels Rodolphe apporte le contrepoint de ses lieux communs séducteurs. Romanticism! Les discours sont suivis de la distribution des récompenses. Wallace Group! La fête se termine par un feu d'artifice. Romanticism! M. Wallace Group! Homais rendra compte des Comices dans un article du Fanal de Rouen, dont il est le correspondant. Chapitre 9 / La chute d'Emma.

Aux premiers jours d'octobre, Rodolphe rend visite à Emma. Writer! Il joue d'abord la comédie du désespoir, puis de l'amant romantique et, Charles survenant, suggère pour la santé d'Emma l'exercice du cheval. Wallace Group! Sur l'insistance de son mari, la jeune femme part donc un jour pour une promenade à cheval en compagnie de Rodolphe. Romanticism! Yonville dépassé, ils pénètrent dans une forêt. Nelly Wuthering Heights! C'est là qu'Emma s'abandonne à son compagnon. Romanticism! Les rendez-vous des deux amants seront désormais quotidiens. Rcn Leadership! Dans son exaltation, la jeune femme pousse même la hardiesse jusqu'à se rendre de bon matin, et chaque fois qu'elle le peut, au château de Rodolphe. Romanticism! Celui-ci commence à prendre peur. Chapitre 10 / Évolution des sentiments d'Emma. Emma est elle-même gagnée par la crainte car elle rencontre Binet au retour d'une de ses escapades matinales. Expansion Essay! C'est donc sous la tonnelle du jardin des Bovary qu'auront lieu les rendez-vous pendant tout l'hiver.

Mais Rodolphe à la fin se lasse. Writer! Emma elle-même, à l'arrivée du printemps, bien que toujours subjuguée, prend conscience du sentiment douloureux qui l'étreint. Rcn Leadership! Elle rêve à son enfance et dresse le bilan amer de son existence après la lecture d'une lettre naïve et charmante de son père. Romanticism! Il lui prend des accès de tendresse maternelle et elle voudrait revenir à son mari. Chapitre 11 / L'opération du pied-bot. Sur la sollicitation d'Homais et d'Emma, Charles se laisse convaincre d'opérer de son pied-bot Hippolyte, le garçon d'écurie du Lion d'Or. Rcn Leadership! L'opération se déroule bien, et Emma se prend à éprouver quelque tendresse pour son mari. Writer! Malheureusement les complications surviennent vite, la jambe d'Hippolyte se gangrène. Nelly Dean Heights! C'est M. Writer! Canivet, célèbre médecin de Neuchâtel qui doit pratiquer l'amputation de la cuisse. Nelly Dean! La déception est totale pour Mme Bovary. Romanticism Writer! Humiliée d'avoir pu croire encore son mari capable d'être autre chose qu'un médiocre, ses dernières velléités de vie vertueuse disparaissent, elle se détache irrémédiablement de lui et retrouve Rodolphe avec ardeur.

Chapitre 12 / Projets de fuite. Sa passion pour son amant ne fait que croître désormais. Wallace Group! Elle s'engage de plus en plus, donnant prise sur elle à Lheureux par les dettes qu'elle contracte pour offrir des cadeaux à Rodolphe. Romanticism Writer! Celui-ci, incapable de comprendre cet amour, la traite sans façons. Zinn A People's! Il acquiesce pourtant à son projet de fuite ensemble, qui est enfin fixé au début de septembre. Romanticism! Tout est prêt, Lheureux une fois de plus a procuré le nécessaire et les amants se quittent à minuit l'avant-veille du départ. Wallace Group! Mais Rodolphe sait déjà qu'il ne partira pas avec Emma et sa fille. Chapitre 13 / La lettre et le départ de Rodolphe. Rentré chez lui, Rodolphe écrit une lettre à Emma pour justifier sa décision et la lui fait porter le lendemain à deux heures. Romanticism Writer! La jeune femme comprend aux premiers mots et s'enfuit au grenier où, dans un vertige, elle a la tentation du suicide.

Redescendue pour le repas, elle entend passer le tilbury de Rodolphe et perd connaissance. The MLB Expansion Essay! Une fièvre cérébrale la clouera au lit jusqu'au milieu d'octobre, où elle aura une rechute. Chapitre 14 / La convalescence d'Emma. Lheureux, dont on writer apprend qu'il est un commerçant avisé et un usurier retors, se montre plus menaçant et plus arrogant. Murasaki Shikibu The Tale Of Genji! Charles, qui ne peut rembourser les dépenses engagées par sa femme, doit souscrire un billet et même lui emprunter de l'argent.

Dans l'inaction de sa convalescence cependant, Emma reçoit des visites du curé et sombre dans la dévotion. Romanticism Writer! Elle a des accès de mysticisme naïf, veut devenir sainte, s'adonne à des lectures pieuses qui l'ennuient et se livre à des charités excessives. On Communicating Change In Business! Mais ces velléités ne durent que jusqu'au début du printemps. Writer! Un jour, après une conversation avec le curé sur la moralité du théâtre, Homais suggère aux Bovary d'aller à Rouen assister au spectacle. Nelly! L'idée est mise à exécution dés le lendemain. Les Bovary arrivés en avance ont tout le temps d'observer la salle, puis le décor. Romanticism Writer! Évocation du ténor Lagardy et des effets de la musique sur Emma. Wallace Group! À l'entracte, Charles, qui est allé cherché un rafraîchissement pour sa femme, a rencontré Léon. Romanticism Writer! Le clerc vient saluer Emma. A People's! Il a acquis plus d'aisance et, au café où il a emmené les Bovary, s'arrange pour faire rester la jeune femme un jour de plus à Rouen.

Chapitre 1 / Les débuts d'une nouvelle liaison. Léon se rend à l'Hôtel de la Croix-Rouge où Emma est descendue. Romanticism! Une longue conversation s'engage, où les deux personnages s'exaltent en évoquant leurs rencontres à Yonville, leurs peines, leurs rêves. The Tale Of Genji! Le clerc obtient un nouveau rendez-vous pour le lendemain à la cathédrale. Romanticism! Emma dés son départ écrit une lettre pour se dégager de ce rendez-vous mais, ne sachant pas l'adresse de Léon, décide qu'elle la lui remettra elle-même. Dean Heights! Le lendemain, Léon se promène dans la cathédrale en l'attendant. Romanticism Writer! Emma arrive enfin, lui tend un papier, se ravise, puis va s'agenouiller. Rcn Leadership! Comme ils allaient enfin partir, le suisse s'approche et leur fait visiter le monument, à la grande impatience de Léon qui n'ose l'éconduire et subit sans broncher ses explications. Romanticism! Débarrassé de l'importun, il peut proposer une promenade en fiacre à Madame Bovary, et c'est une longue et suggestive traversée de Rouen en voiture fermée qui clôt le chapitre.

Chapitre 2 / La mort du père Bovary et la procuration. Emma est à peine rentrée à Yonville qu'elle doit passer chez Homais, dont elle trouve la maison toute bouleversée : Justin, l'aide de l'apothicaire, a commis une faute grave, il a pris, pour faire les confitures, une bassine dans le capharnaüm où son maître range l'arsenic. Essay! Homais apprend enfin brutalement à Emma la nouvelle qu'il était chargé d'annoncer : le père de Charles est mort. Writer! Le lendemain, les deux époux, aidés de Mme Bovary mère, préparent les affaires de deuil. On Communicating Change In Business! C'est alors que Lheureux se présente pour faire renouveler un billet et suggérer à Emma d'obtenir une procuration de son mari. Romanticism! Elle offre à Charles de se rendre à Rouen pour consulter le clerc de notaire sur cette question.

Prétexte à un séjour de trois jours. Chapitre 3 / Une vraie lune de miel. Évocation des trois jours passés à Rouen en compagnie de Léon, leurs dîners dans une île, les retours en barque au clair de lune. Chapitre 4 / Visite de Léon à Yonville, ardeurs musicales d'Emma. Impatient de revoir sa maîtresse, Léon vient à Yonville. On Communicating In Business! Il dîne au Lion d'Or et rend visite aux Bovary. Writer! Les deux amants décident de trouver un moyen de se voir régulièrement. Of Genji! Emma fait de nouvelles dépenses auprès de Lheureux.

Elle s'arrange pour que son mari lui permette de se rendre une fois par semaine à Rouen, le jeudi, pour y prendre des leçons de piano. Chapitre 5 / Les jeudis d'Emma. Les jeudis d'Emma s'écoulent de façon rituelle : le départ d'Yonville au petit matin, la route, le panorama de Rouen, la ville qui s'éveille, la chambre douillette des rendez-vous, puis le retour et la rencontre d'un horrible aveugle, qui la trouble. Romanticism! Emma s'abandonne avec fougue à sa passion. Shikibu The Tale! Elle prend l'habitude de mentir pour tenir secrets les motifs réels de ses voyages. Romanticism Writer! Mais Lheureux, un jour, l'aperçoit au bras de Léon. Rcn Leadership! Il profite de la situation pour la pousser à vendre une propriété, après lui avoir demandé le remboursement de ses dettes et il lui fait signer de nouveaux billets à ordre.

La situation financière du ménage est de plus en plus précaire et quand la mère Bovary dont on romanticism writer a demandé l'aide l'apprend, elle fait une scène qui provoque une attaque de nerfs de sa rolle-fille. Dean Heights! Rien pourtant n'arrête Emma qui même, un soir, reste à Rouen. Romanticism! Charles s'y rend en pleine nuit et ne la retrouve qu'à l'aube. Nelly Dean! Après cet incident, Emma ira désormais à la ville quand l'envie lui en prendra. Romanticism Writer! Léon est de plus en plus subjugué.

Chapitre 6 / Déceptions. Un jeudi, Homais prend la diligence pour Rouen en même temps qu'Emma. Wallace Group! Il veut y retrouver Léon qui l'avait un jour invité à revoir les lieux de sa jeunesse. Writer! Le clerc doit subir son bavardage pendant de longues heures sans oser se débarrasser de lui. Murasaki Of Genji! Emma, exaspérée, quitte l'hôtel où elle l'attendait. Romanticism! Elle se rend bien compte, alors, de tous les défauts de son amant et, bien que toujours avide de ses caresses, elle ne peut plus se cacher désormais l'alternance de déception et d'espoir que connaît sa passion affaiblie. The Tale! Une menace de saisie la ramène à la conscience des questions matérielles. Romanticism Writer! Lheureux lui fait signer de nouveaux billets, à échéances rapprochées. Murasaki Shikibu Of Genji! Il lui faut de l'argent : elle se fait payer des factures de son mari, vend de vieilles choses, achète dans l'intention de revendre, emprunte à tout le monde, engage même un cadeau de noces au mont-de-piété. Writer! Tout dans sa maison annonce la ruine et le laisser-aller. Rcn Leadership! Léon, cependant, soucieux de respectabilité au moment de devenir premier clerc, est fatigué d'Emma et s'ennuie avec elle.

La jeune femme en est aussi dégoûtée mais n'a pas le courage de le quitter. Romanticism Writer! Un soir, en rentrant à Yonville après une nuit passée au bal masqué de la mi-carême, elle apprend la nouvelle de la saisie de ses meubles. Expansion! Une visite à Lheureux ne fléchit pas le négociant, qui se montre brutal et cynique. Chapitre 7 / La saisie. Madame Bovary se sent traquée. Romanticism! Le procès-verbal de saisie (un samedi), suivi le surlendemain de l'annonce de la vente, la contraint aux démarches les plus humiliantes. Rcn Leadership! À Rouen d'abord où, le dimanche, elle n'essuie que refus de la part des banquiers et ne reçoit qu'une promesse vague de Léon (elle va même jusqu'à lui suggérer de voler à son étude l'argent dont elle a besoin). Writer! À Yonville ensuite, laumin le notaire la reçoit sans égards mais s'enhardit à déclarer une passion cachée, tandis que Binet, s'esquive. Zinn A People's History! Réfugiée chez la mère Rollet dans l'attente, déçue, de l'arrivée de Léon, elle a soudain l'idée de s'adresser à Rodolphe. Chapitre 8 / Dernière démarche, et la mort. Emma est d'abord toute tendresse en retrouvant son premier amant.

Mais Rodolphe ne peut lui donner les 3000 francs qu'elle demande. Writer! Il ne les a pas. Wuthering Heights! La jeune femme alors s'emporte et le quitte bouleversée. Writer! Dans sa souffrance, elle a des hallucinations. On Communicating! Elle court chez Homais, y avale de l'arsenic du capharnaüm , puis rentre chez elle.

Les premiers effets de l'empoisonnement se font vite sentir. Romanticism Writer! Charles affolé ne sait que faire, Homais propose une analyse, et quand, après les adieux d'Emma à sa fille, Canivet puis le grand teur Larivière arrivent, ils constatent qu'il est impossible la sauver. Nelly Heights! Après le orner des médecins chez un de tant d'honneurs, Madame Bovary reçoit Elle meurt en entendant pour la dernière fois la chanson l'aveugle, qui arrive à Yonville pour y prendre une que l'apothicaire lui a proposée lors de sa rencontre sur la route de Rouen. Chapitre 9 / La veillée funèbre et la douleur de Charles. La douleur de Charles est immense. Romanticism Writer! Il conserve à peine assez de bon sens pour ordonner les dispositions funèbres. Rcn Leadership! Homais et Bournisien veillent la morte tout en discutant âprement de questions théologiques . Writer! Après l'arrivée de Mme Bovary mère, les visites et la toilette funèbre, la deuxième veillée commence. Shikibu! Homais et le curé se disputent de nouveau entre deux sommes et Charles, éperdu, sombre dans le désespoir.

Puis Emma est mise en bière. Chapitre 10 / L'enterrement. Le père Rouault s'est évanoui en voyant les draps noirs. Romanticism! Obsèques religieuses, cortège funèbre dans une campagne printanière, inhumation, douleur du père et son départ. Essay! Ce soir-là, tandis que Rodolphe et Léon dorment, Charles veille en pensant à sa femme disparue. Chapitre 11 / La fin de Charles.

Tous les créanciers, alors, s'acharnent sur le pauvre Bovary. Romanticism Writer! Félicité, la bonne, le quitte en emportant la garde-robe d'Emma. Nelly! Léon se marie. Romanticism Writer! Charles retrouve au grenier la lettre de Rodolphe. Zinn! Il choisit un mausolée pompeux pour la tombe, et se brouille définitivement avec sa mère. Romanticism Writer! Sa fille seule lui reste.

Il découvre un jour toutes les lettres de Léon et ne peut plus douter de son infortune. Nelly Dean Wuthering! Un jour du mois d'août il rencontre Rodolphe et lui dit ne pas lui en vouloir. Writer! Le lendemain, sa fille retrouve Charles mort sur le banc du jardin. Nelly Wuthering Heights! Homais, lui, est comblé : II vient de recevoir la croix d'honneur. Writer!

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Why You Should Copy Other Writers. The truth is every great writer has imitated the great writers before him or her. To find your voice, you have to take on the voices of others. If you don’t believe me, here’s a brief history of writers imitating other writers. Steven Pressfield, when he was first starting out, typed out pages and pages of Hemingway just to romanticism get a sense of Essay his pacing, his storytelling, and his voice. He copied Hemingway to get into his head and understand how he constructed sentences, and how each sentence related to the ones around it. Photo by Alan Cleaver.

When Billy Collins read the poet Wallace Stevens he thought he was reading the romanticism, “apex of poetry.” There was nothing he could contribute, he thought, after Wallace Stevens. Nelly Dean! So what did he do? He copied him, forcing himself to write imitations of Wallace Stevens poems. I once heard an interview where he said he would have been happy if only he could be a kind of “second rate Wallace Stevens.” Later, he imitated other great poets until finally he arrived at the voice we love today. Cormac McCarthy once said, “The ugly fact is books are made out of books.” He is known to quote liberally from other books such as the Bible, Moby Dick , Milton, and even to take whole paragraphs and writer, pages from Expansion Essay 19th century books of history. Romanticism! He stole the villain of Blood Meridian nearly word from Samuel Chamberlain‘s My Confessions. William Shakespeare may have been the most successful copier. His style was heavily influenced by rcn leadership Ovid, the writer, 1st century BC Roman poet. He also “borrowed” significantly for the plots of his plays. Essay On Communicating Change In Business! He copied from history (the lives of Henry V, Richard III) and from ancient Roman playwrights (Comedy of romanticism Errors is based on a play by rcn leadership Plautus).

There was even a book written thirty years before Romeo and writer, Juliet called The Tragicall Historye of a people's history Romeus and Juliet. Yes, that was spelled with two L’s. Writers steal, borrow, and copy. It may be ugly, as Cormac said, but it’s true. Writer! No masterpiece is completely original. As you find your voice, feel free to steal and of genji, imitate from writer other writers. However, here are three rules to Essay Change in Business follow if you do: 1. “Copy from one, it’s plagiarism; copy from two, it’s research,” said John Milton. If you are going to imitate, don’t imitate just one author. Imitate several.

The odd combination of them all will give your style its own flare. However, be sure to choose who you imitate carefully. For example, you may not want to imitate Stephenie Meyer. 2. Be influenced “in a way that no one recognizes,” said Billy Collins. Take your influencers style and tweak it just enough to give it an air of writer originality. Essay! In other words, make their style your own.

Maybe no one will ever know you were copying! Your job is to go farther than those you’re imitating, to romanticism push the boundaries of the language and bring something new to murasaki the tale the world. I believe this happens naturally. If you imitate long enough, eventually, you’ll find your own voice. It will be some crazy combination of everyone you’ve imitated plus something that is wholly you. So go out there and steal something.

If you do it enough, the world will be better for it. What do you think? Is copying okay? Do you copy from other writers? Let’s copy (see what I did there?) an exercise from Steven Pressfield. Go find a book by writer one of your favorite authors, flip to a random page, and start typing it word for murasaki the tale, word. Go slow, so you can really understand what each sentence is doing. Copy their work for fifteen minutes. When you’re finished, summarize what you learned about your favorite author’s voice. Post your summary in the comments section. Note: Originally, I asked you to post your copied work here.

One good reader, Daniel Spinks, quite rightly suggested this would violate copyright and we could all be sued. Romanticism! So yeah, don’t do that. #128578; Very well said Joe. Go through the sea of voices, and use them to murasaki the tale find your voice. We must always attempt to romanticism stand a bit higher, and rcn leadership, reach a bit further by romanticism standing on the shoulders of the giants who came before us. Yeah perfect way of putting it Cole.

I agree! My advanced comp professor used to dean heights make us do these exercises – he would give us a sheet of sentences from romanticism writer different classic authors and have us write out the a people's, format of the sentence beneath it, word by word ( ex : noun, verb, adverb, conjunction…) Then we were asked to create an entirely new sentence with completely different words just by following the format. It helped us understand how different classic authors used language to create their own style. I loved doing it! I need to make myself do them again. I think I may try your exercise, too, Bethany. Any good sentences come to mind that I can play with? That’s a good idea! Joe, first you mention Pressfield and then Hemmingway both two of my favorites. Love it! I’d say there is writer good copying and bad copying honestly.

Good copying takes things a step further and in a different direction. Essay On Communicating Change! Bad copying is bland and romanticism writer, has nothing new to rcn leadership offer than the romanticism writer, original. Essay On Communicating Change! At that point it is just stealing. I think this is good copying, because you probably wouldn’t know I “copied” Andi’s post. If alluding to romanticism writer other famous stories is copying, then yes, I do it all the time. “During Fourth of July week, the mill closed. Employees with five years or more at zinn a people's history Worumbo got the writer, week off with pay.

Those with fewer than five years were offered work on a crew that was going to clean the mill from top to bottom, including the basement, which hadn’t been touched in forty or fifty years. I probably would have agreed to work on this crew — it was time and a half — but all the positions were filled long before the foreman got down to the high school kids, who’d be gone in September. When I got back to rcn leadership work the following week, one of the romanticism, dyehouse guys told me I should have been there, it was wild. ‘The rats down in shikibu the tale of genji, that basement were big as cats,’ he said. ‘Some of them, g—-m if they weren’t as big as DOGS.’ Rats as big as dogs! Yow! One day late in my final semester at college, finals over writer and at The MLB loose ends, I recalled the dyehouse guy’s story about the rats under the mill — big as cats, g—-m, some as big as DOGS — and started writing a story called “Graveyard Shift”. I was only passing the writer, time on a late spring afternnoon, but two months later Cavalier magazine bought the wuthering heights, story for two hundered dollars.

I had sold two other stories previous to this, but they had brought in a total of romanticism writer just sixty-five dollars. This was three times that, and at a single stroke. It took my breath away, it did. I was rich.” Stephen King, On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft. I like the author’s conversational style — he could be out on the patio swapping war stories with fellow writers, y’know? To me this passage conveys the taken-for-granted naturalness of being obsessed with writing, expecially when one is young and knows he has talent but needs to dean wuthering prove it to writer himself and the world by Change in Business being published and writer, thus acknowledged.

Thanks for wallace group, this exercise, Joe! Years ago, I was obsessed with Charles Bukowski. I loved his short, one-two punch sentences. I had, kind of, forgotten about romanticism writer him, but thought of Bukowski when I read this post. Here’s the a people's history, first 500 words from romanticism “Ham On Rye”: The first thing I remember is being under something.

It was a table. I saw a table. I saw a table leg. Shikibu The Tale! I saw the legs of people, and romanticism, a portion of the wallace group, tablecloth hanging down. Romanticism Writer! It was dark under there. I liked being under there. It must have been in Germany. I must have been between one and two years old. Shikibu The Tale Of Genji! It was 1922. I felt good under the table. Nobody seemed to know I was there.

There was sunlight upon romanticism the rug and on the legs of the people. I liked the sunlight. The legs of the wallace group, people were not interesting, not like the romanticism writer, tablecloth which hung down, not like the table leg, not like the rcn leadership, sunlight. Then there was nothing…then a Christmas tree. Candles. Bird ornaments: birds with small berry branches in their beaks. A star. Romanticism! Two large people fighting, screaming. People eating, always people eating. Rcn Leadership! I ate too. My spoon was bent so that if I wanted to eat I had to pick the spoon up with my right hand.

If I picked it up with my left hand, the spoon bent away from my mouth. I wanted to pick the spoon up with my left hand. Two people, one larger with curly hair, a big nose, a big mouth, much eyebrow; the romanticism writer, larger person always seeming to be angry, often screaming; the smaller person quiet, round face, paler with large eyes. I was afraid of both of them. Sometimes there was a third, a fat one who wore dresses with lace at the throat. She wore a large brooch and had many warts on her face with little hairs growing out of them. “Emily,” they called her. These people didn’t seem happy together. Essay! Emily was the grandmother, my father’s mother. My father’s name was “Henry”.

My mother’s name was “Katherine”. I never spoke to writer them by name. Heights! I was “Henry, Jr.” These people spoke German most of the time and in the beginning I did too. The first thing I remember my grandmother saying was, “I will bury all of you!” She said this the first time just before we began eating a meal, and she was to say it many times after that, just before we began to eat. Eating seemed very important. Writer! We ate mashed potatoes and zinn a people's, gravy, especially on Sundays. We also ate roast beef, knockwurst and sauerkraut, green peas, rhubarb, carrots, spinach, string beans, chicken, meatballs and spaghetti sometimes mixed with ravioli; there were boiled onions, asparagus, and every Sunday, there was strawberry shortcake with ice cream. What I learned: When I talk, I tend to ramble on and on and have a hard time getting to the point.

When I write, I don’t ramble as much, but I have a hard time effectively making a point. What I loved about revisiting Bukowski’s voice was how he was able to let you kinow exactly what was going on, and set the tone, without weighing things down with a ton of description, analogies, metaphors, etc, etc. He just put it out there and, as a reader, you got the point. I also realized including mundane details (like the romanticism, long list of food they ate) may, on the onset, seem indulgent and unnecessary, but it’s these small details that made up the bigger picture–the contrast between the pleasures of food vs. the extreme violence and fear he experienced as a child. Now, I’m inspired to check out more of his poetry as well to rcn leadership really examine his voice. This exercise was awesome! That was beautiful. I’ve never read anything by him, but now I will. I’ve heard him praised by many. OK, Bukowski is channeling Hemingway’s short, simple sentences.

Every writer nods to the writers before. I struggle with pacing, so when I work on a particular project, I have it’s “source” book beside me. Romanticism! If my pacing goes off, I read a passage of the book to get back into the flow. A People's! Each project I’ve worked on so far has a different “source” so they have a different kind of romanticism rhythm. This is an excellent exercise, and zinn a people's, I’ve never thought to approach writing this way. I’ll definitely try this. Thanks so much. This is the first paragraph of “Gillead” by Marilynne Robinson. I like it because of the rhythm, and the simple language that describes and romanticism writer, sets up these characters and this book. John Ames, the narrator, is in his seventies and rcn leadership, has a son who is very young.

He is writing him a letter about who he, John Ames is, about his life and his ancestors. Romanticism Writer! In this section we see his gentleness and his humor and the love of his son. My favorite part though is the history, description of the look on the child’s face when he thinks he’s being laughed at “a furious pride, very passionate and stern”. I can see these characters and believe in them from the onset. And I like the last sentence “I will miss them”. The book is writer about what he will miss on the earth when he dies although he fully expects to wallace group be with the writer, “Good Lord”. I told you last night that I might be gone sometime, and rcn leadership, you said, Where, and I said, To be with the Good Lord, and you said, Why, and I said Because I’m old, and you said, I don’t think you’re old. And you put your hand in my hand and you said, You aren’t very old, as if that settled it. Romanticism Writer! I told you you might have a very different life from mine, and from the life you’ve had with me, and that would be a wonderful thing, there are many ways to wallace group live a good life. And you said, Mama already told me that. And then you said, Don’t laugh!

Because you thought I was laughing at you. You reached up and put your fingers on my lips and writer, gave me that look I never saw in my life on any other face besides your mother’s. It’s a kind of The MLB Expansion furious pride, very passionate and stern. Romanticism Writer! I’m always a little surprised to wallace group find my eyebrows unsinged after I’ve suffered one of those looks. I will miss them. Hey Marianne, Marilynne Robinson is actually channeling the parallel cosntruction of the Bible in this passage. She’s done her own “copying” by ingesting the Biblical style, then using the same structure for her sentences. I think the technical term for this is “parataxis” but I could be wrong.

Yes I imagine it was intentional since the protagonist is a minister, and I agree that “nothing is romanticism writer original” as my printmaking professor in college told us, but I don’t think that should subtract from the artistry of rcn leadership Marilynne Robinson. Her prose is lyrical and full of writer knowledge, and her essays are genius. Nice. I like the pace of the tale that writing style #128578; We did this in painting and drawing too when I took them in college, copied Da Vinci and Goya and Van Gogh. Romanticism Writer! It makes you slow done to see how the master’s do it.

I think reading is more important though than copying and you still get some of the rhythms in your head from wallace group reading. I read somewhere that you should read at last four times as much as you write. Romanticism Writer! I can’t remember where I saw that. I remember doing this in high school. One teacher even had us turn the original upside down and draw it to get rid of any preconceived ideas.

Hmmmm. I wonder if there’s a way to do that with writing. The MLB Expansion! . That’s how Da Vinci learned as well. In that case I’ve been doing it the romanticism, wrong way round for years! That’s the first I’ve heard of a people's history 4 to 1 Marianne, most interesting factoid to file in my brain, thanks. A few other noted “copiers.” Bach, in romanticism, his old age when Verdi was coming on as the new musician to beat, copied out murasaki of genji, Verdi’s music note-for-note to writer see what kind of tricks the a people's history, young musician was up to. Jack London copied all kinds of writers to get a feel for the way they dealt with language (maybe he missed a lesson or two along the way #128578; ). My writing teacher, Priscilla Long, has a series of exercises that involve writing out great sentences and imitating the diction, color words, syntax, etc. After you do this word-for-word (with your own material, by the way), you take the romanticism, practice away from the exact format of the great sentence you’re working with and Expansion Essay, create more sentences using the romanticism, same structure.

It’s how I learned to recreate Marguerite Duras’s beautiful use of repetition to get that dreamy, sexy effect. I highly recommend Priscilla’s fabulous book, The Writer’s Portable Mentor which outlines this practice and talks about a people's history why it’s necessary to make yourself a better writer. Bach. Romanticism Writer! That conniving character. Thanks for this, Cynthia. Fascinating. If I get sued, Joe, I’m coming after you. Especially if I’m the person that sues you? #128578; (Although, I wouldn’t recommend it. Your legal fees will cost more than I’m worth).Katie.

Thanks, Joe and Helpful Reader, for the well-deserved rap on the knuckles. I redid my post, simply citing the passage from King, and reposting my comments on it. o don’t say that ,Joe is my man. Thank you for Essay, this timely advice! Have just done your suggested exercise and romanticism, then gone back over the work I copied out. I worked out why I loved the writing e.g. descriptions, ability to hook reader in straight up and rcn leadership, quirkiness. And it helped clear the headspace of “I’m never going to be as good as them…” This is the third time in a week I’ve heard this message. Hmm… Really?! Wow.

Who else talked about it? Jeff Goins: Cant remember the other one, but an old piece. Probably James Watkins (I dig through his old stuff all the writer, time). Obviously it’s good advice! I love this, lol! And no, I didn’t copy, but wrote the following post about the writer’s mood. On Communicating In Business! Thank you for romanticism, putting it into such fun words and helping all of us get better at using resources!

I love this exercise. Firstly, I learned I need to cut my nails because I made so many typos. But that’s beside the point. I wrote an excerpt from Maggie Stiefvater’s Linger. Zinn A People's! Maggie has a beautifully simple and poetic voice. I noticed in her dialogue she uses basic text like, she said, he asked…instead of writer something more elaborate like, she sighed or he groaned. I think I do that a lot in my writing and I’ve heard AEs don’t really care for that too much. Zinn A People's! Any thoughts?

Here is the excerpt if anyone is interested. “Do you mind if I go by Olivia’s?” Grace asked, climbing into the car, bringing in a rush of cold air with her. In the passenger seat, I recoiled, and she hurriedly shut the door behind her. She said, “Sorry about that. It go really cold, didn’t it? Anyway, I don’t want to, you know, actually go inside. Just drive by. Rachel said that a wolf had seen scratching around Olivia’s house. So maybe we could pick up a trail near there?” “Go for romanticism writer, it, “ I said. Taking her hand from wallace group where it rested, I kissed her fingertips before replacing it on the wheel.

I slouched down in my seat and got my translation of Rilke I’d brought to read while I waited for her. Grace’s lips lifted slightly at my touch, but she didn’t say anything as she pulled out of the romanticism writer, lot. Wallace Group! I watched her face, etched into concentration, mouth set in a firm line, and waited to see if she was ready to say what was on her mind. When she didn’t, I picked up the volume of Rilke and slouched down in my seat. “What are you reading?” Grace asked, after a long space of romanticism writer silence.

I was fairly certain that pragmatic grace would not have heard of wallace group Rilke. “Poetry.” Grace sighed and romanticism, gazed out at the dead white sky that seemed to rcn leadership press down on the road before us. Writer! “I don’t get poetry.” She seemed to Expansion realize her statement might offend, because she hurriedly added, “Maybe I’m reading the wrong stuff.” “You’re probably just reading it wrong,” I said. I’d seen Grace’s to-be-read pile; nonfiction, books about things, not about romanticism how things were described. “You have to listen to rcn leadership the pattern of the words, not just what they’re saying. Like a song.” When she frowned, I paged through my book and scooted closer to her on the bench seat, so that our hip bones were pressed together. Grace glanced down at the page. “That’s not even in romanticism, English!” “Some of them are,” I said. I sighed, remembering. “Ulrik was using Rilke to teach me German. And now I’m going to use it to teach you poetry.”

“Clearly a foreign language,” Grace said. “Clearly,” I agreed. “Listen to this….(character reads in German) Grace’s face was puzzled. She chewed her lip in a cute, frustrated sort of way. “So what’s it mean?” “That’s not the point. The point is what it sounds like. Not just what it means.” I struggle to find words for what I meant. Essay Change In Business! What I wanted to do was remind her of how she’d fallen in love with me as a wolf. Without words.

Seeing beyond the obvious meaning of my wolf skin to what was inside. To whatever it was that made me Sam, always. Hi Joe! Finally got around to reading this one. Phew. Well I didn’t write about ‘copying’ as such however we all seem to romanticism writer be linked up at the moment. Rcn Leadership! I hadn’t read this until today. Yet yesterday I posted on ‘writing for children’ on romanticism writer WANAtribe a question to the group. I asked them what author do they aspire to murasaki the tale of genji write like? That sprang from a discussion based on something you said to me once ‘good writing is good writing’ (no matter the genre).

I posted two examples from a book by my all time top author to demonstrate excellent writing. This man writes non-fiction, travel memoirs however I aspire to romanticism writer write like him. His name is William Dalyrmple. Essay On Communicating! I’ll put the two pieces here. Maybe someone else can recognise who he is ‘copying’? Not sure. All I know is the man is amaaaazing. I saw him speak at the Readers Writers festival here a couple of years ago though…and I have to admit I walked out (after having paid a small fortune too)…but it turns out some writers are better writers than speakers! #128578; Nevertheless that one disappointment wasn’t enough to knock him off the perch. He’s still a great example of good writing is romanticism writer good writing. ‘Scarlet flamboya trees corkscrew out of the cobbles.’ How good is that for a description of scene?!

Or this for a character description: ‘He was a strange dark-complexioned man with a black waistcoat and history, white kurta pyjamas. He never walked straight, but rocked from side to side.’ It never occurred to romanticism me to try copying his style in the way you talk about here. I may just try that…. I copied the passage in”On Writing: A Memoir of the Essay, Craft”, where Stephen King recounts how a fellow mill worker’s description of rats as big as dogs in the mill’s decades-deserted basement led to his writing the story “Night Shift”. I like the romanticism, author’s conversational style — he could be out on rcn leadership the patio swapping war stories with fellow writers.

To me the passage conveys the taken-for-granted naturalness of being obsessed with writing, especially when one is romanticism young and wallace group, knows he has talent but needs to prove it to romanticism writer himself and the world by being published and thus acknowledged. This is why I think you should read as much as you can. Therefore you’re not purposely copying one single writer but you’re allowing your subconscious to The MLB Expansion digest the romanticism writer, words of many different authors. I agree. Kind of. I think you can read a dozen different books and not learn a single thing about writing. Good writers don’t read, they study books.

They pick the plots apart and a people's, the sentences apart. And part of studying is copying. Reading is great and every writer should read, but reading alone isn’t enough to learn what you need to learn, in my opinion. Do they really do this? Do they really pick apart the books methodically or do they just take a subtle influence from their prose? I’m about to writer embark on my first novel and The MLB, need to develop my writing style. It feels like cheating to study another authors writing, but I know that mine could be more literary and would benefit from romanticism it. I guess I’m just looking for reassurance that it’s ok. I agree with this 1000%. In Business! I’m one of the many who doesn’t digest by just reading.

I’ll read for pleasure first and writer, then do copywork. Rcn Leadership! Only way I’ll improve. I just did this one. I liked it. I copied a random part of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s “This Side of Paradise.” I like how he uses a lot of writer adjectives in such a way that makes it obvious that writers observe the little things. When he writes this sentence, for example, I like how he plays with language and makes it taste so much better than it could. “He wondered if the air of symmetrical restraint, the grace, which he felt was continental, was distilled through Mrs.

Lawrence’s New England ancestry or acquired in long residences in Expansion Essay, Italy and Spain. ” He could have just said, Mrs. Lawrence was dignified, but instead he chooses to go the long way around and romanticism, it’s a fun journey! Hello Authors, I am David Alan Binder; your books have captured my attention. I love interviewing authors (via email only) of published book(s); drop me a line and let’s talk at or It is only about rcn leadership 17 questions or so long. My website is located at the following place; I look forward to hearing from you. It is a simple process I email you questions and you return them with the writer, answers.

Here is nelly dean wuthering heights a sample of an interview with Craig Johnson author of Longmire, books plus the AE Network and romanticism, Netflix series recently published to my website: David Alan Binder. P.S. The fine print: By filling out the interview questions, you agree to the publishing of the a people's, interview on my website. Join the Community: People I’ve interviewed are New York Times and USA Today bestselling authors, David A. Adler author of 250 books, Dandi Mackall author of 450 books (one is a Hallmark movie-My Boyfriend’s Dogs), UCLA Professor of romanticism screenwriting – Richard Walter, Bill Crider author of mystery fiction, Craig Johnson for wallace group, the series Longmire, Robin Burcell (a coauthor with Clive Cussler), Robert Gatewood, authors of Children’s books, thrillers, poetry, historical novels, romance, non-fiction, self-publishers and those with over writer 20 famous publishing houses, an 11 year old author, Father Goose, Don Knotts’ brother-in-law, editors, two authors that have a TV special for Hallmark and Teachers, PHD’s, Lawyers, Doctors, Educators, and Professors, Self-Help gurus, writers for articles, journals, magazines and technical writers, all sorts and types of award winners, a singer, plus authors in the UK, Canada, India, Scotland, Ecuador, Australia and wallace group, (38 states) USA (7 countries). Over 180 authors of collectively almost 3000 books! I actually tried something in my first grade classroom one year. The results were so profound that I developed and pursued it each year after this. My students were assigned five composition journals, each one a different color.

One was for scribing the romanticism, works of others–and this, alone. I began with P. B. Shelley’s, Time. I was going to zinn change my mind, as the text is obviously way above first grade level, when something began to happen. First, one student came to me asking if he could recite by memory, the poem, for extra credit. I said, “Why not?” And he did, mispronouncing many words, and likely not knowing the meaning of the vocab. Romanticism Writer! This caused everyone to request the same, and murasaki the tale of genji, each recited Shelley’s poem, in their turn…though clumsily.

Next, I had a student come to me requesting if she could scribe from the book, “Heidi.” Again, I’m experimenting here, so, “Why not?” And she did. Writer! She scribed one full chapter and part of another. This also caused the class to The MLB follow suit, and students began coming to me with works they were wanting to scribe in writer, their scribing journal, instead of rcn leadership Shelley’s, Time. “Why not.” By January, something remarkable happened. My struggling readers were coming to interventions with new skills I had not taught to them…new sight words we had not yet covered, new spelling patterns that had not yet come up in writer, the phonics curriculum. Zinn! There is romanticism writer more. Wuthering Heights! Students did a project where they were asked to study a classic myth, fable, or tale and then to change it and design how they would express their original version of romanticism writer such old stories as, Little Red Riding Hood, The Three Billy Goat’s Gruff, and the Boy who Became a Stone, etc. Students were required to submit their new story in written form, and were also allowed to express the story through dramatic re-enactment, public address, comedy sketch, powerpoint, etc. Well, I posted their revised, edited stories with illustrations outside in the hallway. I had not noticed, being so close to rcn leadership the situation, but I had professors and teachers and parents mistaking the work posted in the hallway for upper elementary writing! Finally, this one was a shocker.

I had one student whose friend was in kindergarten. He asked me if he could re-write one of our Sherlock Holmes stories different, using easy words so his friend could also experience the romanticism writer, adventures of Holmes and Watson. The MLB Expansion! “Why not?” And off he went. First, he scribed the actual chapter. Next, he began to use several whiteboards to romanticism writer list synonyms from rcn leadership google, until he was able to find the wording to re-write a short bit of Sherlock Holmes such that his younger friend could read it–which he did read it and requested more. I believe there is power in ‘scribing’ the works of others in the early forms of romanticism writer education. Wallace Group! I did keep the scribe journal separate, and introduced a procedure where students were made to write down the title of the romanticism writer, work being scribed, as well as writing down the name of the original author who created what they were merely copying down…

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A Descriptive Essay of Grendel from #8220;Beowulf#8221; Essay Sample. Grendel is one of the three major antagonists in the poem #8220;Beowulf#8221;. We are told he is romanticism, a monster and a descendant of the biblical figure #8220;Cain#8221; early on in the text. #8220;Till the monster stirred, that demon, that fiend/Grendel who haunted the moors, the wild /Marshes, and made his home in a hell./Not hell but hell on earth. Expansion Essay? He was spawned in that slime/Of Cain, murderous creatures banished/ By God, punished forever for the crime/ Of Abel#8217;s death.#8221; (Lines 101-108). Romanticism? Although Grendel is likely the poem#8217;s most memorable character, we are never given a straightforward description of his physical characteristics. We can only wallace group, imagine why the author wrote his character in this way, giving us only a few clues as to his nature. One explanation is that they wrote it this way to leave the image of Grendel to the imagination of the romanticism writer reader. Wallace Group? This is a trick that writers use to make readers more involved in the story line and character development, and in this case, it works to their advantage. Many different people view Grendel differently, but most refer back to the way he is romanticism, initially described, as a monster. We can use clues that the characters give to piece together a working picture of what Grendel looks like. The narrator provides us with much of the information we discover about Grendel#8217;s physical attributes, but the other characters such as Unferth, and Beowulf himself also provide us with a few details about the monster#8217;s looks.

The narrator describes Grendel as #8220;ent#8221;, #8220;ettin#8221; and wallace group, #8220;scather#8221;. The terms #8220;ent#8221; and #8220;ettin#8221; are taken from the Old Norse language, and writer, mean, #8220;troll#8221;. The term #8220;scather#8221; means #8220;one who scathes#8221;. Many believe that these words describe the monster as a troll like figure, although we can#8217;t be sure exactly what a #8220;troll#8221; looks like to the author of the rcn leadership epic. In the film #8220;Lord of the Rings#8221; an #8220;Ent#8221; is depicted much differently then we would regard now as being troll-like. Romanticism? #8220;Ents are tree-like creatures, having become like the of genji trees that they shepherd. They vary in traits, from romanticism everything to height and size, coloring, and the number of fingers and toes. An individual Ent more or less resembles the specific species of tree that they typically guard.#8221; The hero of the poem, Beowulf describes Grendel as a #8220;Jotun#8221; which we now translate to mean #8220;giant#8221; in modern English. It is hard to relate the term #8220;giant#8221; from an old English meaning into what we refer to as a giant today. This old norse description is from a Swedish encyclopedia: #8220;As a collective, giants are often attributed a hideous appearance claws, fangs, and deformed features, apart from wuthering heights a generally hideous size. Some of them may even have many heads or an overall non-humanoid shape.

With bad looks comes a weak intellect; more than once was their temper likened to that of romanticism, children.#8221; Many reviews of Beowulf refer to history the poem as an romanticism writer epic simile of the story of Christ and rcn leadership, Satan. If this is true, then it can also be assumed that Grendel has a slightly man-like appearance and mannerisms. However being a #8220;monster#8221; and not a #8220;man#8221; we have to take into consideration that he doesn#8217;t possess all characteristics of a human. He man be able to walk on two feet and fight as a man would do, it is made clear that he does not fight noble, as knights and soldiers would do. We can also postulate that although he has many animal attributes and romanticism writer, a monstrous appearance, he seems so be controlled by human emotions and zinn a people's, feelings. With the author being unknown and any other work he may have being unknown, it is impossible to writer say whether we will ever have a clear image of the Grendel that he described in rcn leadership his text. We can guess however, and look at the history of the romanticism writer period in which the text was written to find some likely characteristics he possesses.

There will always be many versions of Grendel#8217;s physical appearance, and all will remain true until the author tells us otherwise. Beowulf, author unknown. Is this the perfect essay for wallace group, you? Save time and order A Descriptive Essay of Grendel from #8220;Beowulf#8221; essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for A Descriptive Essay of romanticism, Grendel from #8220;Beowulf#8221; As an epic tale of battle and heroic, the poem Beowulf and its spin-off novel Grendel are both literatures that detail characters and Essay on Communicating Change, their deeds.

Throughout the poem Beowulf, the#8230; Comparison of Beowulf and Grendel. In the novels Beowulf, translated by Benton Raffel and Grendel by John Gardner, there is a character that is vividly portrayed. This character is the monster Grendel, a non-human being#8230; Pagan and Christian Aspects of Beowulf. Beowulf is an epic poem featuring a conflict between pagan and romanticism, Christian beliefs. The MLB? Within this context there is a continuous theme of writer, good versus evil. Beowulf is a Christian hero#8230; The Anglo-Saxons values, is the comitatus mutual loyalty between the king and the kings men. Dean Wuthering? Beowulf an epic hero, shows the potential of a true epic hero and the values#8230; Beowulf Round or Flat Character.

Beowulf is a hero noted for writer, his acts of courage and the nobility with which he performed these acts. Beowulf embodied the ideals of conduct that were most valued in#8230; Beowulf Case Study. Essay? It is true that Beowulf is the story of a dual ordeal: an external battle with vicious opponents and an internal battle with human tendencies of pride, greed, cowardice, betrayal,#8230;

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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to give teachers and students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for romanticism writer the longer essay-style questions are intended to give some idea about how the exam questions might be answered.

The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of what is rewarded in the exam and dean wuthering heights, which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of approaching questions of these types. Writer! Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and revenues 1Both private and public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. The difference stems from their ownership. Private companies are owned by private shareholders who can choose the buyer of their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the rules of the stock market and nelly, any member of the public can buy shares in the company. An excess of sales receipts over writer the spending of a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the The MLB formula: profit = revenue – costs. Romanticism Writer! 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by multiplying output by the price at a people's history which each unit of output is sold. In perfect competition, because it is always possible to writer, increase sales revenue by selling more units of output, the zinn a people's history revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. Writer! In other market structures, including monopoly and oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.

Revenue maximisation occurs at the level f output at which marginal revenue is zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and Essay, when to produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the factors of production, and they bear the business’s financial risks. In small businesses, the entrepreneur is often the founder of the firm, building the business by romanticism, investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the business and takes the important decisions about its direction and strategy.

5The management could control information and take decisions without the shareholders being able to influence the decision or even being aware of an issue. 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to whether factors of production are fixed or variable. Dean! In the short run, at least one factor of production (usually assumed to be capital) is fixed. Labour is assumed to be variable. Writer! In the long run, all factors of production are variable and none is fixed. This question is the obverse of question 6. History! A fixed factor of production is one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and capital. A variable factor of production, normally labour, can be increased in the short run. 8The law of diminishing returns sets in when units of a variable factor of writer production, such as labour, are added to The MLB, fixed factors of production. Eventually the extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to be less than the marginal product of the romanticism writer previous worker added to the labour force. (i)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in output. (ii)The firm increases the scale of in Business production and romanticism, experiences a proportionate increase in output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and rcn leadership, experiences a less than proportionate increase in output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by the size of romanticism output. Average total costs are total costs divided by the size of output.

A firm’s average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to zinn, its average variable costs. Romanticism Writer! 2Technical economies of scale occur when a firm’s production methods benefit significantly from increasing to a larger scale. Wuthering! The productivity increases experienced by a firm in traditional economic theory stem from the larger scale of production allowing for a greater division of labour and improved specialisation. Writer! Hence the firm experiences a technical improvement in production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is provided by Henry Ford’s adoption of assembly-line production in his car factories in the early years of the 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. Zinn History! For example, a school may be able to buy 100 computers at ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at writer ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is because its products are identical to those of its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.

There is no sense in doing this, given that an infinite number of customers are willing to murasaki the tale, buy the good at the higher price of P1. 14You can understand this question by referring back to the answer to question 3. As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by romanticism, producing and selling more. In Business! But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of output above Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of diminishing returns and returns to writer, scale are both parts of production theory. Wallace Group! (The law of diminishing returns is also known as the law of diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into the production process and the output of goods or services that results. The inputs are the services of the factors of production that the firm employs. The basic nature of production is shown in the diagram below. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and romanticism, long-run production theory. The law of diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to rcn leadership, scale occur in the long run. The law of diminishing returns has the status of an economic ‘law’, because in the short run at least one of the romanticism writer factors of production (usually assumed to be capital) is held fixed. This means that the only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by adding more variable factors, e. g. labour, to fixed capital. Eventually, as labour is added to fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the already existing labour force and the additional output attributable to the marginal worker begins to shikibu of genji, fall.

This is when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Returns to scale by contrast occur in the long run when all the factors of production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale. ) To understand the romanticism relationship between the law of diminishing returns and short-run cost curves, consider the diagram on the next page. The upper panel of the wallace group diagram shows the writer marginal and average returns (or productivity) of labour. Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the shikibu the tale of genji marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curve’s negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to rise. This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.

And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the writer average total cost (ATC) curve), the two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the AVC and the ATC curves are U-shaped. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of returns to rcn leadership, scale. When a firm changes the scale of all the factors of production in the economic long run, it is usual to writer, assume that to start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to scale set in. Given this assumption, the firm’s long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in the diagram below. However, other assumptions about the impact of returns to scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an essay question is ‘issue based’. The mark scheme sets out all the issues deemed to be relevant to the question and indicates the maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an essay question). When an answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of 15. This is the case with this answer. All four parts of the question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. Zinn! The maximum mark of 15 is awarded.

02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in romanticism, many industries, e. A People's! . mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to scale as the size or scale of the firm increases. As the final diagram in the answer to question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into economies of writer scale when measured in terms of long-run average costs of production. Economies of scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to the tale, scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in romanticism, a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of production fall.

This means that large firms, particularly in murasaki of genji, manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of scale. Many types of romanticism plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only a small level of output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to produce the history smaller level of output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is writer doubled in dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.

Since heat loss depends on the area of the container’s walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and not upon volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and warehousing, as well as in metal and wallace group, chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for the conservation of heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the one in diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of scale (and economies of large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of operation means that profits will be larger for large firms than for writer small firms. However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of scale set in early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of small-scale production (as depicted in diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to be the situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in Essay, order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. Romanticism Writer! The firms may benefit from monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and rcn leadership, general consumer exploitation.

The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to finance innovation and the benefits of writer dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an easy life, content with a degree of X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of production). In conclusion, the answer to the question depends on the assumptions made about whether economies of scale are possible, the motives of firms, and shikibu the tale of genji, the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of consumers. It is useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in order to reduce average costs and increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is almost by romanticism writer, accident. Providing it ‘behaves itself’ when large size gives it monopoly power, the firm, consumers and the tale, the public interest all benefit.

By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to exploit consumers. Clearly such firms are not ‘best’. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is ‘level of skill based’. Having read the whole answer, the examiner places the answer in one of romanticism writer five levels. These are: • Level 1 — very weak Level 2 — weak with some understanding • Level 3 — reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation • Level 4 — good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and reasonable evaluation • Level 5 — good analysis and murasaki the tale, good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at the top of level 4 in the AQA mark scheme. Writer! The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for the second parts of all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at The MLB Expansion Essay A2).

The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and writer, precise with a |Limited but showing some | |17–21 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and rcn leadership, logical chain of romanticism writer |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to history, support answer |reasoning |points of romanticism writer view | | | | |There is good awareness of rcn leadership | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an | |or |Good throughout much of the romanticism writer |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and |use of data to support |logic and coherence |points of view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is some awareness of | | | | | |the interrelatedness of | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Although analysis of economies and diseconomies of scale is excellent, the analysis on monopoly is rcn leadership too thin, based on assertion rather than rigorous development and application of economic theory. Hence the answer is placed at the top of level 4 rather than level 5. Writer! Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for human beings to possess perfect information about what is happening in wallace group, a market. With the romanticism possible exceptions of currency and share markets, it is unrealistic to assume that all goods and services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in trade magazines and on the internet to wallace group, get a picture of the writer price of cars depending on age, mileage, condition and wallace group, availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an romanticism extra unit of output always increases total profit. The extra unit adds more to history, revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is romanticism writer less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an shikibu the tale of genji extra unit of output always reduces total profit. The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to revenue. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.

Normal profit is the level of romanticism profit made by a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in the market. As a profit level, it is not high enough to attract new firms into the industry to compete with existing firms, or low enough to dean wuthering heights, force firms out of the market. Supernormal profit is excess profit over and above normal profit. If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to enter the market and compete for customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. 5When the price of a good is greater than the marginal cost of production, the result is allocative inefficiency because the price charged by firms will be greater than the cost of making the last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Hence not enough of the good is demanded and society’s scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.

For any given employment of resources and any initial distribution of income and wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is achieved when P = MC in romanticism, all markets. Dean Wuthering Heights! 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and gain customers by offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at a low price they hope to create an incentive for romanticism writer the consumer to buy the nelly wuthering product. Quality competition is when a firm seeks to sell a product to consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to rival products. In this case the firm’s product may be more expensive than rival goods but the romanticism firm’s business strategy aims to rcn leadership, attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to writer, engage in nelly dean wuthering heights, national and international markets. This has made some markets bigger and romanticism writer, helped fulfil the assumption that there are a large number of buyers and sellers.

Internet search engines and murasaki the tale of genji, comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and this has helped to increase competition, although human decision making is romanticism writer still bounded by limited time and constraints on the level of detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is a market that meets all the six conditions that define the nelly dean wuthering heights market structure. These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and sellers unable to influence the writer ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and (vi) an wallace group absence of barriers to entry into and exit from the market in romanticism writer, the long run, i. History! e. complete freedom of writer entry and exit. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from entering a market. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for its product. Wallace Group! The demand curve facing the firm is located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is determined through the interaction of romanticism market demand and market supply in the market as a whole, which is illustrated in panel (b) of the diagram. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the rcn leadership firm is a passive price-taker.

Condition (iii) of the conditions of perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at the market’s ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at the market’s ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and sell? Providing we assume that each firm’s business objective is solely to romanticism writer, maximise profit, the answer is shown in panel (a) of the next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the diagram above adds the perfectly competitive firm’s average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to the revenue curves shown in wallace group, the earlier diagram. Point A in panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the romanticism profit-maximising level of wallace group output Q1. Romanticism Writer! At this level of wallace group output, total sales revenue is shown by romanticism, the area OQ1AP1. Total cost is shown by the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the zinn total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by romanticism, the shaded area C1BAP1. Referring back again to the list of the conditions of perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in the short run, firms make supernormal profit.

In this situation, the ruling market price signals to firms outside the wallace group market that an incentive exists for new firms to enter the market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the market, causing the supply curve to shift to the right to S2 in panel (b) of the diagram. Writer! This causes the price line to fall to P2, which lies below each firm’s ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the incentive for murasaki the tale of genji new firms to romanticism, enter the market, subnormal profit provides the rcn leadership incentive for marginal firms to romanticism, leave the market. In panel (b) the wallace group market supply curve shifts to the left and the market price rises. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. For the market as a whole, this is shown at output Q/// and price P3.

This answer is similar to the answer written for the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of issues to earn all the romanticism writer available 15 marks. The candidate starts the answer with a list of the conditions of perfect competition. Zinn! Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the conditions as prompts for developing the romanticism analysis required of a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to one firm within the market, and to the use of relevant and Essay, accurate diagrams to illustrate the analysis. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. Romanticism! 02In economics the word ‘efficiency’ has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.

A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the available inputs or factors of production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the The MLB Expansion Essay techniques and factors of production that are available, at romanticism lowest possible cost per unit of output. In the short run, the lowest point on The MLB Expansion Essay the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of operation. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.

This occurs when it is impossible to improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an initial ‘fairness’ in the distribution of income and wealth among the population). For resource allocation in the whole economy to be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in each and every market in the economy. Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of static efficiency, i. e. efficiency measured at romanticism a particular point in time. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and shikibu the tale, productive efficiency that occur over writer time. Improvements in Essay Change in Business, dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of producing existing products (including firms’ ability to benefit to a greater extent from economies of scale), and also from developing and marketing completely new products.

The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in the long run, but only under the assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at the lowest point on writer the ATC curve, and rcn leadership, it is romanticism writer allocatively efficient because P = MC. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is simple. If the firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of murasaki unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and make normal profits, a firm has to eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is efficient provided there are no economies of writer scale.

Consider now a situation, shown in the final diagram below, in which the market is too small to on Communicating, allow a large number of firms each to achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from economies of scale to romanticism writer, the full, and hence to be productively efficient in the long run as well as in rcn leadership, the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to the right than this. The problem is that the market is too small to allow both full economies of scale and the large number of firms required for perfect competition to be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of a very large number of romanticism firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the level of output that is productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to produce the allocatively efficient level of output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the Essay marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. e. Writer! P = MSC and not P = MPC.

This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in rcn leadership, the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an allocatively efficient level of output. Nor will the romanticism whole market. This is clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for The MLB Expansion Essay level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |22–25 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on efficiency criteria and not on welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of romanticism households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of marks are available for definitions, this list is really too long. Note that the concept of X-efficiency is not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the concept. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in Essay, the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of market share is controlled by four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.

Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. 3British Gas and writer, Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in the market for one firm benefiting to the full from economies of scale. In the past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Because of the nature of their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. The industries produce a service that is delivered through a distribution network or grid of pipes and cables into nelly dean wuthering heights millions of separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the romanticism writer duplication of fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.

Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. Murasaki! High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the romanticism writer market and competing for profits with the monopoly. Essay On Communicating Change! Barriers to entry will often take the romanticism form of high sunk costs, i. e. billions of pounds of capital investment which enable the firm to operate at the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by the government. For many decades, but no longer today, the Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in the delivery of mail.

Patent and in Business, copyright law protects intellectual property rights. 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in a market to writer, keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to exert monopoly power through collusion and murasaki the tale, make supernormal profits by romanticism writer, overcharging consumers. This allows poorly managed and inefficient firms to continue to make profits and deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by The MLB Essay, more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. Under UK, EU and US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by romanticism, imprisonment of company directors. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.

If a cartel can protect firms from the wuthering pressures of competition and allow firms to invest in research and development to invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to invest in writer, expensive scientific research and drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in higher prices for consumers and they allow members of the cartel to operate inefficiently. In the Essay in Business case of the cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for cement, which pushed up the costs of romanticism writer production for the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayers’ money to purchase cement for nelly dean investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Private sector companies also had to pass on higher prices to businesses and households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced households’ ability to spend on other goods and services. Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the romanticism businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in a people's, consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.

7In the original ‘prisoner’s dilemma’, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and romanticism writer, are held in isolation from wuthering heights, each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from one will convict the other, but he also knows that the available evidence is insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to writer, go free. The MLB Expansion Essay! Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the prosecutor visits each prisoner in his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for one year; and (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward — if he gives evidence to convict the other prisoner — whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.

Each prisoner faces the dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for writer five years. Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the second best outcome: one year in shikibu the tale of genji, jail. Romanticism Writer! However, the best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisoner’s dilemma scenario can be used to model the behaviour of competitive duopolists, for example those in the arms industry. A British and a French company are competing to secure an arms deal to sell a billion pounds’ worth of weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of $100 million to government ministers in Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the French company, the only other likely supplier of the arms. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is likely to be shared between the two suppliers. The British company’s profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and gets all the business. The chief executive officer of the British company thinks it a pity to pay out Expansion Essay, $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. In the absence of collusion, there are two strategies available to each firm: (a)Pay the bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.

Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the writer bribe: a net income of Essay Change in Business $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to romanticism writer, bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. To avoid losing all the Essay on Communicating business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to pay the bribe. In this scenario, paying the bribe is each firm’s dominant strategy, i. e. the strategy to be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and vice versa. Romanticism Writer! 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from wuthering heights, entering the market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of market power. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in order to maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the entry of writer new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the nelly dean price of its product to writer, a loss-making level in The MLB Essay, order to writer, force a rival firm out of rcn leadership business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from another part of writer their business empire to force smaller rivals out of the market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in order to maximise profits.

This arises when different customers have different elasticities of wallace group demand at different prices. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and romanticism, another an rcn leadership elastic demand, the firm will be able to romanticism writer, sell them the same product but at nelly wuthering different prices. Romanticism Writer! Train companies will typically price discriminate by charging different fares to different customers and also varying the price of a ticket at different times of the day to send price signals and create incentives and disincentives to shikibu the tale of genji, travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to romanticism, different customers based on differences in rcn leadership, the customers’ ability and willingness to pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only willing to pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to increase profit by taking consumer surplus away from consumers and romanticism, converting it into extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is greater than the extra costs incurred when charging different prices to different customers, it is in firms’ interest to indulge in this form of pricing.

10The gamer’s consumer surplus is ? 0, being the difference between the maximum price he was prepared to pay and the actual price he paid. The store owner’s producer surplus is murasaki ? 2, being the difference between the writer lowest price he was prepared to accept and the actual price paid. 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the legal protection given to an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for nelly dean heights up to romanticism writer, 20 years. This legal protection allows firms to make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.

Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and new product design frequently require high levels of research and development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the new product fails. Hence the incentive of making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Rcn Leadership! Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of 80%, whereas the domestic market share of Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of writer just over 50% between the domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the data is that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in more than one country. SAS’s market share in Norway is about 43% while its market share in Sweden is about 37%. The first part of the context data response question in ECON 3 and in on Communicating Change, ECON4 will usually be in writer, two parts. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). The second part asks for identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is only one data series in The MLB Expansion Essay, Extract A, one other significant feature of the data.

Some future exam papers may revert to romanticism writer, asking for two significant points of comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for identifying a significant feature in wallace group, the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for the question. 02The term ‘monopoly power’ does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to romanticism writer, a situation in which firms within the market possess the power to reduce output, raise the price, and make supernormal profit. Change! By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of romanticism writer monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for flights between particular airports. In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.

As the diagram below shows, on routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to P2, compared to a competitive market price of P1. It does this by restricting the number of flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of flights if the market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at The MLB Essay point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the level of writer output, with Air France then able to charge a price of P2. Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to customers who are prepared to pay more for a flight. Change! Alternatively, and presumably requiring the support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is a price set deliberately low to romanticism, discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.

A predatory price is set even lower, below average costs, with the The MLB Expansion intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the romanticism writer market, out of the market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of landing and take-off slots at French airports, to shikibu the tale, make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to use the airports. As with the first part of romanticism writer context data response question, in a people's, ECON 3 and in ECON4 the second part of the question divides into romanticism two parts. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to rcn leadership, explain the meaning of an economic term (in this case ‘monopoly power’). The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the more demanding skill of writer economic analysis. An answer is constrained to a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is attempted. This answer is more than sufficient to earn all 10 marks. In fact, the candidate is in rcn leadership, danger of spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to develop an romanticism writer answer to Essay Change in Business, the last part of the question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by writer, firms, usually to fix prices. Sometimes output may also be fixed.

In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to murasaki shikibu, keep firm E, which is the least efficient firm, in the market. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the writer inefficient and enabling firms to enjoy an easy life protected from competition, cartels display the zinn disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and restriction of choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of scale and improvements in dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to be good for the consumer.

For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against romanticism writer, the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in the public interest. These include joint product development and cooperation to improve health and safety within the industry, or to wallace group, ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of industry collaboration are normally deemed to be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is regarded as bad. Writer! [pic] Currently, within the European Union, cartels are usually deemed to be illegal, both by national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in zinn, the UK, and by EU competition policy. In both national and EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by the member firms of the writer cartel. Within the UK, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and practices to a court of law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). A People's History! Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is more effective than other aspects of competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an romanticism RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. Nevertheless, the punishments that the RPC can hand out are quite weak — usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.

Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at cartels, is based on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is activated only when firms operating within the wallace group EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of writer (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the UK and not competing with firms from other EU countries, would not attract the attention of the EU Competition Commissioner, who is in charge of EU competition policy. In practice, EU and national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the case that the EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is evidenced by the case study in Extract C in the question. The case study reported that the EU fined 11 national airlines about ˆ800 million for fixing the price of air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined ˆ104 million, Air France-KLM ˆ340 million and Cargolux Airlines ˆ79.

9 million. The case study also draws attention to the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by the tale of genji, a dissatisfied member of the romanticism writer cartel ‘blowing the whistle’ on other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the rcn leadership other cartel members are heavily punished. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word ‘solely’ in the question. Romanticism Writer! National and wallace group, EU policy should reinforce each other and be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is placed at the top of romanticism level 4 (17–21 marks) rather than in level 5. On Communicating Change In Business! The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. However, the analysis is on the thin side. To ensure a level 5 mark, the candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to each other. This is writer good evaluation.

Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and services, firms respond by employing more labour to increase production. Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is necessary for profits to zinn a people's history, be made when the goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is both similar to, and different from, perfect competition in the goods market. In both markets, the ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the interaction of romanticism writer all the wallace group economic agents operating in the market. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the ruling market wage, paid by firms and received by workers. Romanticism Writer! This difference illustrates role reversal in the two sets of markets. Households, which are the source of demand in the goods market, are the source of supply of labour in the labour market. Similarly, firms, which are the murasaki the tale source of supply in the goods market, are the source of demand (a derived demand) in the labour market.

As a result of role reversal, the romanticism ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for labour, and also the AR and Essay on Communicating Change, MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the ruling market wage facing each employer in the labour market is romanticism a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and also the average cost of labour (ACL) curve and the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the shikibu the tale of genji train drivers’ union, and with RMT, the National Union of romanticism writer Rail, Maritime and dean heights, Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workers’ unions. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at a rate of ? 3. 60 an hour for workers aged 22 and over. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the main rate for workers aged 21 and over; ? 4. 98, the 18–20 rate; ? 3. 68, the writer 16–17 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the rcn leadership apprentice rate, for romanticism apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an economic flow; it is the nelly payments received by an individual or household in a given time period. Romanticism! Wealth is an economic stock; it is the accumulated assets, property and savings owned by an individual or household over time. ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to an individual or household by the government via the taxation and social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is payments received by an individual or household in exchange for labour or interest on saving or the Essay Change in Business rent of an romanticism writer asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is a flow while wealth is a stock.

Personal wealth is the stock, or historical accumulation, of nelly dean heights everything people own, which has value. Writer! By contrast, income is the flow of money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of which (the part saved) can add to Essay, or enlarge personal wealth. This is one of the romanticism writer links between income and wealth. A second link operates in the opposite direction: the murasaki the tale wealthier people are, the more investment income they are likely to earn, which adds to their total income. Indeed, the rich benefit from a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the writer wealthy to save, and murasaki, saving adds to wealth, and so on. By contrast, many of the poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the poor have to borrow, borrowing adds to personal debt, income is then spent on writer debt repayment, consumption falls, and any wealth the poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and rcn leadership, wealth have always been unequally distributed in the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the poor. Three of the romanticism main causes of inequalities in the distribution of zinn a people's history income and writer, wealth in the UK are old age, unemployment, and the low wages of many of those in work.

Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on wallace group the state pension and lack a private pension. Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in line with average earnings. This meant that pensioners, albeit from a lower base, shared in the increase in national prosperity delivered by economic growth and higher real earnings. However, since the romanticism writer early 1980s, the nelly dean wuthering state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in line with the consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the romanticism writer real earnings of a people's history those in work have continued to rise. Pensioners reliant solely on the state for a source of income have especially suffered.

The state pension is now regarded very much as a ‘poverty income’. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of living of the elderly rises by more than any increase in the CPI. Romanticism! Unemployment benefits are also now linked to the CPI and, for similar reasons as apply to the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in the incomes of the unemployed generally fell below increases in the incomes of those in work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and a half million. This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of pensioners on low incomes). (Before moving on to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Shikibu The Tale Of Genji! Since 2009, the wages and salaries of much of the UK population in work have hardly changed at all, but the romanticism state pension and unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from Expansion, a lower starting point. At the romanticism same time, because of a series of Expansion crises in private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. ) Moving on romanticism writer to low pay as a cause of zinn widening income differentials, an romanticism important factor has been the disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in the private sector. An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Dean! Many of these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in romanticism, the British labour market.

There is now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the wallace group pile, and highly-paid jobs in romanticism writer, industries such as investment banking where the rate of The MLB pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in both real and nominal terms. Romanticism! This answer scores 14 out of the wallace group 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in the answer to the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of income inequality. The effects of writer old age and unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of on Communicating low wages is sound but a little thin.

It would have benefited from graphical analysis, showing for example that the widening difference between high and romanticism, low wages is partially caused by different demand and wallace group, supply conditions in writer, different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is Essay Change in Business progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in tax. A transfer is the payment of income by the state to a benefit recipient, without the writer person involved providing any labour in exchange for the income received. It is of course possible for the government to use progressive taxation to narrow the a people's history gap between pre-tax and post-tax income, without redistributing income. The tax revenue could for example be spent on tanks and guns. It is also possible for the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for example through subsidies given to already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on high incomes to spend on romanticism improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and transfers, the implicit assumption is that the rich are taxed more than the poor and that much of the tax revenue is Change transferred and given as welfare benefits to the poor. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and transfers provide an obvious way to reduce inequalities in writer, the distribution of income and wealth. Before 1979, UK governments of murasaki of genji all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of transfers of income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt — with some success — to reduce inequalities in the distribution of writer income. However, there is a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and heights, transfers are used with this aim in mind.

The reason for this relates to romanticism writer, the conflict between two of the principles or canons of taxation: equity and efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and possibly conflicting interpretations of what is fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayer’s ability to pay. Shikibu The Tale Of Genji! This principle is one of the justifications of progressive taxation, since the rich have a greater ability to pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Romanticism! Arguably, the high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an heights adverse effect on personal incentives. In particular, they may reduce the incentives to work harder, to writer, be entrepreneurial and to take financial risks.

Free-market and in Business, supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to a significant slowing down of the writer economy’s rate of growth. Wallace Group! The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the romanticism UK’s growth rate. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and transfers to the poor mean that people have less incentive to work harder and to The MLB Expansion Essay, engage in entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the romanticism writer ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at which they are available creates a situation in which the poor rationally choose unemployment and a people's history, state benefits in romanticism writer, preference to low wages and zinn a people's history, work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively ‘married to romanticism writer, the state’, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and other public property, as well as privately owned property.

Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of progressive taxation, are a disincentive to the better-off. Essay In Business! They stop working, or work abroad, and many hours are wasted in designing and applying complicated systems of tax avoidance — a paradise for accountants. Tax evasion (the failure to pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at the top and bottom of the income pyramid. Writer! Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the Essay in Business so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and romanticism, benefit cuts, which are the opposite of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the labour/leisure choice in favour of supplying labour, particularly for benefit claimants who lack the skills necessary for dean wuthering heights high-paid jobs. They also believe that to make everyone eventually better-off, the poor must first be made worse off. Increased inequality is necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Through a ‘trickle down’ effect, the poor would end up better off in absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.

Needless to say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to romanticism writer, narrow income differentials. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of intervention in the free market are necessary. One of wallace group these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of romanticism merit goods such as free state education and rcn leadership, healthcare, in romanticism writer, order to improve the social wage of lower-income groups. The social wage is that part of a worker’s standard of living received as goods and services provided at zero price or as ‘income in kind’ by the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to murasaki the tale, high taxation, with the disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to other aspects of writer government failure. It is important to read the question carefully.

This question does not ask for a discussion of whether the distribution of income should be made more equal. Unfortunately, the answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is Expansion still valid to argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and has been placed at mid-level 4. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on the actual set question and romanticism writer, more discussion and analysis of policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for nelly wuthering definitions in answers to the final parts of essay and context data-response questions. Romanticism Writer! Nevertheless, it is Essay on Communicating Change in Business still a good idea to define key concepts at the beginning of the answer as this acts as a good launching pad for developing the writer subsequent analysis and evaluation. Nelly! Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and non-rejectable. These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good — see answer to question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. A merit good is provided by the market mechanism and it has the characteristics of a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. A merit good, however, is often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by the free market.

There are two reasons for this. First, consumers do not value the positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an romanticism information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into pure public goods and The MLB Essay, non-pure public goods. National defence and police are examples of pure public goods — defined as public goods for writer which it is impossible to exclude ‘free-riders’. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and radio programmes and rcn leadership, also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Writer! Methods can be devised for converting the goods into private goods by excluding ‘free-riders’ (for example, electronic pricing of road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by Expansion, markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.

For public goods, the optimal level of consumption occurs when they are available free of charge. 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of consumption exceeds the short-term private benefit of consumption. However, when deciding how much to consume, individuals take account of romanticism short-term costs and benefits, but ignore or undervalue the long-term private cost and benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Rcn Leadership! Many people ignore the long-term benefit of dental check-ups, and decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to consume the service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: ‘If only I had visited the dentist more often when I was younger’. Writer! Likewise, school children who undervalue the long-term private benefit of education say later in life: ‘If only I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. ’ 4Property rights in wallace group, a market-based economy stem from the notion that an individual owns land or a good and can exclude other members of society from entering the land or using the good, unless they are willing to pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the market in which it operates. This can take the form of excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in the extreme, bribery.

This results in the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the romanticism firm to wuthering, fairly regulate its conduct in the marketplace; hence the term ‘regulatory capture’. 6A cartel is generally illegal because it is an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in dynamic efficiency. As a result of the principle of subsidiarity, UK and EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is involved in romanticism, relation to monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the issue is strictly national, relating only to the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to the UK competition authorities. See also the answer to Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 15–16 of these answers. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in many countries, including the UK, were close to nelly wuthering heights, collapse. Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in writer, the USA. Nelly Dean Wuthering Heights! Banks faced the danger of possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in writer, the value of their assets, stemming from the credit crunch and the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by murasaki of genji, the banks were now much less than their liabilities.

Banks make money by romanticism, lending out much greater sums than they receive as deposits from wuthering, customers. Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and can be paid back on demand, the writer bank is wallace group almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of it collapsing. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to romanticism, a fear of a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is rcn leadership not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in which the collapse of one bank leads to a string of collapses in other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on confidence in the economy, which may in turn lead to a collapse in aggregate demand and the creation of recessionary conditions.

Government ministers also realise the crucial role of banks in providing liquidity to both households and firms. When the banking system froze in 2007–08, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the cash supply to romanticism writer, perfectly well-run firms dried up and some of them went out of business. Zinn A People's! All this helps to explain why the British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to enable these banks to continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of loans both to business customers and to mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. At the time of effective nationalisation, the UK government stated that the romanticism writer nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the Northern Rock bank — the so-called ‘good bank’ but not the ‘bad bank’ element which is still state-owned — has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of Virgin Money. Rcn Leadership! 8As the answer to question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the romanticism writer Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to the general public in three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and zinn history, 1993.

An example of deregulation was a change in the law to allow building societies to compete with banks when granting loans to customers. 9In terms of income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the writer same income. Equity relates to dean wuthering heights, whether the distribution of income between different people is fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since people’s incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on people’s value judgements as to what is fair or just. 0In the poverty trap, also known as the earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and writer, national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is closely related to the poverty trap, since both affect the poor and result from the shikibu nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in the unemployment trap are out of work — at least in terms of officially declared employment.

The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who ‘choose’ unemployment because they are better off out of work, living on benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and NICs and romanticism, losing some or all of their right to shikibu the tale of genji, claim means-tested benefits. Writer! 1Fuel poverty is a people's history defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of their income on fuel. In July 2011, the UK government reported that more than a fifth of all households in the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 2009. Higher fuel bills meant the writer number of homes affected rose by rcn leadership, one million, or 22%, to 5. 5 million, according to romanticism writer, the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. Rcn Leadership! 9 billion tonnes of carbon pollutants in romanticism, 1990. This is forecast to rise to zinn, 5. 1 billion tonnes in 2050, an increase of 4. 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of romanticism writer 467%. One significant feature of the data is that, after 2010, the carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to continue to rise, whereas the dean rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is expected to slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to rise from about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. 7 billion tonnes.

OECD emissions are expected to rise from about 3. 5 billion tonnes to romanticism, about 3. 7 billion tonnes over the same period. Although this is an excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is worth reminding you of circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of question. First, candidates often fail to nelly dean heights, read the data carefully and end up quoting numbers that are too far different from writer, those in the Extract. Second, even when the numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to Expansion Essay, include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and a % sign for the % change in the first part of the answer). Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is vital to select a significant feature of the data rather than an insignificant feature. Writer! 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the shikibu the tale twin characteristics of non-excludability and non-rivalry. Non-excludability means that if the romanticism writer good is murasaki of genji provided to one person it is romanticism provided to all.

It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. e. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the good, it does not reduce the wuthering heights quantity of the good available for other people. The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and lead to global warming are both externalities and writer, a form of murasaki shikibu of genji public ‘bad’. (A public ‘bad’ is the opposite of a public good. People are generally prepared to pay for the removal of romanticism writer a ‘bad’, to rcn leadership, avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of public ‘bads’, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by romanticism writer, dumping the ‘bad’ in a public place, or on wallace group someone else’s property. Because of romanticism writer this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in the course of production and rcn leadership, consumption, for example by power stations and motorists. The unwilling victims of romanticism writer global warming cannot opt out of being adversely affected by the pollutants and they cannot charge a price which the polluter must pay for the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and regulation can in principle reduce that rate at which global warming is taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the emission of global-warming gases is different from the emission of many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. In the first place, the emission is international.

No one country acting on dean its own can prevent other countries from romanticism writer, continuing to emit gases. In the rcn leadership second place, the problem is historical. The atmosphere is continuing to warm up as a result of emissions which have occurred in writer, the past, indeed since the beginning of the rcn leadership industrial revolution about two centuries ago. It may be impossible to stop continuing global warming simply by romanticism, ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in the atmosphere will continue to contribute to global warming. And with the rapid growth of the world’s population, it is Essay Change probably impossible to keep emissions at their current level, let alone to reduce or to stop them.

This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks — 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the meaning of a public good and 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the issue posed by the question. It is important to remember that only the final parts of context data-response questions and essay questions test the skill of evaluation. Evaluation is not required in the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Do not be misled by the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. This is romanticism not the Essay in Business case. 03Extract C lists a number of benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change. The first of these is flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for example the destruction of writer property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of human life.

The second is Essay a decrease in heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the romanticism writer benefits are likely to be offset by the increased use of energy to provide the power for wallace group air-conditioning systems which will grow in writer, use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in summer. The extract goes on to mention that ‘with fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the need to nelly dean, find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and writer, water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressing’. It is a people's possible to take issue with this prediction, on romanticism writer the ground that it is now out of date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Vast quantities of Essay on Communicating Change shale gas lie beneath the earth’s crust and the technology now exists to extract and writer, use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the murasaki shikibu diminishing conventional supplies of writer natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and it will be used for home-heating, to replace petrol and in Business, diesel fuel, and for the provision of writer electricity. But is this a benefit or a cost?

It is certainly a benefit in that it will enable economic growth to continue and standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in the past, with all the possible adverse effects on economies and on human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to nelly dean heights, reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by 5°C may spell disaster for human-kind and life as we know it on planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of romanticism writer other ways in murasaki shikibu the tale, which climate change may have an impact on the UK economy. These include the decline of ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of romanticism hotel resorts in the south of the wallace group UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of romanticism writer crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of production, and on how water is used and stored. However, in my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. Nelly Dean! In conclusion, at the risk of being extremely pessimistic, I wish to return to the argument made in romanticism, the previous paragraph.

Again in my view, the costs which the UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to be far greater, at least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to murasaki the tale, a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. Romanticism Writer! It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to wallace group, make the UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in romanticism, the world. Rcn Leadership! Water shortages, if not occurring in the UK, may lead to romanticism, attempted mass migration of people from poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over Expansion water and other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and seeking a better life for romanticism writer themselves. The UK is likely to suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of The MLB climate change. This answer scores 16 out of 25 marks and is placed at the top of level 3 (10–16 marks). Although the candidate evaluates throughout the answer, and also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is weakened because evaluation is not preceded by strong enough analysis.

The analysis should have focused on diagrams showing the negative and positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the romanticism prompts sufficiently. The answer veers on the side of being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the top of level 3 and could possibly creep into the bottom of level 4. The grade descriptor for level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |10–16 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and The MLB, is |some attempt to romanticism, consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of data to wallace group, |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |

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Essay: The Kite Runner by romanticism, Khaled Hosseini. The Kite Runner, written by Khaled Hosseini, is a famous novel for its devastating and painfully honest depiction of a people's identity, betrayal, deception and romanticism writer, atonement. The narrative portrays the nelly journey of a boy escaping from writer his haunted childhood while torturing himself with his own contrition. These two concepts of identity and redemption play a vital role in murasaki shikibu the tale, creating the string that binds the characters together. As a reader of The Kite Runner, one embarks on a journey that leads through the life of the glamorous prosperous Afghanis, as well as the treacherous horrific life of those less fortunate.

Most importantly, however, one encounters face-to-face the good and evil that comes out when these two very distinct lives are intertwine. This bildungsroman narrated by the protagonist Amir is the tale of the relationship between the narrator and Hassan, his Hazara servant. Writer! It’s a journey through the wallace group war ravaged Afghanistan and the conflicts ridden mind of Amir. The memory plays a central part in reconstruction of the tale as the protagonist lays bare his inner conflicts and foibles. The simple act of running after kites finds a different and a strangely problematic voice in the narrative. Loyalty, conflicts, fear, strength, weakness mire together to give a colour that is Hussein’s Kite Runner. Amir as a child is physically weak and lacks natural courage and he finds resort in the arms of books and writer, the world of zinn history letters.

But his father fails (rather refuses) to see his talent outside the physical world. Amir’s soul mate is Hasan. Though being very close to him yet Amir always felt himself to be superior to Hassan because of his higher birth. Their lives takes a different turn when his inner weakness makes him betray Hassan. Writer! Amir realises his inner weakness but he refuses to accept the flaw even as it continues to. eat him from inside. He feels staying away from rcn leadership Hassan would cure him of his weakness. He fails terribly. The tale is Amir’s journey of redemption and romanticism writer, his attempt to win back his nang and namoes (honour and pride) in his own eyes.

The use of the wallace group narrative I not only gives the novel its basic unity, it also helps in creating a web which personalizes the tale and colours it with an honest inner view. One may often try to identify one’s own inner flaws as personified in romanticism, others but such an act invariably ends up fragmenting the self and shikibu the tale of genji, its relationship with the other becomes all the writer more complicated. Hosseini brings out this aspect deftly in the tale, the novel. Hosseini has created a moving tale that is not only very engaging but also invites us to look inside ourselves. A painfully honest story.

Amir’s ‘unatoned sins’, as they are described in the novel’s opening chapter, have plagued his conscience and cast an oppressive shadow over his joys and triumphs. The phone call interrupts Amir’s seemingly comfortable life as a married man and newly-published novelist in America, and launches an epic journey back to Afghanistan in search of romanticism writer redemption. The present paper explores guilt and perseverance in The Kite Runner as the motivation for an individual to seek redemption and attain the satisfaction of self-fulfillment. Unfolded through the first person narrative mode , the novel is structured like the zinn a people's history memory lane of the protagonist Amir whose sense of remorse and guilt over the sin of leaving behind his ever loyal friend Hassan, for reasons far too vague , force him to commit acts of expiation through return . Amir’s return to homeland, tarnished and tattered by romanticism writer, war, fundamentalism and murasaki shikibu of genji, the turbulence of a Taliban led regime unfolds his journey towards self identity and redemption. Unlike Changez in The Reluctant Fundamentalist, in The Kite Runner, Amir faces no sense of identity crisis in the adopted homeland. Rather he feels himself a stranger when he returns to romanticism writer the changed. realities of a people's his home town, Kabul. Amir’s journey home in search of Hassan’s surviving son, Sohrab is replete with conflict, violence and violations. In the novel, the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan is a volatile plane of romanticism clash and The MLB Essay, confrontation of identities and loyalties.

As Seyham describes,’ border carries intrinsically within itself an idea of perpetual motion and confrontation (201). The border thus turns almost into romanticism writer a real space in which the nelly confrontations between cultures , nationalities and languages take place , and in which , ideally the culture of hybridization replaces the traditional idea of romanticism writer a national identity. Amir is a cultural hybrid which makes him distinct and unique. Thus the novel revolves around the rcn leadership central axiom of personal selves permeated by political prejudices and romanticism writer, permutations. In a lifetime, everyone will face personal battles and guilt, some large and some small.Such as guilt over sneaking out, not doing homework, or telling your parents a little white lie. People find peace of mind through redeeming themselves, in other words, we do something that makes up for the cause of nelly dean heights guilt.

Khaled Hosseini’s novel ‘The Kite Runner’ revolves around betrayal and redemption. Redemption is the romanticism act of saying or being saved from sin, error or evil, which the The MLB main character Amir seems to need the most. Amir lives with the guilt he has built up over the years because of one incident from his childhood. Amir’s fathers words still echo through his head “A boy who won’t stand up for himself becomes a man who can’t stand up to anything.” ‘pg. 24. Although Amir destroyed the lives of many people, and romanticism, he has had more than one opportunity to redeem himself of his guilt, he is not the selfish little boy he once was. Nelly Wuthering! How often does one stop and romanticism writer, think, “How will this affect everyone else in my life?” Amir had a chance in the alley, to put Hassan first and change the nelly path of both their lives, but he made the decision to turn around and run because it was what he thought was best for him: “I had one last chance to make a decision.

One final opportunity to romanticism decide who I was going to be. I could step into zinn that alley, stand up for romanticism writer Hassan ‘ the way he’d stood up for me all those times in the past ‘ and accept whatever would happen to me. Or I could run. In the end, I ran. I ran because I was a coward.

I was afraid of Assef and what he would do to me. I was afraid of getting hurt. Rcn Leadership! That’s what I told myself as I turned my back to the alley, to Hassan. That’s what I made myself believe. I actually aspired to romanticism writer cowardice, because the alternative, the wallace group real reason I was running, was that Assef was right: Nothing was free in this world. Maybe Hassan was the price I had to pay, the romanticism lamb I had to heights slay, to win Baba.” Amir’s selfish ways were a result of the lack of his father’s affection in his life.

As a young boy, he was forced to deal with his father’s disinterest in him, which made him incredibly jealous of Hassan. Amir could not understand at romanticism writer, the time, why his father adored his servant’s son more than his own son. As the tension increases between Amir and Hassan, Amir can no longer stand to Expansion see Hassan everyday because of what Amir had not stopped and he could not bare seeing his father showing Hassan love and not him. Romanticism! Hassan and wallace group, his father are forced to leave their home after Amir places his watch under Hassan’s pillow and accuses him of stealing it. Writer! Hassan did not even deny the accusations because he had figured out what Amir was doing. “Hassan knew. He knew I had betrayed him and yet he was rescuing me once again, maybe for nelly heights the last time.” ‘pg.111Even after the alleged theft of the watch, Amir’s father is writer willing to forgive Hassan, which stunned Amir, and made him see that the love his father has for Hassan is greater than he imagined.

Amir did not just ruin Hassan’s life; he also ruined the rcn leadership lives of many people with his decisions after the incident in the alley. Baba lost a chance to watch his son, Hassan, grow up and also lost the chance to bring him to America so he could start a new life. Sohrab lost both his parents to war because they were still living in Afghanistan, lost his childhood to war, and tried to commit suicide as a result of Amir going back on writer, his promise to a people's keep him safe from orphanages. Soraya lost her right to the truth when Amir. kept his past a secret even though she opened up to writer him about hers. Rcn Leadership! It is one thing to romanticism destroy your own life with guilt, but it is murasaki shikibu the tale a completely different issue when you destroy the lives of romanticism writer others. Before Amir can go on the road to redemption, Amir must realize that he can’t go back and change what he has done as a child, and he must find inner peace. Although if it was not for Amir’s actions as a child, Sohrab never would have needed to be saved in the first place but by zinn history, saving Sohrab, the last piece of Hassan’s life, does make a difference.

From the moment he chose to romanticism writer turn his back on Hassan, there were many chances where “There’s a way to be good again” ‘pg.238 for all his wrongdoings, but he chose not to take any of zinn a people's these. Sohrab was his last and only chance for redemption. “I have a wife in America, a home, a career and a family”. But how could I pack up and go back home when my actions may have cost Hassan a chance at those very same things? And what Rahim Khan revealed to romanticism writer me changed things. Wallace Group! Made me see how my entire life, long before the winter of 1975, dating back to when that singing Hazara woman was still nursing me, had been a cycle of lies betrayals and secrets.” ‘pg.238. Amir admits that he cost Hassan a chance at romanticism writer, a good life and that he had many opportunities to change the outcome of Hassan’s life. But at this moment he realized he.

could lose everything he has built in America, but for the first time in his life, Amir did not care about only himself, he came to terms with what he had done, and he was ready to redeem himself at any cost. Amir finally became the man who stood up for himself and his sins. Throughout his childhood, Amir looked for his father’s affection and he never could get it. His father. had said “I’m telling you, Rahim, there is something missing in rcn leadership, that boy.” ‘pg.24 Amir’s father would have been proud of him at this very moment because that was all he had wanted from him.

The guilt that was built over the years was finally put to rest at the safety of Sohrab. In Afghanistan when Amir stood up for Sohrab and Assef aggressively beat him up, Amir had said “My body was broken’just how badly I wouldn’t find out romanticism, until later’but I felt healed. Healed at last. I laughed.” ‘pg.289 which showed Amir had come to terms with what he had done as a child and was finally felt relieved. A People's History! Although he was getting beat up, it did not matter anymore, he just wished he had stood up to Assef years ago, and maybe he would have earned his redemption in romanticism, that alley. In chapter seven, an unthinkable things happens: Hassan is raped in an alley by a bully, Assef, and Amir does nothing to stop it. He allows Hassan to a people's history be abused and romanticism writer, is secretly a little happy that Hassan is being punished for all of the attention he has stolen (at least in Amir’s mind) from Baba, Amir’s father. He runs away from the awful scene and says, ‘ The real reason I was running, was that Assef was right: Nothing was free in this world.

Maybe Hassan was the price I had to pay, the lamb I had to slay, to win Baba’. Things get even worse in chapter nine when Amir’s guilt, shame, and on Communicating Change in Business, anger are so great that he wants nothing more than for Hassan to be gone. Romanticism Writer! Amir tries several tactics, but. none of them work. Finally he frames Hassan by planting a watch and some money under Hassan’s bed. Baba is dean wuthering finally forced to ask Hassan directly about the romanticism writer incident. Baba came right out and asked. ‘Did you steal that money? Did you steal Amir’s watch, Hassan’?

Hassan’s reply was a single word, delivered in a thin, raspy voice: ‘Yes.’I flinched, like I’d been slapped. Wallace Group! My heart sank and I almost blurted out the romanticism writer truth. Then I understood: This was Hassan’s final sacrifice for me. If he’d said no, Baba would have believed him because we all knew Hassan never lied. And if Baba believed him, then I’d be the The MLB Essay accused; I would have to explain and romanticism writer, I would be revealed for what I really was. Baba would never, ever forgive me. And that led to another understanding: Hassan knew He knew I’d seen everything in that alley, that I’d stood there and nelly, done nothing. Writer! He knew I had betrayed him and yet he was rescuing me once again, maybe for the last time.

Amir wanted to get rid of Hassan, and Baba now sends Hassan away because of Amir’s lie. Wallace Group! We find out later that Hassan is also Baba’s son, so Hassan is being betrayed by both Amir, his brother, and Baba, his father. Romanticism Writer! Despite that, Hassan remains loyal and loving to them both. The opening lines of the zinn a people's history book speak of Amir’s guilt and remorse:That was a long time ago, but it’s wrong what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about how you can bury it, Because the past claws its way out. Looking back now, I realize I have been peeking into that deserted alley for romanticism the last twenty-six years. Amir lives with this guilt for a long time; more than two decades later, a family friend, Rahim Khan, offers Amir a chance for redemption. He wants Amir to come back to Afghanistan to rescue Sohrab, Hassan’s son, from an orphanage.

Hassan died. in another act of wuthering loyalty to the family. Romanticism Writer! Amir finally agrees to rescue the boy who, it turns out, is in a much worse place than an orphanage by the time Amir finds him. That was supposed to be the end of his obligation: Amir would rescue his nephew, Baba’s grandson, and a people's history, leave him with a nice family in Pakistan. Instead, Amir is moved to bring Sohrab back to the United States and raise him as his own son. This act of romanticism rescue serves as an act of redemption, both for on Communicating his own sins and his father’s against the true and loyal Hassan. Search our thousands of romanticism essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of wuthering expertise, and romanticism writer, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of wallace group this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini . Available from: [02-10-17]. If you are the original author of romanticism writer this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to wuthering request removal: 28-05-17 - Things Fall Apart Novel Analysis 15-05-17 - Every Trip Is A Quest 21-12-16 - Identity in Modern American Literature 13-11-16 - Abdul-Rahman Munif 05-11-16 - The Period of Maturity - The formation of an imagined community in Cities of writer Salt. - The Other Side of Silence 04-11-16 - “The False Moon” by Shirley Golden - Barker, Waters and Morrison – history in Essay Change, their writing - ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIC NOVEL.

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