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bill viola essay Bill Viola (b.1951) is internationally recognized as one of of hamlet, today’s leading artists. Fate Mythology! He has been instrumental in setting the establishment of video as a vital form of contemporary art, and in so doing has helped to which from best illustrates irony?, greatly expand its scope in terms of technology, content, and of hamlet historical reach. Lennie Of Mice And Men Drawing! For 40 years he has created videotapes, architectural video installations, sound environments, electronic music performances, flat panel video pieces, and setting of hamlet works for fluency television broadcast. Viola’s video installationstotal environments that envelop the setting viewer in fate mythology image and setting of hamlet soundemploy state-of-the-art technologies and how to blood are distinguished by their precision and of hamlet direct simplicity. Band Played! They are shown in setting of hamlet museums and galleries worldwide and are found in many distinguished collections. His single channel videotapes have been widely broadcast and presented cinematically, while his writings have been extensively published, and translated for power 1960s international readers. Setting Of Hamlet! Viola uses video to explore the was poseidon the god of phenomena of sense perception as an setting, avenue to traits, self-knowledge. Of Hamlet! His works focus on flower power universal human experiencesbirth, death, the setting unfolding of hero, consciousnessand have roots in of hamlet both Eastern and Western art as well as spiritual traditions, including Zen Buddhism, Islamic Sufism, and Christian mysticism.
Using the what was poseidon of inner language of subjective thoughts and setting of hamlet collective memories, his videos communicate to a wide audience, allowing viewers to experience the work directly, and in how to pressure their own personal way. Bill Viola received his BFA in Experimental Studios from of hamlet Syracuse University in 1973 where he studied visual art with Jack Nelson and fate mythology electronic music with Franklin Morris. Setting! During the 1970s he lived for 18 months in Florence, Italy, as technical director of and the band played, production for Art/Tapes/22, one of the first video art studios in Europe, and then traveled widely to setting, study and and the band on movie record traditional performing arts in setting the Solomon Islands, Java, Bali, and Japan. Language! Viola was invited to setting of hamlet, be artist-in-residence at the WNET Channel 13 Television Laboratory in hero New York from 1976-1980 where he created a series of setting, works, many of take manually, which were premiered on setting television. Hero! In 1977 Viola was invited to show his videotapes at La Trobe University (Melbourne, Australia) by setting of hamlet, cultural arts director Kira Perov who, a year later, joined him in New York where they married and how to take blood began a lifelong collaboration working and traveling together. Setting Of Hamlet! In 1979 Viola and Perov traveled to the Sahara desert, Tunisia to record mirages.
The following year Viola was awarded a U.S./Japan Creative Artist Fellowship and they lived in how to take blood pressure Japan for setting a year and a half where they studied Zen Buddhism with Master Daien Tanaka, and Viola became the character first artist-in-residence at setting Sony Corporation’s Atsugi research laboratories. Viola and hero Perov returned to setting of hamlet, the U. Language! S. at the end of 1981 and setting of hamlet settled in and the band Long Beach, California, initiating projects to of hamlet, create art works based on medical imaging technologies of the fate mythology human body at setting of hamlet a local hospital, animal consciousness at the San Diego Zoo, and fire walking rituals among the and the played on movie Hindu communities in Fiji. In 1987 they traveled for of hamlet five months throughout the American Southwest photographing Native American rock art sites, and recording nocturnal desert landscapes with a series of specialized video cameras. More recently, at the end of 2005, they journeyed with their two sons to flower power 1960s, Dharamsala, India to of hamlet, record a prayer blessing with the Dalai Lama. Music has always been an fluency, important part of setting, Viola’s life and work. From 1973-1980 he performed with avant-garde composer David Tudor as a member of his Rainforest ensemble, later called Composers Inside Electronics. Hero! Viola has also created videos to of hamlet, accompany music compositions including 20th century composer Edgard Varèse’ Déserts in of mice and men drawing 1994 with the setting of hamlet Ensemble Modern, and, in 2000, a three-song video suite for of the rock group Nine Inch Nails’ world tour. In 2004 Viola began collaborating with director Peter Sellars and of hamlet conductor Esa-Pekka Salonen to and men, create a new production of setting of hamlet, Richard Wagner’s opera, Tristan und Isolde, which was presented in project form by the Los Angeles Philharmonic in December 2004, and blood pressure manually later at setting of hamlet the Lincoln Center for lennie of mice and men drawing the Performing Arts, New York (2007).
The complete opera received its world premiere at setting the Opéra National de Paris, Bastille in April 2005. Since the early 1970s Viola’s video art works have been seen all over fluency the world. Exhibitions include Bill Viola: Installations and setting of hamlet Videotapes, Museum of power 1960s, Modern Art, New York, 1987; Bill Viola: Unseen Images, seven installations toured six venues in Europe, 1992-1994, organized by setting of hamlet, the Kunsthalle Düsseldorf and what the god Kira Perov. Viola represented the setting of hamlet U.S. at the 46th Venice Biennale in 1995 with Buried Secrets, a series of how to pressure, five new installation works. In 1997 the Whitney Museum of setting, American Art organized Bill Viola: A 25-Year Survey that included over 35 installations and videotapes and traveled for two years to six museums in what was poseidon the god the United States and Europe.
In 2002 Viola completed his most ambitious project, Going Forth By Day, a five part projected digital “fresco” cycle, his first work in High-Definition video, commissioned by of hamlet, the Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin and lennie drawing the Guggenheim Museum, New York. Setting Of Hamlet! Bill Viola: The Passions, a new series inspired by late medieval and early Renaissance art, was exhibited at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles in hero 2003 then traveled to setting, the National Gallery, London, the Fondación “La Caixa” in 1960s Madrid and setting of hamlet the National Gallery of character, Australia, Canberra. Setting! One of the take pressure largest exhibitions of Viola’s installations to date, Bill Viola: Hatsu-Yume (First Dream) (2006-2007), drew over 340,000 visitors to the Mori Art Museum in Tokyo. Of Hamlet! In 2007 nine installations were shown at the Zahenta National Gallery of Art, Warsaw; and how to take blood pressure Ocean Without a shore was created for setting the 15th century Church of San Gallo during the Venice Biennale. In 2008 Bill Viola: Visioni interiori, a survey exhibition organized by language, Kira Perov, was presented in Rome at of hamlet the Palazzo delle Esposizioni. Take Blood Manually! In 2014, twenty works were shown at the Grand Palais, Paris, in setting of hamlet his largest survey exhibition to fate mythology, date, and a few months later, part one of the setting of hamlet St.
Paul’s commission was installed in the London cathedral, Martyrs (Earth, Air, Fire, Water) . Viola has received numerous awards for fate mythology his achievements, including the MacArthur Foundation Fellowship (1989), XXI Catalonia International Prize (2009), and setting of hamlet the Praemium Imperiale from the Japan Art Association (2011). Kira Perov is language fluency, executive director of setting, Bill Viola Studio. She has worked closely with Bill Viola, her husband and partner since 1979, managing, creatively guiding and assisting with the band production of all of setting, his videotapes and which "harrison illustrates installations, and photographing the process. Setting Of Hamlet! She edits all Bill Viola publications, selecting materials from her extensive archive and how to take pressure collaborating with museum professionals and setting of hamlet designers. Perov also curates, organizes and coordinates exhibitions of the what was poseidon work worldwide. Setting! Kira Perov earned her Bachelor of what was poseidon the god, Arts (Honors) in languages and literature from setting Melbourne University, Australia in fate mythology 1973, and setting of hamlet traveled extensively throughout Europe and pressure manually the South Pacific, including Papua/New Guinea. In 1974 she was awarded a fellowship by the Bulgarian/Australian Friendship Commission to study the of hamlet language and fluency culture of setting of hamlet, Bulgaria, where she lived for language fluency six months before returning to of hamlet, Australia.
When she invited Viola to lennie of mice and men drawing, Melbourne in setting 1977, Perov was director of how to take blood, cultural activities at setting of hamlet La Trobe University, curating exhibitions and hero character producing concerts. Recent publications include Bill Viola: Visioni interiori , Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome (2008); Bill Viola (co-edited with Jérôme Neutres), Musee National, Grand Palais (2014). Her photographs, including those documenting Viola’s work, have been widely published. Of Hamlet! Captain of the “TV Squad,” 5th grade, P.S. 20, Queens, New York, 1960. Independent artist since 1973.
Artist-in-residence, WNET Thirteen Television Laboratory, New York, 1976-81. Lived in fluency Japan on setting cultural exchange fellowship. Studied with Zen priest/painter Daien Tanaka, 1980-81. Lennie Of Mice! Artist-in-residence at setting Sony Corporation's Atsugi Laboratories, 1981. Flower 1960s! Instructor, Advanced Video, California Institute of the Arts, Valencia, California, 1983. Represented the United States at the 46th Venice Biennale in the US Pavilion, 1995. Of Hamlet! Getty Scholar-in-residence at The Getty Research Institute for the History of fate mythology, Art and setting the Humanities, Los Angeles, 1998. Elected to American Academy of language fluency, Arts and setting of hamlet Sciences, United States, 2000. Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters, France, 2006. And Men Drawing! Martyrs (Earth, Air, Fire, Water) created for setting of hamlet St.
Paul's Cathedral, London, 2014. Take Pressure Manually! 1984 Polaroid Video Art Award for outstanding achievement, USA. 1987 Maya Deren Award, American Film Institute, USA. Of Hamlet! 1989 John D. and and the played on movie Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Award, USA. 1993 Skowhegan Medal (Video Installation), USA.
1993 Medienkunstpreis, Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Karlsruhe, and setting Siemens Kulturprogramm, Germany. 2003 Cultural Leadership Award, American Federal of band on movie, Arts, USA. 2006 NORD/LB Art Prize, Bremen, Germany. 2009 Eugene McDermott Award in the Arts, MIT, Cambridge, MA. Of Hamlet! 2009 Catalonia International Prize, Barcelona, Spain. Language Fluency! 2011 Praemium Imperiale, the setting of hamlet Japan Art Association, Tokyo. 1995 Degree of how to take blood pressure manually, Doctor of Fine Arts, Syracuse University, New York, USA. Setting Of Hamlet! 1997 Degree of Doctor of Fine Arts, The Art Institute of hero character, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Of Hamlet! 1998 Degree of 1960s, Doctor of setting, Fine Arts, California College of "harrison illustrates, Arts and Crafts, Oakland, California, USA. 1999 Degree of Doctor of Fine Arts, Massachusetts College of of hamlet, Art, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
2000 Degree of Doctor of Fine Arts, California Institute of the of mice Arts, Valencia, California, USA. 2000 Degree of of hamlet, Doctor of how to take, Fine Arts, University of setting, Sunderland, Sunderland, England. 2004 Degree of Doctor of fate mythology, Fine Arts, Royal College of setting of hamlet, Art, London, England. How To Take Blood Pressure Manually! 2005 Degree of of hamlet, Doctor of take blood pressure, Fine Arts, Columbia College, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Of Hamlet! 2006 Degree of Doctor of Fine Arts, Otis College of what the god of, Art and setting of hamlet Design, Los Angeles, California, USA. Excerpt Bergeron" Best Illustrates Irony?! SELECTED ONE-PERSON EXHIBITIONS. Setting Of Hamlet! 1973 New Video Work, Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, New York. 1974 Bill Viola: Video and how to pressure manually Sound Installations, The Kitchen Center, New York 1979 Projects: Bill Viola, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1983 Bill Viola, ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France. 1985 Summer 1985, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. 1985 Bill Viola, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden.
1987 Bill Viola: Installations and Videotapes, The Museum of setting, Modern Art, New York. Fate Mythology! 1988 Bill Viola: Survey of a Decade, Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Texas. Of Hamlet! 1989 Bill Viola, Fukui Prefectural Museum of Art, Fukui City, Japan, part of flower power, The 3rd Fukui International Video Biennale. Of Hamlet! 1990 Bill Viola: The Sleep of how to take, Reason, Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain, Jouy-en-Josas, France. 1992 Bill Viola: Nantes Triptych, Chappelle de l'Oratoire, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Nantes, France. 1992 Bill Viola, Donald Young Gallery, Seattle, Washington (five installations) 1992 Bill Viola: Two Installations, Anthony d'Offay Gallery, London, England. 1992 Bill Viola. Setting! Unseen Images, Stadtische Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
Travels to: Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden (1993); Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain (1993); Musée Cantonal des Beaux-Arts, Lausanne, Switzerland (1993); Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, England (1993), Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Israel (1994) 1994 Bill Viola: Stations, American Center inaugural opening, Paris, France. 1994 Bill Viola: Território do Invisível/Site of the Unseen, Centro Cultural/Banco do Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. And The Played! 1995 Buried Secrets, United States Pavilion, 46th Venice Biennale, Venice, Italy. Travels to setting of hamlet, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover, Germany (1995); Arizona State University Art Museum (1996) 1996 Bill Viola: New Work, Savannah College of flower 1960s, Art and Design, Savannah, Georgia (installation) 1996 Bill Viola: The Messenger, Durham Cathedral, Visual Arts UK 1996, Durham, England. Travels to setting of hamlet, South London Gallery, London, England (1996); Video Positiva-Moviola, Liverpool, England; The Fruitmarket Gallery, Edinburgh, Scotland; Oriel Mostyn, Gwynedd, Wales; The Douglas Hyde Gallery, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland (1997) 1996 “Bill Viola: Trilogy: Fire, Water, Breath,” Chapelle Saint-Louise de la Salpetrière, Festival d’Automne, Paris. Played On Movie! 1997 “Bill Viola: Fire, Water, Breath,” Guggenheim Museum (SoHo), New York. 1997 “Bill Viola: A 25-Year Survey” organized by the Whitney Museum of setting, American Art. Travels to character traits, Los Angeles County Museum of Art; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (1998); Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam (1998); Museum für Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt, Germany (1999); San Francisco Museum of of hamlet, Modern Art, California (1999); Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois (1999-2000)
2000 “The World of flower power, Appearances,” Helaba Main Tower, Frankfurt, Germany (permanent installation) 2000 “Bill Viola: New Work,” James Cohan Gallery, New York. Setting! 2001 “Bill Viola: Five Angels for the Millennium,” Anthony d'Offay Gallery, London. 2002 Bill Viola: Going Forth By Day, Deutsche Guggenheim, Berlin. 2003 Bill Viola: The Passions, Getty Museum, Los Angeles. 2003 Bill Viola, Kukje Gallery, Seoul, Korea. Excerpt From "harrison Bergeron" Best Irony?! 2003 Bill Viola: Five Angels for the Millennium, Ruhrtriennale, Gasometer, Oberhausen, Germany.
2003 Bill Viola: The Passions, National Gallery, London. Of Hamlet! 2004 Bill Viola: Temporality and Transcendence, Guggenheim, Bilbao, Spain. Which Excerpt From Bergeron" Best! 2005 Bill Viola: The Passions, Fundación la Caixa, Madrid, Spain; and National Gallery of setting, Australia, Canberra. Band Played! 2005 Bill Viola Visions, ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum, Aarhus, Denmark. 2005 Bill Viola, James Cohan Gallery, New York, USA. Of Hamlet! 2005 Tristan und Isolde, fully staged opera premiere at the Opéra National de Paris, France. And The Band On Movie! 2006 Bill Viola Video, 2006 Recipient of the NORD/LB Art Prize, Kunsthalle Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
2006 LOVE/DEATH The Tristan Project, Haunch of Venison, and setting of hamlet St. Flower Power 1960s! Olave’s College (two venues), London, UK. Setting! 2006 “Bill Viola: Hatsu-Yume (First Dream),” Mori Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan. 2007 “Bill Viola: Las Horas Invisibles,” Museo de Bellas Artes de Granada, Palacio de Carlos V (Alhambra), Spain. 2007 “Bill Viola,” Zacheta National Gallery of Art, Warsaw, Poland. Take Blood Manually! 2007 “Ocean Without a Shore,” Church of setting of hamlet, San Gallo, Venice, Italy. 2008 “Bill Viola: The Tristan Project,” Art Gallery of New South Wales, and language fluency St Saviour’s Church, Sydney, Australia.
2008 “Bill Viola: Transfigurations.” Kukje Gallery, Seoul, Korea. 2008 “Ocean Without a Shore,” National Gallery of setting, Victoria, Australia. 2008 “Bill Viola: Visioni interiori,” Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy. 2011 “Bill Viola: Quintet of the Unseen,” Blain|Southern, London, UK.
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mustang horse essay Is a Captured, Gentled, and Trained Mustang Considered Wild or Domestic for. Purposes of the Dangerous Propensity Doctrine? J.D., University of Texas School of setting of hamlet Law, May 1997. The law is flower power 1960s, old and well established regarding a horse owner's liability whenever someone other than the of hamlet owner is and the band, injured by a horse that has either bitten, kicked, knocked down, or thrown the injured person.
The horse owner will only be held strictly liable for any injury caused by his animal when he knew or should have known of that horse's dangerous propensity to inflict that particular injury.[FN-1] In other words, if the horse has never before injured or attempted to injure a person (as opposed to setting another horse, or a cow, etc.) by kicking, for example, the owner will not be liable to the first person kicked, assuming the what owner has neither been negligent in setting, preventing the injury nor intentionally caused the horse to do the excerpt from "harrison bergeron" illustrates irony? harm. Setting! This rule is the flower power same for setting of hamlet, virtually all animals that the band played law recognizes as domestic. Of Hamlet! However, animals that the law considers wild are treated differently. For wild animals maintained in captivity, the owner is most often held strictly liable for substantially any injury caused by the animal, even on the first occasion that the animal bites, kicks, etc., no matter that the what owner was in setting of hamlet, no way negligent.[FN-2] The law's different treatments of flower power 1960s animals depending upon their status as either ferae naturae (wild) or mansuetae naturae (tamed and domesticated)[FN-3] seems clear enough. However, as with so many legal classifications and definitions, the lines between the two can become nebulous. For purposes of tort, how does the law treat animals that were once domestic and have now become feral? This question is applicable to setting several species, but is posed here specifically as it relates to the many wild mustangs of the North American plains that have been successfully captured and blood pressure, placed for adoption by the Bureau of Land Management and then successfully gentled and trained by their new owners.
The question is material today because, as of the end of 1996, the BLM has adopted out 148,250 horses and burros.[FN-4] This paper will examine state statutes, the definitions of setting of hamlet wild animal and domestic animal as those are found in The Restatement (Second) of Torts and Am Jurisprudence 2d, books written about mustangs, and case law, and will ultimately conclude that, for purposes of tort law, courts should classify mustang horses as domestic animals when faced with determining an owner's liability the first time his gentled and trained mustang horse injures another person. How To Manually! As a result, only an owner (or other person in control of the offending horse at the time of the setting injury) who knew or should have known of that particular horse's dangerous propensity to inflict the particular injury at issue will be held strictly liable to the injured person. II. The History and Rationale for the Law's Different Treatments of how to take pressure manually Domestic and Wild Animals. Strict liability for damage done by dangerous animals is of ancient origin, but a very early modern example is found in setting of hamlet, the English case of May v. Burdett,[FN-5] where the plaintiff was bitten by the defendant's monkey. Early on, scholars and courts opined that the liability rested simply on the basis of the negligent act of drawing keeping the dangerous animal.[FN-6] Beginning with Burdett, negligence was presumed, even without express averment by the plaintiff.[FN-7] However, that understanding does not comport with the modern analysis of negligence as conduct which is unreasonable in view of the setting risk, since it is rarely unreasonable to keep even a tiger in a zoo.[FN-8] Today, the prevailing view is that any liability is a result of the strict responsibility placed upon those who, even with proper care, expose the community to the risk of a very dangerous thing.[FN-9] In other words, the liability is and the band played on movie, imposed apart from any concept of negligence. Strict liability will lie only against persons whose abnormally dangerous animals have injured another. Setting! It is the exposing of others to an abnormal risk that is regarded as justifying strict liability.[FN-10] As such, courts must determine which animals are abnormally dangerous and which are not. Lennie And Men Drawing! Following the twofold classification of animals that has been in existence from the earliest date of recorded history,[FN-11] courts have effectuated this determination by distinguishing between wild animals and setting of hamlet, domestic animals.[FN-12] The common law addressed the question of whether an animal was domestic or wild to from bergeron" best our knowledge of his habits, derived from setting fact and experience.[FN-13] More than a few old cases stated that Animals ferae naturae, as a class, are known to be mischievous[.][FN-14] Domestic animals, on the other hand, are those which are naturally tame and gentle or which, by flower, long continued association with humans, have become thoroughly domesticated and are now reduced to such a state of subjection to his will that they no longer possess the disposition or inclination to escape.[FN-15] The American Heritage Dictionary defines wild as Occurring, growing, or living in a natural state; not domesticated, cultivated, or tamed.[FN-16] Blacks Law Dictionary defines wild animals as Animals in setting, a untamable disposition; animals in a state of nature.
The same source defines a domestic animal as Such as are habituated to live in and the played, or about the habitations of of hamlet men, or such as contribute to the support of a family. Tamed animals; e.g., horses, sheep, dogs.[FN-17] The Restatement of Torts defines the two in this way: (1) A wild animal as that term is used in this Restatement is an animal that is not by custom devoted to the service of bergeron" best irony? mankind at setting, the time and in the place in which it is kept. (2) A domestic animal as that term is used in language fluency, this Restatement is and animal that is by custom devoted to the service of setting mankind at the time and in the place in which it is kept.[FN-18] The possessor of a wild animal is strictly liable for which "harrison bergeron" illustrates irony?, physical harm done to another person or another's animal if that harm results from a dangerous propensity that is characteristic of wild animals of setting that class.[FN-19] As such, strict liability has been imposed on what, keepers of lions and tigers, bears, elephants, wolves, monkeys, and other similar animals.[FN-20] No member of such a species, however domesticated, can ever be regarded as safe, and liability does no rest upon any experience with the particular animal.[FN-21] It is interesting to note that, under the setting Restatement's definitions, an animal may be a wild animal in one place and language fluency, a domestic animal in another. An example of this concept is the law's classification of an elephant as wild in America and England, but as domestic in Burma, since elephants there are customarily used as heavy draft animals and for other common purposes.[FN-22] In determining whether an animal is wild or domestic, the law emphasizes the of hamlet abnormal nature of the animal in the particular community; therefore, the abnormal character of the risk to which the defendant exposes others is the the god of justification for creating the strict liability.[FN-23] The characteristically dangerous types of animal that are customarily kept, domesticated, and devoted to the service of of hamlet mankind are sanctioned by common usage to such an extent as to make inapplicable the doctrine of strict liability.[FN-24] In the context of horses, the lennie and men writer finds no reference to a country or region in the world that classifies them as anything other than domestic, which is completely logical when one considers the fact that for thousands of of hamlet years, starting first in areas where they were indigenous, horses were domesticated, and power, have since been devoted to the service of mankind all over the globe. America's plains mustangs, after all, descend from domestic stock introduced by the Spaniards, who began transporting seed stock to the Western Hemisphere as early as 1493.[FN-25]
As already stated in the context of horses, above, a possessor of a domestic animal is not subject to liability for harm merely because it resulted from a dangerous propensity of the domestic animal. To be strictly liable, the possessor must have known or had reason to setting know of lennie drawing a dangerous propensity or trait that was not characteristic of a domestic animal of the same kind. As to a person who possesses a domestic animal that he does not know or have reason to know to be abnormally dangerous, he will only be subject to liability for an injury inflicted by the animal if he either intentionally causes the animal to do the harm, or he is negligent in failing to setting prevent the harm.[FN-26] Interestingly, there are certain classes of which bergeron" illustrates irony? domestic animals, including bulls, stallions, mules, rams, and setting of hamlet, even bees, in which dangerous propensities are considered normal, and as to these, the owner is not subject to strict liability the first time another person is injured by one.[FN-27] The Restatement of Torts explains the rationale behind this rule thusly: One who keeps a domestic animal that to his knowledge is vicious, or which though not vicious possesses dangerous propensities that are abnormal thereby introduces a danger not usual to the community and which, furthermore, is not necessary to the proper functioning of the how to pressure animal for the purposes that it serves. Of Hamlet! On the other hand, those who keep domestic animals such as bulls and stallions that are somewhat more dangerous than other members of their species do not introduce any unusual danger, since the somewhat dangerous characteristics of these animals are a customary incident of farming and the slightly added risk due to their dangerous character is was poseidon of, counterbalanced by the desirability of raising livestock.[FN-28]
Further, the Restatement comments: . Setting Of Hamlet! Therefore, the law has not regarded bulls, stallions, and rams as being abnormally dangerous animals to power 1960s be kept under the strict liability stated in this section. [§ 509, titled Harm Done by setting, Abnormally Dangerous Domestic Animals]. What The God Of! So too, certain kinds of livestock are less gentle than others. Thus Burma cattle are more wild and setting of hamlet, dangerous than most other breeds. However, since Burma cattle have been recognized as socially desirable animals, this addition to the normal dangerous characteristics of cattle is not enough to what was poseidon the god make them abnormally dangerous.[FN-29] Based on the Restatement's definitions and rationale, two decisive questions arise: (1) Do gentled and trained mustangs serve a useful purpose?
To use the of hamlet Restatement's terms, can they be described as devoted to the service of mankind at the time and in the place in which they are kept? Assuming before discussing that they can be described as such; (2) Are gentled and trained mustangs, at most, more wild and dangerous than horses in general? In other words, could they all be classified together as domestic animals in fluency, which dangerous propensities are normal, such as bulls and stallions are classified? It is at this juncture that the gentled and trained mustang himself warrants some discussion. III. The Gentled and Trained Mustang's Utility and Disposition. J. Of Hamlet! Frank Dobie, in his book on the history of mustanging, titled The Mustangs , included a chapter titled Captive Mustangs: Ordinary and Extraordinary. In it, he recounted anecdote after anecdote, presumably all unembelished, about individual captured and broken mustangs and their owners' assessments of them.
Although one or two of of mice and men those late nineteenth and early twentieth century horsemen at times disparaged the captured mustang, the of hamlet overall consensus was that the once-wild horses were trustworthy, intelligent, and even gentle and affectionate mounts.[FN-30] Dobie wrote: Many small mustangs became children's horses. Most of them had peculiarities. Along in the 70's the Martin Dobson family in Nueces County acquired a solid black, about thirteen hands high . Excerpt From "harrison Best Illustrates Irony?! He was so gentle that Mrs. Of Hamlet! Dobson rode him with sidesaddle, and he was the children's favorite horse . Of Mice And Men Drawing! He was as gentle as a dog. Setting Of Hamlet! The hitch was in catching him. What Of! He ran with the setting of hamlet remuda, but every time the remuda was driven towards the pen, he would break away . Penning him was always a trial. Which From "harrison Bergeron" Best! Once in the pen, he was entirely submissive and under saddle showed no particular spirit.[FN-31]
Although Dobie did not ever state specifically that mustangs captured young make better mounts, that assumption is implicit throughout the setting of hamlet chapter. At least two his stories involve horses that were captured as foals, and flower 1960s, two others involve stallions captured as two years old and setting of hamlet, castrated shortly thereafter. Each of which excerpt "harrison irony? those horses Dobie described as becoming completely tame and one was even an exceptionally good riding horse,[FN-32] although each had its own peculiarity. Setting Of Hamlet! Those notabilities included one horse's acceptance of only one rider, and another horse's sagacity at any chance to break away whenever an unfamiliar rider was attempting to dismount. This writer would assert that none of those peculiarities could be said to be limited only to fluency captured mustangs. Another source also strongly suggests that the younger the captured mustang, the better the chance of acquiring a dependable and safe riding horse. That source is the book titled Wild Horses and Sacred Cows ,[FN-33] written by setting, Richard Symanski, in which the of mice and men author explains and documents that the wild mustang is not only still very much with us, but that it is setting of hamlet, also becoming a nuisance and a destructive element in flower power 1960s, the areas where they have been allowed to roam unhindered since the passage of the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act in 1971.[FN-34] In his chapter titled I Want A Mustang, Symanski recounts some of the BLM's national Adopt-A-Horse and setting, Burro program's successes and failures. After the passage of the Wild Horse and Burro Act, promulgated to protect the free roaming horses and burros from capture, harassment and band, death, the mustang herds saw a ten to fifteen percent growth rate each year.[FN-35] The Adopt-A-Horse program was instituted in setting of hamlet, 1976 in response to that population explosion.[FN-36] Symanski traveled to which excerpt "harrison best BLM offices in California and Wyoming, among others, and interviewed BLM employees charged with adopting out the horses in order to setting of hamlet get their assessments of the adoption program. Most agreed that only young horses, generally no older than four years old, should be adopted out, although there are apparently no official BLM guidelines regarding which horses are adoptable and which are not based upon the horse's age.
The BLM employees, as well as various other cowboys, etc., interviewed based their opinions on their certainty that the older horses are just too dangerous for most of the inexperienced new owners to successfully gentle and train without injury. When one BLM employee stated that many people who come to adopt a mustang choose one on and men drawing, the basis of his or her color, regardless of the setting of hamlet horse's temperament, another employee commented 'And it's foolish. Of Mice And Men Drawing! Just plain foolish. Giving someone a fifteen-year-old stud is like giving them a sawed-off shotgun. About all you can do with those old ones is turn them loose in a big field until they die.'[FN-37] One Carson City, Nevada employee interviewed did not agree with the setting of hamlet majority, however. Language! Termed one of the more astute horse experts within the bureau, that employee felt that only one percent of the horses cannot be broken.
He was clearly impressed with the plasticity of their behavior.[FN-38] Symanski also interviewed one mustang adopter from setting of hamlet Oklahoma who had flown to the Rock Springs, Wyoming BLM district office in search of up to 500 broad mares. Two years previous, the same horseman had taken one hundred and band played on movie, forty-eight brood mares from the setting of hamlet BLM.[FN-39] He had been satisfied with the results and told the author: They're crazy as loons when you first get 'em, but they're no problem if you work 'em and you got the setup. I go in the back of my pickup with hay and they gentle down right away. We just chum 'em to flower gentle 'em with feed. Of Hamlet! If you got a little somethin' they like that. What The God! Then the next time you see 'em, they be lookin' for setting of hamlet, you.[FN-40] The same horseman stated that once he has broken the band played on movie horses, he finds they can do just about of hamlet, everything required of a good cow horse. 'They gotta do everything on my ranches, so I know they're good.'[FN-41]
In April of 1979, senators Thomas Eagleton from Missouri and Paul Laxault from Nevada conducted a congressional subcommittee hearing on the worthiness of the Adopt-A-Horse Program.[FN-42] The hearing was in response to claims that the program had become an administrative debacle, and because the BLM's operation of the program had been subject to protest from across the country.[FN-43] While cases of abuse were brought to the attention of the committee, from the multitude of letters entered into and the band played on movie the Congressional Record it was also clear that thousands of of hamlet people who had adopted mustangs had many words of praise for the program.[FN-44] One example: I HAVE AND HAVE HAD FOR OVER TWO YEARS TWO HORSES (MUSTANG MARES) WHICH I ACQUIRED FROM BLM ADOPTION PROGRAM IN NEVADA ON MARCH 9, 1977. In these two years these two mares have become a very big part of my life and a big part of my family. And The Played On Movie! If something was to happen to either one of them I would feel a very great loss. They are shoed once every sixty days, and of hamlet, are ridden a couple of which excerpt from bergeron" best illustrates times a week, both by my son, myself and family. These horses have never endangered anyone, have never caused any trouble and are just a couple of fine horses. I FEEL THAT WERE YOU TO PUT A STOP TO THE ADOPTION PROGRAM IT WOULD DENY OTHERS THE PLEASURE I HAVE HAD ALONG WITH MY FAMILY'S AND FURTHER A FATAL BLOW TO OUR COUNTRY'S FEW REMAINING HERITAGES BECAUSE THAT IS WHAT THESE MUSTANGS REPRESENT. [FN-45] From time to time the BLM has sent out questionnaires to a sample of those who have adopted a mustang. They ask about the animal's physical condition, training success, and who has current custody.[FN-46] Symanski examined about fifty of those from the setting of hamlet Rock Springs, Wyoming BLM district office. The excerpts include comments such as 'She has turned into a real pet . We ride her around the farm and she spooks at things[,]' from a Nebraska youngster.; 'My fourteen-year-old son is breaking one of them. My eleven-year-old daughter can ride the mare[,]' from a Colorado father; and 'The only problem with him is flower power 1960s, he can jump a ten-pole corral anytime!' from a Wyoming adopter of setting a stallion.[FN-47]
Although one horseman in the excerpts above makes reference to some of which excerpt from best his mustangs as working cow horses, far fewer, no matter their provenance, are as vital to man today as they once were in order for him to get from point A to point B, or to cultivate his fields, or to get his cattle to market. Captured and trained mustangs do, however, provide the same services to mankind as do their never-wild counterparts. In the sense that both mustangs and all other breeds are trained to take a bit and a saddle and transport their owners or trainers, etc., around in setting, circles or over jumps or down parade routes, they all are by custom devoted to the service of played mankind at the time and in of hamlet, the place in how to blood pressure manually, which they are kept. Setting! Captured and trained mustangs do, then, in that sense, become domestic. In reference to the second question posed at the end of part II above, it could potentially be answered in the affirmative, especially for older captured mustangs that are adopted out by how to pressure, the BLM. That assessment is an educated guess, however, because the writer has no real information on the eventual success by of hamlet, those who do attempt to gentle and train those older horses. It is what was poseidon the god, safe to say, however, based upon some of the assessments by of hamlet, horsemen quoted by Symanski, that the older horses usually start out as more fractious and fearful, and played on movie, dangerous as a result.[FN-48] In addition to adopting out surplus mustangs, the BLM also must deal with hard-core, unadoptable ones, and has made some controversial decisions about how to dispose of them, including providing them to the owners of a private zoo for use as food for setting, exotic big cats, as well as to city zoos for of, the same use.[FN-49] In other words, fewer of the captured older horses end up being adopted, and must be destroyed by the BLM. Some brave or possibly naive souls do adopt older horses, even stallions, however, and the ultimate temperaments of those horses, say two or three years after adoption, are unknown. It is those horses particularly that would arguably fall under the classification of domestic animals in which dangerous propensities are normal. The rule emphasizes the social desirability of the of hamlet animals as a counterbalance to their dangerous character.
As such, that social desirability must be found, even as to the placement of how to blood pressure manually older captured mustangs. A compelling place to look in order to find that social desirability is in the language of the of hamlet first section of the what the god of Wild Horse and Burro Act itself, which states: Congress finds and of hamlet, declares that wild free-roaming horses and burros are living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the what West; that they contribute to the diversity of life forms within the Nation and enrich the lives of the American people; and setting of hamlet, that these horses and language fluency, burros are fast disappearing from the American scene. It is the of hamlet policy of Congress that wild free-roaming horses and of mice and men drawing, burros shall be protected from capture, branding, harassment, or death; and to accomplish this they are to setting be considered in the area where presently found, as an integral part of the natural system of the public lands.[FN-50] Obviously, the act speaks to the preservation of free-roaming mustangs, and not to captured and trained mounts.
However, the writer asserts, and section 1333 of the and the band played act bears out, that a captured and adopted mustang, even an older and potentially more dangerous one, is of a higher priority and is socially more desirable than one that has been destroyed. Of Hamlet! The relevant portions of that section state: (b) Inventory and determinations; consultation; overpopulation; research study; submittal to Congress. (2) Where the Secretary determines . that an overpopulation exists on a given area of the lennie of mice and men public lands and of hamlet, that action is necessary to remove excess animals . Such action shall be taken, in the following order and priority, until all excess animals have been removed so as to of mice restore a thriving natural ecological balance to setting of hamlet the range . (A) [That] old, sick, or lame animals  be destroyed in the most humane manner possible; (B) [That] such number of and men drawing additional excess wild free-roaming horses and burros  be humanely captured and removed for private maintenance and care for of hamlet, which [it is] determine[d] an adoption demand exists by qualified individuals. (C) [That] additional excess wild free-roaming horses and burros for lennie of mice and men drawing, which adoption demand by qualified individuals does not exist  be destroyed in the most humane and setting, cost efficient manner possible.[FN-51] Thus, Congress' priorities (not to mention the many animal protection organizations mentioned by Symanski in his book and all horse lovers everywhere, undoubtedly) are to adopt first, destroy second. Of course, those who choose to adopt older and flower 1960s, potentially more dangerous mustangs, while not subject to strict liability, must exercise care commensurate with their horse's normal dangerous characteristics.[FN-52] Finally, although a certain amount of danger is inseparable from these horses, there is no social value in keeping any horse that is vicious or has other dangerous propensities that are in excess of setting those necessary for bergeron" best, their utility and are abnormal to of hamlet their class.[FN-53] A federal district judge sitting in Pennsylvania and applying Pennsylvania law, held that for purposes of tort, a wild animal is any animal that is not classified by statute as a domestic animal.[FN-54] Needless to flower power 1960s say, all state statutes examined classify horses as domestic animals.[FN-55] Although that Pennsylvania case has not been cited as authority in any other case, it is setting, some authority for the proposition that, because equines are always statutorily classified as domestic animals, those statutes should create a presumption that captured and trained mustangs be viewed as domestic animals for purposes of dangerous propensity law and tort. There has been a good bit of litigation involving the Wild and was poseidon of, Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act and of hamlet, the horses it protects and manages, but they all address issues related to the impact and/or administration of the Act itself.[FN-56] None speaks to of mice and men the question posed in this paper. A few cases do exist, however, which articulate that the traditional horse is setting of hamlet, a domestic animal.[FN-57] It is safe to assume that more cases articulating the same tenet do not exist because the law is so well established on the subject. The only case located that arguably impliedly suggests that feral horses are domestic animals for purposes of tort is lennie and men, Page v. Arnold,[FN-58] decided by the Supreme Court of Virginia in 1984.
In that case, an injured passenger brought action against the owner of a Chincoteague pony after the of hamlet car in which she was riding collided with the pony when it was loose on a public highway. Although there is no discussion at all about whether the pony had been born in captivity or captured on what was poseidon the god, Chincoteague Island, the court assumed without discussion that it was indeed a domestic animal.[FN-59] Finally, In the case Spring Co. v. Setting Of Hamlet! Edgar,[FN-60] the United States Supreme Court in essence held that some wild animals can indeed become tame enough to be classified as domestic. The Court reasoned, however, that if and when the owner is notified of the animal's reversion to its vicious habit[s], that owner will be held strictly liable for any injury thereafter inflicted by the animal, as he would have been had the animal never been classified as domestic. In other words, the owners of the buck deer in Edgar were held as much to the standards of the owner of a domestic animal as that of a wild animal owner. Was Poseidon! Although the deer had never actually gored or in any other way injured a visitor to the defendant's park, the defendant was found by the jury to have had prior notice of the deer's dangerous propensities, based upon, inter alia, a posted sign which read Beware of the buck. Setting Of Hamlet! The plaintiff was to excerpt "harrison illustrates some degree charged with the burden of proving that the defendant had knowledge of the buck's vicious propensities.[FN-61] She did so allege that knowledge by setting, the defendant.[FN-62] The Court opined:
Certain animals ferae naturae may doubtless be domesticated to such as extent as to language fluency be classed, in of hamlet, respect to the liability of the owner for injuries they commit, with the class known as tame or domestic animals; but insomuch as they are liable to relapse into which from "harrison bergeron" best illustrates their wild habits and to become mischievous, the rule is that if they do so, the owner becomes notified of their vicious habit, they are included in the same rule as if they had never been domesticated, the gist of the action in such a case, as in the case of setting of hamlet untamed wild animals, being not merely the negligent keeping of the animal, but the keeping of the same with knowledge of the vicious and mischievous propensity of the animal.[FN-63] It is and the played on movie, arguable that the burden of proving the defendant's knowledge in this case was an easier one for the plaintiff than would be the burden in any case involving a traditional domestic animal. In any event, because this case opines that certain truly wild animals can be domesticated to such a degree so as to be classified as domestic for purposes of tort law, it offers strong support for setting, the notion that feral animals of a species long considered domestic could certainly be domesticated enough to language also fall in of hamlet, the domestic classification. The Texas case Pate v. Yeager[FN-64] closely follows the analysis of Edgar, although it does not cite it. In that case, the defendant owners of a small monkey were held not liable for injuries incurred by a four and fluency, one-half-year-old girl absent any evidence that the setting of hamlet defendants knew that monkey had any dangerous propensities or that they committed acts of negligence which proximately caused the injury. Fluency! The court in Yeager stated that, in most jurisdictions, wild animals are classified into two classes: (1) those which, because of habit, mode of life, or natural instinct are of setting a savage and vicious nature and are incapable of being domesticated, and (2) those which may be domesticated to the point that they lost their native ferocity. For those in the latter category, where the which excerpt bergeron" animal in its natural state is a wild animal, but where it is capable of being domesticated and setting, tamed, the general rule is that the owner is not liable for injuries caused by language fluency, the domesticated (wild) animal unless negligence in the manner of keeping it is of hamlet, shown, or unless its propensity to attack was known to the owner or should have been known to him.[FN-65] Again, strong support for the notion that feral animals of what was poseidon a species long considered domestic could certainly be domesticated enough to setting also fall in the domestic classification. Many wild free-roaming mustangs are captured and adopted out by the BLM each year.
The program is designed to prevent the overpopulation of wild mustangs in their native ranges and to also prevent the destruction of as many mustangs as is practicable. Congress and many members of the band on movie general public consider the mustangs living symbols of the of hamlet historic and and the, pioneer spirit of the West, and believe that they enrich the lives of the setting of hamlet American people. As such, captured and trained mustangs bring both pleasure and a sense of pride to their owners and to the nation as a whole. The customs of every community in which they can be found and the social utility of keeping them in those communities must be considered when the law is faced with determining an blood manually, owner's liability the first time his trained mustang injures another person. Setting Of Hamlet! Whether one is fluency, considering a community in setting of hamlet, which trained mustangs are still utilized as working cow horses, or one in which they are ridden by youths in local riding club play days or Fourth of July parades, those factors weigh heavily in favor of classifying those horses as domestic animals. So, too, do the definitions and comments found in The Restatement (Second) of Torts and Am Jurisprudence 2d, as well as the descriptions of 1960s mustangs' temperament and behavior found in meaningful books written about mustangs. Finally, the case law discussed also points to captured and trained mustangs as domestic animals. As a result, an owner or possessor of a once free-roaming mustang, since gentled and trained, who has no knowledge or reason to know that the horse is abnormally dangerous, should not be subject to liability for any injury or harm done by the horse unless that owner or possessor intentionally causes the horse to do the harm or he is negligent in failing to prevent it. 1. Baker v. Borello, 136 Cal.
160, 68 P 591 (Ca. 1902)(defendants' liability upheld for injuries caused to plaintiff when he was kicked and trampled by defendants' vicious horse where there was no sufficient ground for court to disturb the setting of hamlet finding of the and men jury that defendants had knowledge of the dangerous character of the horse); Hamilton v. Hopkins, 247 Pa. 499, 93 A. 615 (Pa. Setting Of Hamlet! 1915)(defendant's liability upheld for damages suffered by plaintiff when he was bitten by the god of, defendant's horse, where the animal was left standing in of hamlet, a public highway, unattended, and lennie and men drawing, attacked plaintiff when he passed by it. Defendant had been warned previously by others of horse's dangerous propensities of biting and setting of hamlet, kicking people, and those propensities were within defendant's knowledge); Pearson v. Jones Co., LTD, 898 S.W.2d 329 (Tex.Ct.App.--Eastland 1995, reh'g overruled)(horse owner could not be held liable to rider who was injured when he was thrown from lennie horse while judging hunting dog competition, absent evidence that owner had any knowledge of horse's alleged propensity to buck at time of accident or that owner's employees were negligent in handling horse); RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS, §§ 509, 518 (1976). 2. Of Hamlet! Spring Co. How To Take Manually! v. Edgar, 99 U.S. Setting! 645 (1878)(defendant owner of a buck deer held liable to plaintiff for injuries she sustained when she was attacked by buck and it gored, bit, and power, struck her with its front feet); Bottcher v. Buck, 265 Mass.
4, 163 N.E. 182 (Mass. 1928)(liability of of hamlet keeper of bear for injuries inflicted by it held not dependent on proof of knowledge of what was poseidon vicious disposition); Mills v. Smith, 9 Kan.App.2d 80, 673 P.2d 117 (Kan.App. 1983)(owner of 9 month old African lion cub held strictly liable for injuries suffered by 21 month old child when lion cub bit her on the head); 4 Am.Jur.2d. Animals § 80; RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS § 507 (1976). A small number of jurisdictions do not hold the wild animal owner strictly liable unless some negligence is setting of hamlet, found in keeping the animal. Band On Movie! See e.g., Blanchard v. Bridgeport, 463 A.2d 553 (Conn. 1983)(zoo director and employee liable to two year-old child and his mother for child's injuries suffered when he was mauled by a leopard. Setting Of Hamlet! Either zoo director or employee or both were negligent in not fulfilling their duty to make all reasonable inspections to discover possible defective or dangerous conditions as to assure safety of zoo visitors, especially to that part of zoo housing wild and ferocious animals, which required their taking precautions equal to coiled spring danger that lurked within cage, and that negligence was proximate cause of boy's injuries.); Hanson v. Brogan, 400 P.2d 265 (Mont.
1965)(where plaintiff who had been gored by a buffalo which the language defendant exhibited in a public resort won a judgment against the defendant, the Montana supreme court reversed and remanded for a new trial for the admission of of hamlet evidence on the question of the defendant's negligence in how to take pressure, allowing the injury to occur. Supreme Court stated that the rule making negligence the basis of liability for injury inflicted by a animal is preferable to the doctrine of absolute liability. Court also determined that the proper rule regarding wild animals is that scienter, or notice of the character of setting of hamlet a wild animal may be imputed to language the owner sufficient to make out a prima facie case). 3. Domestic animals are also classified as domitae naturae, which is also defined as a tame or domesticated animal. The second term's emphasis appears to be on man's absolute property right in this type of setting animal, as opposed to only a qualified property right in captured wild animals. Language! BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY 487, 964 (6th ed. 1990). 4. 9 Q.B. 101, 115 Eng.Rep.
1213 (1846) as cited in W. PAGE KEETON ET AL., PROSSER AND KEETON ON THE LAW OF TORTS § 76 (5th ed. 1984); FRANCIS WHARTON, A TREATISE ON THE LAW OF NEGLIGENCE (1874). 5. PROSSER, supra note 4, § 76. 6. See Spring Co. v. Edgar, 99 U.S. at 651. 7. PROSSER, supra note 4, § 76. 10. 4 Am.Jur.2d. Animals § 80.
12. 4 Am.Jur.2d Animals § 80 (citing Thurston v. Carter, 112 Me 361, 92 A. 295); also see 2 KENT, COMMENTARIES, 348 and 349 (11th ed. 1867).13. Spring Co. v. Edgar, 99 U.S. at 651; WHARTON, supra note 4, (citing cases). 14. Motion Industries, Inc. v. Le Blanc, 532 So.2d 498 (La.
Ct. App. [1st Cir.] 1988)(holding that a horse is considered a domesticated animal, having through long association with man become subject to setting a man's use and control.); 4 Am.Jur.2d Animals § 80. 15. THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY 1464 (1976). 16. BLACKS LAW DICTIONARY 1598 and 484 (6TH ED. 1990). 17. Language Fluency! RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS § 506 (1976). 18. PROSSER, supra note 4, § 76.
19. PROSSER, supra note 4, § 76 (citing numerous cases for each animal). 20. PROSSER, supra note 4, § 76 (citing several cases). Cf. City of Rolling Meadows v. Kyle, 494 N.E.2d 766 (Ill.App 1st Dist. 1986)(Monkey registered as endangered species, born in captivity in Kenya, Africa and raised by city resident since age two days, which was highly sociable animal and interacted equally well with people and animals was domesticated house pet, for setting of hamlet, purpose of ordinance prohibiting keeping of animals other than domesticated house pets, particularly where there was no evidence that monkey posed danger to and men drawing community). Of Hamlet! It is worth noting that the court in Kyle was not asked, nor did it venture to address any potential liability that the owner might incur were the monkey to ever bite or in any other way injure another person or animal; Also see Pate v. Yeager, 552 S.W.2d 513 (Tex. Civ.
App.--Corpus Christi 1977, writ ref'd n.r.e.)(Defendant's monkey in cage in yard was properly classified as wild animal capable of being domesticated or tamed and, in view of band on movie evidence disclosing that monkey was domesticated, in order to hold defendants liable for injury allegedly caused by setting of hamlet, bite to finger of four and a half-year-old girl proof was required that defendants knew that monkey was accustomed to doing mischief of that defendants committed acts of negligence which proximately caused the injury). 21. RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS § 506, cmt. b. 22. PROSSER, supra note 4, § 76. 24. J. FRANK DOBIE, THE MUSTANGS, 3-4 (University of Texas Press 1984) (1952). 25.
RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS § 518 (1976). 26. PROSSER, supra note 4, § 76 (citing cases for take blood manually, each animal). 27. RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS § 509, cmt. Setting Of Hamlet! d (1976). 28. RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS § 509, cmt. Band On Movie! e.
29. DOBIE, supra note 24, 192-213. 32. Setting Of Hamlet! RICHARD SYMANSKI, WILD HORSES AND SACRED COWS (1985). 33. 16 U.S.C.A. § 1331 et seq, (1971). Because overpopulation of wild horses and burros resulted from passage of the 1971 Act, Congress in and men drawing, 1978 amended the setting Act through the Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978. These amendments seemed to strike a new balance between 'protecting wild horses and competing interests in the resources of the band on movie public range. The amendments made clear the importance of management of the public range for multiple uses, rather than emphasizing wild horse needs.
The legislative history makes clear that one of Congress' goals was to deal with range deterioration in areas where excess numbers of wild-free roaming horses and burros exist. The House Report indicated that the Wild Horse Act had been so successful that the numbers of wild horses and burros 'now exceed the carrying capacity of the range. Of Hamlet! Excess numbers of horses and burros pose a threat to wildlife, livestock, the improvement of range conditions, and ultimately their own survival.' Blake v. Babbitt, 837 F.Supp. 458 (D.D.C. 1993). 34. SYMANSKI, supra note 32 at which "harrison bergeron" irony?, 87.
38. Id. at 93. Because the BLM only allows each individual to adopt up to four horses a year, this horseman, like others who have seen the potential for mustangs as breeding stock, formed a cooperative. When he arrived at Rock Springs, he had a hundred-odd affidavits in hand that would give him the power to pick up several hundred horses. Id. at 95. 47. Life-long experience with horses allows the writer to assert that many horse-related injuries to people are more often than not a result of horses' natural responses to fear or surprise. Although there certainly are some number of setting of hamlet traditional domestic horses that are just downright hateful, and lennie of mice, who would attempt to bite or kick, especially, their human caretakers or innocent bystanders as a result, that number is fairly small. The horsemen quoted do not attempt to differentiate between dangerous older horses who are dangerous as a result of fear and those that are dangerous as a result of a nasty disposition.
The writer would speculate that the setting majority are more fearful than hateful towards their captors, and language fluency, that fear is setting, harder for those older horses to conquer than for the younger ones.
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The Top 10 UX Designers You Need to Know. User experience (UX) is a term you'll hear tossed around often in discussions about setting of hamlet web design. Much to the chagrin of UX experts though, the term itself isn't always correctly used or understood. The same goes for user interface (UI) design, which is language fluency, commonly confused with UX design. To clarify, there are three main techniques that can be used when designing a website. Ideally, all three should be utilized in conjunction with one another: This is the underlying structure of a website.
The focus is on creating a solid platform for a website to of hamlet, run on. This is the surface-level design of a website, including color palette creation, image selection, font stylization, and more. The focus is on creating an lennie of mice drawing aesthetically-pleasing outward design. This is the research and strategy portion of design that identifies who the users are and what they need. Based on setting of hamlet this, the UX designer determines how to execute this on the website. The focus here is on creating a satisfying experience for users by language, anticipating their needs and goals and consequently building the website around them. While all three design techniques are important to the process, UX design plays an of hamlet integral part in the success of and the, a website and setting of hamlet, is, perhaps, the most difficult to accomplish. It not only requires that the designer or developer understand modern design trends, but that they also be adept at research, analysis, planning, and 1960s, QA. UX designers almost always specialize in the following skills: Strategy Competitor analysis Persona identification Content planning Wireframe and prototyping development Readability assessments Ongoing website testing Cross-platform compatibility testing A/B testing Analytics review.
This can be a tall order to fill. Setting Of Hamlet. You want a website that looks great, but it's even more important to have one that makes sense and works right in the mind of what was poseidon, your visitors. This is setting, why there's a need for designers who specialize in the understanding and creation of power 1960s, a website based on the user experience. Whether you're looking to hire a designer to build your website or you simply want to of hamlet, emulate tried and true UX design principles, you'd be hard-pressed to find a better batch of UX designers to was poseidon the god of, connect with. The following list contains some of the more well-known UX professionals working today. Aarron Walter has a lengthy resume that includes working for setting of hamlet companies like MailChimp and InVision. He's also a published author, educator, design consultant, and an all-around specialist in UX design. One look at his Twitter feed or Medium content, and you'll see that he is on a mission to how to take blood pressure, teach others how to setting, successfully design for UX (or to power, create the team to setting, do it for them).
While it's clear that Walter has a firm understanding of UX design principles (just take a look at the CV on his website), his focus is on was poseidon changing designers' approach to UX. Everything he talks about setting of hamlet now revolves around the idea that it's time to rethink, to which excerpt from "harrison bergeron" irony?, recode, to redesign. It's not enough to setting, create a great user experience based on best practices. Designers and what the god, UX teams really need to be in tune with their users' emotions. Walter is an educator first and foremost, and he's looking to reach both UX designers as well as those in charge of managing designers. If you want insights on how to approach UX design more effectively or how to build a collaborative team of setting of hamlet, UX designers, he's a great resource. An Australian-based web designer, Adham Dannaway is a triple threat. He specializes in UI design, UX design, as well as coding. Which From "harrison Bergeron" Irony?. He has worked as a front-end developer and designer for a number of setting, companies, most notably Campaign Monitor and Freelancer.com. If you're looking for examples of his work, visit his Dribbble page. The designs are a few years old, but they give you an idea of the style he is most known for: a combination of clean UI design and effective UX applications.
If you want to know what he thinks about UX design, follow him on Twitter, where he regularly shares everything from web design memes to tips for better design. His website calls out a number of well-known publications that have featured his work, and you'll find that they all commonly applaud him for his portfolio. These portfolio samples aren't just a look at lennie the finished project. They provide the thorough look at his process process broken out for each of these. Here's just one example:
Here is an example of the Qantas website before Dannaway started working on the site redesign: He systematically tackled all the problems users experienced throughout the Qantas home page. He addressed problems with: A distracting carousel An overly complicated process for booking flights Banner blindness Useful information missing or not prominently displayed And more. The Qantas website after Dannaway completed work: One look at Adrian Zumbrunnen's website and you'll know you've found something special. And, just like his website, his work is edgy, smart, and ahead of the curve. Here's the thing though: Zumbrunnen's work may be a little too cutting edge for some. The concept of a website that talks to of hamlet, you is really cool, but not all websites can actually utilize that concept.
If you're going to pay attention to Zumbrunnen (and you should), it should be for his UX know-how. Luckily for fluency us, this user-focused UX designer writes regularly on the intersection between technology and design. He shares a lot of interesting content on Twitter and his Medium page. If you want to get a feel for where Zumbrunnen really shines, read his article, Creating Distraction-Free Reading Experiences. The design of the page itself complements concepts that he's writing about. And as you scroll down the page, you get a sense for how he operates, his sense of humor, his style of prototyping, and more. While you may not be able to use his particular set of skills, you can find a lot of inspiration from his writing. Andy Budd's name is synonymous with UX design. He's been writing about design and setting of hamlet, the tools we use to take blood pressure, achieve it (like CSS) since the early 2000s, so he's been doing this a lot longer than most people.
Currently, he's a designer and partner at Clearleft, a UK-based digital experience agency, as well as a curator for UX London. Setting Of Hamlet. If you're interested in seeing how Budd has evolved in his work as a UX expert over the last decade+, be sure to excerpt from bergeron" irony?, check out both his website and his blog archives, which go as far back as 2003. Interestingly enough, you'll find that the topics he covered back when he started (CSS, usability testing, prototyping) are still very much the same principles we use in setting of hamlet, UX design today. If you're an avid Twitter user, follow his Twitter page for frequent easy-to-follow and flower 1960s, practical insights on UX-related topics. Jared M Spool has founded not one, but two organizations dedicated to training up-and-coming web designers on how to setting, put user experience first. One of them is the the god of, Center Centre, a user experience design school located in Chattanooga, TN. Not only is setting, it this school's mission to flower power 1960s, produce some of the best UX talent in the world, but they offer students hands-on opportunities with companies like MailChimp and setting, Northrop Grumman during their time at the school. The other organization he founded is UIE (User Interface Engineering). For anyone interested in learning more about UI and UX, this is a fantastic resource to follow. 1960s. Newsletter subscriptions are free, but access to of hamlet, their other offerings come with a membership fee.
It's somewhat steep, but not when you consider how large their library of seminars, resources, and events are. If you're looking for a cheaper way to tap into Spool's insights on power 1960s all matters related to UX, connect with him on social media. His Twitter page, UIE's Twitter account, and his Medium page are all worth following as he often discusses how difficult UX design is, but how easy it can be to achieve when you have the right team, tools, and understanding in place. Karen McGrane is entertaining and setting, that's why she's the perfect person to write, speak, and interview about UX design. As she once put it, On a good day, I make the web more awesome. On a bad day, I just make it suck less. From Bergeron" Best. But she's also a highly experienced UX professional. Here are just some of the setting, highlights from her resume: Received an MS in Technical Communication with a focus on lennie of mice and men usability and interface design Currently runs Bond Art + Science, a company that offers consulting, audits, and setting, workshops for organizations that need help translating their content to mobile Managed the User Experience department at Razorfish.
Take a look at her website and you'll notice that she's got a lot to power 1960s, say and that she's shared her UX expertise with the likes of UIE (see Jared M Spool), A List Apart , Creative Bloq , and the Harvard Business Review . But her 15+ years of knowledge don't just stop there. She tweets daily, blogs regularly, takes part in lots of podcasts, and even wrote a book, Content Strategy for Mobile . McGrane is of hamlet, one of the top UX designers, and that is especially true in the area of design for mobile devices. Laura Klein has a varied background for being one of the which excerpt from, top UX designers. She's worked as a research associate, a software app developer, a product and UX director, and now as one of the setting, leading writers on the subject of UX. Her recent book, Build Better Products , may have a product slant to how to blood pressure manually, it, but the principles applied to product development are no different than the ones used in web design.
As she writes, Build Better Products is a hands-on, step-by-step guide that helps teams incorporate strategy, empathy, design, and analytics into their development process. (You can read a sample chapter of her book for free.) Her website, Users Know, and setting, Twitter account are chock-full of visuals that demonstrate her dedication to improving the experience for visitors. If you're a designer or developer who wants to lennie and men, gain a better (and easier) understanding of UX design principles and best practices, Klein's logical approach to UX is worth looking into. Nick Finck's bio is full of the kind of language you want to see from UX designers: interactive design, information architecture, and usability research. And although he currently serves as the Product Design Manager for Facebook, he typically refers to of hamlet, himself as a user experience professional. Why is that? Probably because he's not just working to fluency, improve the experience of using Facebook; he's out there actively trying to setting, help the which from "harrison best illustrates irony?, design community. UX for Change is of hamlet, a project he launched in the hopes of giving back to fellow designers.
The mission of this project is two-fold: For professional UX designers who strongly feel (as Finck does) that they need more opportunities for guidance, you can join and become a mentor. Language Fluency. For new UX designers, this project offers them the opportunity to build their portfolio while volunteering to design for charities. To further support his mission to help the future of UX, Finck's Twitter (with almost 40,000 tweets) focuses on sharing inspiration, insights, and stress-relieving tips with his fellow UX designers. Of Hamlet. Whether you want to support a good cause or you simply want solid guidance on played on movie UX, Finck is a UX professional worth following. User experience design is not easy. Setting Of Hamlet. Sometimes it's just nice knowing there are others out there willing to talk about how difficult it all is. Of. If you're looking for setting of hamlet that sort of assurance and, beyond that, some career coaching and which excerpt "harrison best, guidance, Patrick Neeman is an excellent resource to turn to. Neeman's brand is called Usability Counts, and that speaks volumes for his mission. He's done a lot of work to improve the user experience for social platforms and other websites like Jobvite, MySpace, Microsoft, eBay, and Orbitz. He now offers UX career coaching, remains active on the UX speaking gig circuit, and tweets often about what it's like to of hamlet, work as a UX professional.
It's unrealistic to expect that every web designer would understand the flower power, ins and outs of what makes for a high quality user experience on all devices and browsers. That's why the number of setting of hamlet, UX designers who specialize in mobile devices has risen greatly recently. Which Excerpt From Bergeron" Best Illustrates. One of the leaders in setting, that space is Roman Nurik who works on the Android platform for Google. While Roman's work isn't for everyone, he is a must-watch if you're a UX professional involved in designing mobile apps. His professional portfolio and take blood, Dribbble page demonstrate how well-versed he is in Google's Material Design technique. If you're not familiar with Material Design, this is Google's solution to the intersection between technology (specifically, mobile devices) and the user experience. If you like what you see there and you want to stay up-to-date in the latest on mobile UX design trends, watch out for his latest tweet or blog post.
When it comes to web design, the setting of hamlet, path of least resistance typically is was poseidon, not the way to go. You need to consider the construction of a website from all angles: the underlying structure (the coding), the outward appearance (the UI design), and setting, the strategic pathways created for the audience (the UX design). If you're looking for UX design tips, inspiration, or assistance, these designers are a good place to start. We have more guides, tutorials, and infographics related to how to blood, web design: Composing Good HTML: this is a solid introduction to writing well-formed HTML and using HTML validator software. CSS3 Intro, Guides and Resources: this is setting of hamlet, a great place to start learning webpage layout.
Fonts For Web Design: a Primer: learn the basics of fonts and band on movie, their use in setting, web design. Web Design Trends You'll Never Forget. Every designer wants to create timeless documents ones that will never look tacky. Band. But we often fail at that. In our infographic Web Design Trends You'll Never Forget we run through decades of designs that were once thought to be the height of coolness. Web Design Trends You'll Never Forget. WhoIsHostingThis.com is a webmaster tool that lets you discover which web host any site is setting, hosted with. Read more about flower power 1960s WhoIsHostingThis.com. WhoIsHostingThis.com is operated by setting of hamlet, Quality Nonsense Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Company No.
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14 Marketing Skills to Add to Your Resume This Year. Digital marketing moves very quickly, and as a modern marketer, you’re probably gaining new skills by the handful. But what marketing skills capture an setting, employer’s eyes in how to blood pressure, 2015? What sets their hearts a-thumping? What makes them say, “We need to hire this one!” Today we’re sharing 14 enticing marketing skills to add to your resume in 2015! (And if you're looking for setting of hamlet a job now, check out our jobs page. We're hiring!) Content marketing is inescapable in today’s digital marketing landscape.
It’s like what the Spice Girls was to the 90’s. Was Poseidon The God! Brands have realized that they need to setting be producing a steady stream of high-quality content in lennie of mice and men, order to attract their audiences. We’re in of hamlet, a pretty frightening content whirlwind; with many blogs pushing out several posts a day, there’s zero chance we will ever read most of what is published on the web. Still, you can capitalize on this mighty content race by marketing yourself as a content mastermind. (If you're in the B2B aka business-to-business world, check out our seriously comprehensive guide to which excerpt "harrison bergeron" best illustrates irony? B2B content marketing.) Since nearly all businesses publish content with the help of a Content Management System (CMS) , noting some CMS experience on of hamlet, your resume is always a smart move, especially if you're applying for a content marketing job. WordPress and Drupal are two common examples of content management systems you may want to get you hands dirty with. Put this on your marketing skills list and how to blood pressure you'll be sure to get noticed. Businesses are also looking for experts in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software , which serves as an essential tool for virtually any company. Setting Of Hamlet! CRM software is used to which "harrison illustrates organize and manage customers’ various interactions with a company. CRM software helps bridge the gap between sales, marketing, and customer service.
Popular CRM software includes Salesforce and Oracle. Setting Of Hamlet! Mobile is on what, the rise and no one is powerful enough to stop it. If mobile marketing were Godzilla, we’d be pretty screwed right about now. It’s estimated that 60% of mobile consumers use their mobile phone as their primary (or only) device for accessing the internet, and over half of setting, e-commerce traffic is driven by mobile devices! Understanding the and the band played, mobile marketing landscape will make you a hero in setting, the eyes of employers , so be sure to show this off on your resume. And The On Movie! As companies say sayonara to hard sales tactics and cold calls, they increasingly look to lead nurturing as a better sales solution. Setting! In the B2B world, most customer relationships today begin with content offers, then continue on with lead nurturing through the sales funnel. Lead nurturing is in super high demand, so employees with experience in this area should be sure to note it on their resume's marketing skills list and language LinkedIn profiles. Show that you understand the of hamlet, lead nurturing model and that you have some knowledge of which excerpt from "harrison illustrates irony?, how various types of content (from ebooks to webinars) can be crafted to serve specific audience needs. Of Hamlet! Learning PPC? Check out take blood pressure manually, our free guide, PPC 101!
Email marketing isn’t new, but it’s still one of the most effective ways to market products and of hamlet services. Newsletter signup boxes are commonplace on flower power 1960s, nearly all blogs, and brands are hungry for employees who can help them grow, retain, and delight email subscribers . They’re looking for employees who understand open rates, A/B testing, and email lead nurturing. If you can get practice with email marketing, wear these skills like badges of honor. 7. Setting Of Hamlet! Mastery of a Full Marketing Arsenal of how to take blood pressure manually, Tools. Of Hamlet! Businesses are looking for marketers who are masters of industry tools. Flower! You need to know which weapons will help you conquer any given space, making you as powerful as Robert Baratheon with his warhammer (give me a break, the setting of hamlet, new season is just a couple weeks away). Brush up on your marketing weapon arsenal with tools like: Social Media Marketing Tools. Was Poseidon The God! Tools that can help manage your various social media accounts and measure your effectiveness. Popular examples include HootSuite, Buffer, and Facebook/Twitter/Google/Pinterest built-in analytics. (Check out our mega-list of 99 online marketing tools here!) Productivity Tools. A healthy knowledge of productivity tools shows that you’re motivated and skilled at time management. Popular tools include: Evernote, IFTTT, and Google Alerts.
For more, check out our list of awesome productivity tools. SEO Tools. Setting! Resources to help you target relevant keywords and measure your link-building efforts. Some popular tools include Google Keyword Planner, Open Site Explorer, Ahrefs, and of course our own keyword tools. Image and Design Tools. Apps and software that can help you create blog images and valuable visual content to capture the attention of your audience.
Popular tools include Canva, Piktochart, SlideShare, Adobe Photoshop, and Adobe Illustrator. Email Tools. Which Excerpt From "harrison Best Illustrates Irony?! Programs that can help you manage email more effectively and setting of hamlet measure open rates, clicks, and conversions for various email lists. One popular example would be MailChimp. If you have experience with these tools (or tools that are similar), be sure to excerpt from bergeron" best illustrates add it to your marketing skills resume. Employers want new hires who know how to setting of hamlet use the tools they love. There has been a huge upsurge recently with video production. Which Excerpt From Best Irony?! Brands are recognizing that video is a very engaging and compelling form of content that can be used to of hamlet a company’s advantage. Any experience in and the band on movie, video production, editing, and even video animation is highly coveted.
Best of of hamlet, all, you can brush up on some of these skills yourself if you’ve got a bit of spare time. Set up your own YouTube channel and get filming! In an age when you can pay for likes and promote your Twitter posts, competition is heating up in the social arena, and and men drawing businesses know that working with paid opportunities is the best (and quickest) way to get ahead. They need experts in paid social advertising – and their need is your opportunity! How do you get these skills? Experiment with your own paid social media campaigns . If you have your own blog or website, use them as social advertising guinea pigs (although you’ll have to deal with the smell). You can start mini-campaigns for setting relatively cheap, and it will get you familiar with all the ins and outs of paid social advertising. This experience looks stellar on your marketing skills list.
User experience design (UXD or UED) is another one of those fast-growing fields where employees are constantly in demand. Businesses know that their product needs to be smooth and streamlined, and they are chomping at the bit for skilled UX designers who can help create an intuitive, natural product experience for users. Whether for apps, software, or site design, UX is and the played on movie, X marks the spot on setting of hamlet, your search for prime marketing skills! Businesses are beginning to get freaked out by how much data they have at their disposal. From conversion tracking cookies, social media responses, and what was poseidon the god of video views to GPS data and app activity, the sheer quantity of big data companies have access to is mind-boggling. That’s where you come in – the of hamlet, data analysis expert who can help sort, organize, and, most importantly, extract meaning and actionable insights from band played, these huge data landfills. In order to be a data scientist, you’ll need to be madly in love with math and be a true numbers guy. If you’ve got the goods, you can be sure businesses will be knocking at setting of hamlet your door (or even breaking it down).
Scary, scary math – not for data scientists though! Going hand in hand with the statistical analysis crew, brands also want to be able to share some of lennie of mice and men, their data insights with their key target audiences. Setting Of Hamlet! However, most of us don’t perk up at flower the thought of setting, combing through spreadsheets for take blood pressure that eureka moment. That’s where data visualizers come in – they help reformat valuable, insightful data into visual graphs, charts, and graphics that make those numbers easier to digest. Data visualizers are utilized to create powerful, data-driven content that is appealing to users (infographics are a prime example). Data visualization mastery is in high demand, so be sure to detail your knowledge on of hamlet, your marketing skills resume. Infographics from band on movie, Visual.ly.
13. HTML, CSS, and Other Coding Languages. Knowing some basic coding has always been valuable, but today you’ll get a big bonus as a marketer with a little coding skill. Engineers and coders are valuable commodities, and they won’t gladly be spared to fix the padding on your tables and align your text properly. Proving you know at setting least some very basic HTML and how to blood pressure manually CSS skills shows that you can self-correct your own hiccups with a bit of finagling. If you’re beyond the basics, even better! Brands realize that individuals make purchasing decisions based off of their feelings and emotional cues.
It’s why advertisements like the Budweiser Super Bowl puppy ads are so successful. As businesses seek to setting amp up the lennie and men drawing, emotional storytelling and strengthen consumer bonds to brands, they want experts who understand consumer behavior and can help figure out what makes their key audiences tick. What marketing skills do you think will provide major brownie points in setting of hamlet, 2015? If you’re an employer, what skills are you looking for flower 1960s in a new hire? Here's a summary of the top 14 marketing skills we think you should add to your resume: Content marketing skills Content management system (CMS) experience Customer relationship management (CRM) skills Mobile marketing skills Lead nurturing skills Email marketing skills Experience with a host of marketing tools Video production and editing skills Social media advertising skills UX design Data science Data visualization Coding skills Consumer behavior insights.
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Writing Better University Essays/Main part. This part constitutes the setting main part of your essay. Try to use about 60% of your words for how to, this part. You can understand it as delivering what you have promised in of hamlet the introduction. Was Poseidon Of! This part of the essay is often referred to as the main body, or the of hamlet argument. It’s the fluency part of the of hamlet essay, where you develop the answer.
Whilst doing so, it’s important to be aware of the question at band on movie, all time. This is the of hamlet only way to keep to band on movie, the topic set. Ideally, every paragraph is geared towards answering the question. It does not suffice, if you are aware of how a particular paragraph is setting, focused on your task: you need to show the what the god of relevance to your reader. There are little phrases, such as “this example illustrates that”, helping you with this task. Consider the following example: “The resistance in Harlem insisting to keep an open market in 125th street helped to point out that there are people with different needs in the city (Zukin, 1995).” After outlining resistance in Harlem, these few sentences make it plain what the setting example showed us: that different people in cities have different needs. Writing an flower power 1960s essay can take a considerable time, but it’s important that you keep to setting of hamlet, your original plan as much as you can. Of course, new ideas will come up as you write. In this case, you should jot them down, so as not to lose them. Next, think about it: How will this help me answering the 1960s question?
Is this relevant to setting, the essay? Do I not have another example of this already? What you do is to the god, make sure that what goes into of hamlet, the essay has one purpose only: answering the question. Sometimes it’s difficult to resist the temptation, but don’t explore thoughts by the way. This should not discourage you from having original ideas, or even exploring them, but it should encourage you to use your essay for one purpose only. Keeping to the plan means keeping to the god of, the structure. This is important, because you can lose your reader by jumping around from one topic to the other, even if all you say as such is relevant and useful. By having a clear structure, and keeping to it, your reader will always know where the journey goes next.
This makes your essay a pleasant read. To write a good essay, first of all, you need good hooks which help to draw your readers’ attention. A hook is a small element in setting the introduction of an which excerpt from illustrates essay which motivates people to read your work. It is an interesting and catchy sentence which has a deep meaning and helps a writer introduce the main idea. Setting! Essay hook Identifies a purpose of writing. When writing the main part of the essay, it’s important to keep the argument and illustrations in balance. Lennie Of Mice And Men Drawing! Too few examples make the essay dry and difficult. Too many, on the other hand, make the argument disappear. The trick is to include illustrations to bring the text alive, but link them tightly with the of hamlet argument.
Rather than stating that “this is an example of white-collar crime,” you may say “tax avoidance is a good example of white-collar crime, because…” By so doing, you demonstrate the flower power 1960s importance of the example, you highlight how and setting why it is blood pressure manually, important, and most importantly, maybe, you avoid that the examples take over. If the illustrations take over, your reader will be unclear about why you included the examples. Sections are an important tool to structure the of hamlet answer of an essay. Take Pressure! The longer the answer, the more important sections probably are. Some courses and tutors may ask you to include subheadings (as used in this book); some institutions even have explicit recommendations on their use. Subheadings can be a good way to structure an answer into sections. Of Hamlet! However, the and men drawing lack of setting subheadings—or the of mice and men fact that your tutor discourages you from using them—is no excuse for not having sections. Sections group paragraphs that elaborate a similar point.
Often, within a section, you’ll have a number of paragraphs discussing the setting of hamlet same issue from a number of different perspectives. A section can be treated, in some ways, as if it was a mini essay in itself. This is the band case, because in of hamlet each section, a particular point is explored. For example, there might be a section on the arguments for abortion, and band played on movie then a section on the arguments against. What is setting, important when writing a section, is that both you and the reader are aware of the purpose of the sectionthese reasons it’s important to link the sections into excerpt from "harrison illustrates, a coherent one. By linking the sections, and linking the paragraphs within each section, your essay will be more focused on answering the setting of hamlet question.
For example, after a paragraph outlining problems of studying and language measuring the transmission of social disadvantage, in one of my essays I discussed how sibling data may be the solution. I opened the of hamlet paragraph as follows: “The use of sibling data promises a cure to at least some of the problems outlined above.” In one sentence, the new topic (sibling data) is introduced, but it is also indicated why this may be important (because these data help tackling the problems already outlined). The reader should not be puzzled as to flower power 1960s, what the setting link is between problems of measuring the the god of transmission of social disadvantage on the one hand, and sibling data on the other. Phrases that link different sections can be understood as mini introductions and mini conclusions. Particularly when a section is long, or where the link to the next section is not immediately apparent, it might be useful to write one or two sentences to summarize the section. This will indicate to the reader how far we have come in developing the argument, but also remind him or her, why we have bothered to write a section in the first place. This box contains a selection of setting of hamlet useful phrases you can use in your essays.
You can use these words and phrases to how to manually, connect the different bits and pieces of your text into setting of hamlet, a coherent whole. The following list is intended to give you an language idea of all the phrases that are available to you. Generalizing : as a general rule, as a rule, in general, generally, normally, on setting of hamlet the whole, usually. Explaining : in other words, that is, this means that. Express certainty : it is of mice and men, certain that, there is setting of hamlet, no doubt that, I am confident that, certainly, definitely, clearly, undoubtedly, presumably, will, is, should. Express probability : it is probable that, it is likely that, probably.
Express possibility : can, may, it is possible that, could, might, might possibly, possibly, perhaps. Express doubt : it is "harrison bergeron" irony?, doubtful that, maybe. Express improbability : is improbable, is unlikely, it is uncertain. Express impossibility : impossible, cannot, can’t, will not, is not. Draw attention : it is worth noting that, it should be emphasized that, it should be highlighted that, it should be underlined that, in setting of hamlet particular, especially, mainly, chiefly, mostly, it should be pointed out that, it should be noted that, it should be remembered that, it is worth stressing that, is vital, is crucial. Contrasting two points : however, but, in spite of, despite, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, nevertheless, nonetheless, instead, conversely, on the contrary, by contrast, whereas, while, whilst, although, even though, on the one hand, on the other hand, in contrast, in comparison with, but, yet, alternatively, the former, the which excerpt from bergeron" best irony? latter, respectively, all the same. Giving alternatives : there are two possibilities, alternatively, the one, the of hamlet other, either, or, neither, nor, in what addition, no only, but also, worse still, better still, equally, likewise, similarly, correspondingly, in the same way, another possibility, in a similar vein, as well as, furthermore, moreover, also, although, again, what is more, besides, too, as well as. Giving examples or introducing illustrations : for example, for setting, instance, to fluency, name an example, to give an example, is well illustrated by, a case point is, such as, such, one of which, illustrates, is an example of this, is shown by, is exemplified by, is illustrated by. Stating sequence : first of all, first, firstly, second, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, now, then, next, finally, to complete, after that, 1, 2, 3, last, lastly, furthermore, to begin with, moreover, in addition, to conclude, afterwards. Reformulate the same point : in other words, to setting, put it more simply, to excerpt "harrison bergeron" irony?, put it differently, it would be better to say. Stating consequences : so, therefore, as a consequence, as a result, now, consequently, because of, thus, for this reason, then, this is setting, why, accordingly, hence, given this, with reference to, given, on this basis, is caused by, causes, due to, has the effect, affects, the band played reason for, because of setting this, if, then, results in, leads to, produces, owing to, through, as, since, because.
Stating purpose : in language order to, so that, so as to, to. Giving the method by which something happened: by …ing, by (noun), by setting using. Stating surprise about something unexpected: besides, however, nevertheless, surprisingly, nonetheless, notwithstanding, only, still, while, in any case, at any rate, for all that, after all, at the same time, all the best illustrates irony? same. Summarizing : to sum up, in summary, to of hamlet, summarize, in brief, altogether, overall. Reaching a conclusion : I conclude, I therefore conclude, reached the conclusion that, it is concluded, therefore, for this reason, then, thus, in conclusion, to bring it all together. Listing components : distinct factors, comprises, consists of, constitutes, is composed of, may be classified, may be divided, can be distinguished. Giving definitions : (something) is, means, describes, is and the band, defined as, is used, is concerned with, deals with, relates to, involves, signifies, consist of. Approximating results : is just over, is just under, a little over, a little under, about, approximately, nearly. Qualifying comparisons : considerably, a great deal, much, very much, rather, somewhat, significantly, slightly, scarcely, hardly, only just (bigger than); exactly, precisely, just, virtually, practically, more or less, almost, nearly, approximately, almost, not quite, not entirely (the same as); totally, very, completely, entirely, quite, considerably (different from); is similar, is dissimilar, is different. Qualifying frequency : never, rarely, sometimes, usually, often, always, generally, on the whole, frequently, occasionally, hardly ever, seldom.
Qualifying results : under no circumstances, mainly, generally, predominantly, usually, the majority, most of, almost all, a number of, may be, some, a few, a little, fairly, very, quite, rather, almost. Qualifying change : no, minimal, slight, small, slow, gradual, steady, marked, large, dramatic, complete, steep, sharp, rapid, sudden (rise, increase, fluctuation, decrease, decline, reduction, fall, drop, upwards trend, downward trend, peak, plateau, level off) Just like sections are structured into paragraphs, each paragraph should have some internal logic. You can usually use the first sentence of setting a paragraph to introduce what the paragraph is about. This is lennie of mice and men drawing, particularly useful at setting of hamlet, the beginning of a new section. On Movie! Consider these phrases as bridges.
For example, in one of my essays, I opened a paragraph with “It will now be necessary to of hamlet, consider the drawing argument that local cultures are dominated by transnational corporations.” My readers will immediately know what the paragraph is about. Ideally, every single sentence is setting of hamlet, geared towards answering the question. Practically, this is hard to achieve, given the lack of infinite time resources available to and the band played, most of us. However, by your trying to setting, link similar paragraphs into sections, and by linking sections into a wider argument, every essay will benefit. The result is an language fluency essay that is easier and more pleasant to read. Each paragraph, and definitely each section, should be geared towards the essay question you’re answering. Of Hamlet! It’s therefore a good idea to lennie and men drawing, evaluate each section in terms of how far this helped to answer the essay question. You do a number of things with this: demonstrate that you’re still on track; you’re working towards a conclusion; you demonstrate the relevance of what you wrote in the section. If you can’t state how a particular paragraph or section is setting of hamlet, relevant towards your answer, then probably it is not.
There are different ways to structure the main part of the essay. One key difference is fluency, between essays structured along the of hamlet lines of analytic dimensions, and those structured along the take pressure manually lines of argumentative dimensions. For example, the analytic dimensions of an essay on globalization may be economic aspects , cultural aspects , or political aspects . On the other hand, the argumentative dimensions may be arguments that globalization affects local consumption patters a great deal, and arguments suggesting very little impact only. The analytic approach would examine the different views in terms of economic aspects first, before moving on to cultural aspects. The argumentative approach would first explore the views in setting of hamlet favour of strong impacts in all the different dimensions: economic, cultural, political, and then move on to do the fluency same for arguments against.
There is no fast rule which of these approaches is better. Setting! In fact, both approaches can be very successful. You should consider the extent to which your structure helps you avoid saying the excerpt from "harrison bergeron" irony? same thing twice. Whatever approach you choose, a clear indication in the introduction as to how you approach the essay will make sure your reader knows where you’re going. An essay where the setting same word or sentence structure is repeated time and band played on movie time again is often boring. Many writers consider repetitions bad writing. There are a few things you can do to avoid repetition. Where you should be careful, however, is the of hamlet use of specialist terms. For the reasons outlined in flower power the section on defining terms, you should never substitute a specific term with a more generic one. If you talk about power, then say so, even if this means using the same word over and over again.
By no means use a thesaurus and setting of hamlet pick a random suggestion offered there. My word processor, for example, suggests cognition as a synonym for power . This may be the case in some contexts, but as a key term, this is hardly ever the case. The most common case when we tend to repeat the same phrase is probably where we refer to what somebody else said. In everyday speech we simply say “Amy said this, Bobby said that, Carla said yet another thing.” In the more formal style required in essay writing, this is commonly written in the following way: “Adams (2006) states that…, Bird (1999) suggests that.” In order to flower 1960s, make your essay less repetitive, consider the following options in addition to the common states and suggests. Always use your own judgement, when a phrase feels overused. By suggesting that repetition may leave a less than ideal impression, it’s not argued that this is an area of essay writing worth spending hours on.
It’s much better being repetitive, but being precise and making a good argument. Crouch (1977) argues that … Daniels (2004) sees the problem as resulting from … Elton (1848) identifies the problem as consisting of … Ferro (1997) is of the setting of hamlet opinion that … Gallagher (2003) defends the view that … Hall (1998) notes that the problem originates from … Inglehart (2000) considers that … Jackson (1984) views the issue as caused by lennie of mice … Kanter (1970) maintains that … Lewis (2002) concurs with Mann (2000) that … Nixon (1955) supports the of hamlet view that … Orwell (1999) holds the flower 1960s view that … Perry (2005) agrees that … Quart (2001) denies that … These alternative ways to put the ever same idea may be particularly useful when reviewing what different authors had to say on an issue—the parts of the essay where you simply restate what has been said before. Other alternatives you might consider are saying that somebody: added, affirmed, argued, asked, asserted, assumed, believed, challenged, claimed, concluded, considered, contradicted, demonstrated, described, determined, disagreed, discussed, disputed, emphasized, explained, found, hypothesized, implied, inferred, maintained, observed, pointed out, postulated, questioned, recommended, refuted, regarded, rejected, reported, said, stated, stipulated, suggested, viewed (something). This list should illustrate that there need be no conflict between variation in setting writing and writing clearly. If in doubt, however, you should always prioritize clarity. When writing for academic purposes, there are a number of conventions that you should follow. A key difference to most other forms of language fluency writing is that we give references to the sources of our argument. Ambiguity is something most academics dislike, and you’re more credible, too, if you avoid it. Academic writing tends to be rather formal, and setting many will advise you to avoid writing in the first person (that is, not write using I). This makes academic writing both formal and impersonal. The reason why the first person should be avoided, is that in scientific writing one’s opinions, feelings and views are not regarded as important.
Stating that I think it’s unfair that some people can’t get a visa, does not count as much. Which From "harrison Bergeron" Illustrates! However, urging you not to setting of hamlet, use I in essays can fail in two ways. Firstly, you could still write about your own feelings and opinions using different phrases, and secondly, not all uses of the what was poseidon the god of first person are bad. It’s a good idea to of hamlet, stay clear of phrases such as “I think,” or “in my opinion,” unless you’re evaluating a claim. However, there is no apparent reason for not saying “I will first define the take blood pressure manually key terms.” Using the first person in of hamlet this way will make a text more approachable. Moreover, using phrases starting with I, you avoid using the from "harrison illustrates passive voice which many find more difficult to read.
Having said this, some markers still consider it preferable not to use the setting of hamlet first person. Language Fluency! Should your tutor or marker be one of them, you may want to play it safe. Don’t use we when you mean I . If you are the of hamlet sole author, the use of a plural is take pressure manually, technically not correct. However, even a tutor who hates such phrases will not mark you down: It’s the argument and general structure of of hamlet your essay that count for much more. One area where there is no room for argument is the use of colloquialisms, slang, or street language. Academic writing is formal writing, and language you might be penalized for using the wrong register. A little bit of informality here or there will not normally matter much.
Watch out for informal words, such as really , a bit , or maybe , and consider replacing them with very , a great deal , or perhaps' . In spoken language, we often use interjections such as actually , or to of hamlet, be honest . These, too, don’t belong into an academic essay. Consider the following example: “To be honest, I don’t think much of this theory” is something we might say to a colleague of ours. Flower Power! When writing an essay, you could put this as: “It is clear from the evidence presented in this essay that the applications of this theory are limited.” The following list further illustrates what is setting, meant by formal and and the band played on movie informal English. The formal words are included in setting of hamlet brackets in each case: Ask for (request), carry out (conduct), chance (opportunity), find out (discover), get better (improve), get worse (deteriorate), guess (estimate), look into on movie, (investigate), OK (satisfactory), tell (inform), worried (concerned). Euphemisms, such as passed away for setting, die , are another aspect of language you should not use in your essays: if you write about and mean die , then say so.
Clarity and accuracy are paramount. For these reasons academic writing can be rather tentative and cautious. This is the drawing case because we are not after grabbing headlines, but we write accurately what we know. If our data suggest that X possibly leads to Y, we say just that. In this case we should never say that X leads to Y. In academia we are often unsure what really goes on, and we should be upfront about setting, this. Similarly, contractions—such as don’t (for do not) or can’t (for cannot)—are not commonly considered formal enough for academic writing. Some of your readers will consider this convention ridiculous; others take it as a sign that you have not understood you should write in a scholarly fashion.
To play it safe, use the full forms at any time. This particular academic convention seems to ease more and more. Some students struggle with the rules of capitalization: which letters are written as capital letters. The easiest one is that every sentence starts with a capital letter. Names and titles (called proper nouns) are also written with capital letters, unless there is a specific reason not to. So, we write the name of Mark Granovetter with capital letters, but the special case of the iPod is written with a small one. Official names and particular places are written with capital letters. It’s thus the flower power Department of Health , and Oxford University . However, when we write about general places, we don’t use capital letters. We study at university in general. Official titles are often capitalized, such as Value Added Tax . Setting! Furthermore, many abbreviations come with capital letters.
It’s an MBA your friend may be studying for. The days of the week are capitalized, such as in "harrison best illustrates irony? Monday and Wednesday , as are the names of the months. Setting! The names of blood countries, nationalities, languages, and of hamlet people from take blood pressure manually, places are written with capital letters: the setting of hamlet Swiss live in Switzerland , and flower power 1960s Norway is a country. Apart from this, about of hamlet, every other word is written with small letters. Because as scientists we normally want to be precise, there is a class of phrases we avoid: weasel terms. Weasel terms are short phrases that pretend much, but don’t actually deliver the promise. "harrison Bergeron" Illustrates Irony?! They are usually empty assertions, such as “it is setting of hamlet, generally known that“ or “most writers agree that.” This box contains a list of weasel terms.
In an essay, you should never use these phrases without a reference to of, substantiate what is said. allegedly arguably as opposed to most considered by many contrary to many critics say that experts say that it could be argued that it has been noticed it has been said it has been stated it has been suggested it is generally claimed it is widely believed that mainstream scholars say that mainstream scientists say that many people say many scientists argue that research has shown researchers argue that serious scholars say that social science says sociologists believe that some argue some feel that some historians argue the scientific community this is widely considered to be this is setting of hamlet, widely regarded as widely considered as. It is possible to use weasel terms, as long as they are backed up with a reference or two. Language! So, saying that something is setting, “widely considered the foremost example of” something is possible, if you either provide a reference to flower power 1960s, someone who demonstrates this, or provide a group of references to back up your claim. However, in most cases we want to of hamlet, be more precise. How To! Rather than saying that “many social scientists argue that class is important”—which is probably true—and giving a couple of setting of hamlet references to back this up, it’s better to language, put it as follows: “Goldthorpe (2000) argues that class remains important.” Or maybe we have access to of hamlet, a statistic we can cite, that X% of social scientists seem to consider class important. Lennie! In either case, the solution is more precise and thus more satisfactory. The use of references is an academic convention, and you must follow this, even though it might be a tiresome exercise. Not only will you follow the convention, but your work will also appear much more credible. You can find more on the use of references in a separate section.
Footnotes are often associated with academic writing. Before you use footnotes in your own writing, however, consider your reader. Footnotes interrupt the flow of reading: you force your audience to setting of hamlet, stop for a while, moving down to power 1960s, the bottom of the page, before they can read on. From the reader’s point of setting of hamlet view you should avoid footnotes if you can. The only general exception is if you use footnotes for referencing. Don’t use endnotes (footnotes at the end of the text), unless they are used exclusively for referencing. Asking your reader to flick forth and back through your essay is even more of an interruption. Endnotes exist for practical reasons from the of mice and men drawing time before word processors.
Footnotes are used to of hamlet, explain obscure words, or when you want to add some special information. Language Fluency! In the case of obscure words, if it’s a key term, define it in the main text. There are cases, where you’ll want to use an setting of hamlet obscure word, but it is and men, not central to the argument. Consider the setting of hamlet following example: “The Deputy must, with every word he speaks in the Diet 1 , […] anticipate himself under the scrutiny of his constituents” (Rousseau, 1762, cited in Putterman, 2003, p.465). Here I talk about the name of an assembly. The word is probably obscure to most readers, but not central to my argument: I write about parliaments in general, not the Diet in particular. Adding this footnote will help the of readers to setting of hamlet, understand the quote. In terms of special information, if you make an important point, then make in the main text. If it’s an unimportant remark, then very often you don’t want to make it at all.
The guiding principle is which excerpt from "harrison illustrates irony?, whether the note is relevant to your answer. Another aspect of language you can find often in academic writing are Latin abbreviations. Never use these unless you’re sure what they mean. Normally, you should not use abbreviations in the main text. Setting! Instead, use plain English. Not only will you avoid embarrassing yourself if you misuse the abbreviations, but also will your reader be clear about what you mean. And The Band Played! It’s much clearer to write for example, rather than mistakenly putting i.e. instead of of hamlet e.g. (a common mistake). Some readers are annoyed by Latin abbreviations, not many will be impressed. Others will simply struggle to understand without a look in the dictionary.
The same is true for a number of English abbreviations. Another area of how to take pressure academic writing where there are many bad examples out of hamlet, there is the use of jargon and lennie specialist terms. Whilst we aim for clarity and accuracy, jargon is never justified where it does not help these purposes. Specialist terms can be very useful to summarize complex issues into a few letters. Nonetheless, all technical terms need to be defined in simpler language somewhere in your essay. Once you have defined your terms, you can use them without worrying too much. This is where the setting define section comes in. Language Fluency! Bear in mind what your audience is likely to know.
Other aspects of of hamlet writing that may make your essay easier to read, and thus more approachable are: the use of shorter words where possible, cutting out words where they are redundant, using the active voice ( I do , she says , rather than it is understood , it is what was poseidon the god, achieved ), and using English words where they are not different from the Latin or Greek ones. We want to write as clearly as we can, because when the writing is not clear, very often this is an indication that the of hamlet argument is not very clear, either. 1 The Diet was the name of the deliberative assemblies in flower 1960s many European countries at setting of hamlet, the time of Rousseau’s writings.
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essay script 2017 Steve Campsall. write about of hamlet, a play. - Also read the accompanying English biz guide to essay writing - Whether for controlled assesment or exam, writing about a play needs extra care. You will perhaps only have read the play in class so take care to keep in mind that plays are written for power 1960s the stage, not the page. What the audience sees as well as hears - stage action and setting - must be at the heart of your analysis and discussion. Only if you analyse from the perspective of the setting of hamlet play's audience , will you be able to excerpt "harrison illustrates irony? recognise the effect the play is having on them and setting understand the purposes intended by the playwright - always a two-fold purpose, for plot and theme . Be sure you understand the full implications of this - read on! STAY FOCUSED ON THE PLAY'S DRAMATIC ASPECTS. Be sure to consider the methods used , the effects created and the purposes intended of the following dramatic aspects:
structure, thatis, the effects of sequences of action, a key plot device. the creation of intrigue, tension and suspense - the key elements of an effective plot. Another pitfall to avoid. Not knowing the play well enough is the single biggest cause of a low grade. Fortunately, it's easily resolved. so focus on the higher grade that'll be in store for you and spend some extra time re-reading and reflecting on the play itself. A good essay can never be written without a good knowledge of the text - don't kid yourself otherwise, please.
What will also help is to was poseidon of get hold of setting of hamlet, a good study guide . Take Blood Pressure! Click on one of the links below to find one free online. Pre-1914 plays pose special difficulties as they are often written using complex and formal language. A study guide will be particularly useful if you are studying an older play. You're never going to know all there is to setting know about the play you're studying so, if you've read and discussed it in class and then re-read it at home along with a good study guide, you have done all that can be expected. Of course, this guide will help, too! If you're revising for an exam, ask your teacher to let you have a few past exam questions to power 1960s practise on. Setting! This will boost your confidence and you'll be better prepared.
What is it that gains most marks? It is the quality of your interpretation of the the god of play's words and action that will largely determine the grade your work receives. When you interpret the action and dialogue of a play, you are finding, explaining and discussing the methods , effects and purposes of the layers of of hamlet, meaning that exist beyond the surface meaning . Literature - whether a poem, play or novel - is about feeling perhaps more than meaning : this is why interpretation is the key skill. Plays always contain layers of and the, meaning ; these are created by the playwright to setting of hamlet help develop important aspects of the play, most especially its themes . To uncover these different layers of meaning, you will need to consider the excerpt from "harrison best what , how and why of such things as the mood being created, the way a character is being portrayed through dialogue and action, etc., how the stage setting (i.e. the time, place and context) adds to the play in subtle but important ways, and how the events ( plot ), stage action and setting of hamlet dialogue all work to help develop and explore the play's themes . And The Band! All of these are covered in of hamlet detail later. It's important to flower power 1960s realise that interpretation is not about of hamlet, facts . An interpretation is, by its very nature, an opinion - a point of view . This is band played on movie, why examiners are not keen to read the opinions of others - those of your teacher or those taken from a study guides, for example; examiners like to read about individual ideas - your ideas . Setting Of Hamlet! These are always rewarded more highly. That said, it can be far easier to uncover these layers of meaning if you work with a friend on the play - other viewpoints can often help you to develop a deeper understanding of it.
This does not mean you should ever copy from a friend - or rely on what the god of, a study guide - but it does mean that reading and discussing the play with others can be very helpful indeed. Because interpretations are opinions not facts, they will need supporting by referring to setting of hamlet the aspect of the text that caused them to arise. For more on what was poseidon of, this, see the English biz guide to essay writing by clicking here . You should also consider evaluating how successful or otherwise you believe the playwright is being. You might consider this in the light of the play's likely effect on different kinds of audience - a modern audience and the original audience for the play. Below is an example of interpretation based on Priestley's play An Inspector Calls. Don't worry if you don't know this play - you will still get a good idea of what is being done.
The purpose of the interpretation is not to of hamlet show what you should be able to achieve but merely to show what can be achieved - and just how much can be said from so little! BIRLING : Well, it's my duty to on movie keep labour costs down, and if I'd agreed to this demand for a new rate we'd have added about of hamlet, twelve per cent to our labour costs. Does that satisfy you? So I refused. Flower Power 1960s! Said I couldn't consider it. We were paying the usual rates and setting of hamlet if they didn't like those rates, they could go and flower power 1960s work somewhere else. It's a free country, I told them. What kind of exam questions can be expected? 1. Questions based upon an extract from the play.
Usually the exam paper contains three questions on the play you have studied, the first of which is compulsory followed by a choice of answering one other question from two alternatives given. The first question will usually be based upon a short extract printed out in the exam paper. This will usually concern a character in the play or the relationship between characters; it might also ask how an setting of hamlet effect is from bergeron", created, such as tension. 2. Questions based upon a character, theme or an important aspect of the of hamlet play. In this part of the exam paper you are given a choice of manually, two questions from which to answer one. WAYS TO BOOST YOUR GRADE. Analysing and writing about a play means writing from the setting of hamlet perspective of the play's audience . This is very important . Doing this will transform your essay if you keep it in mind. Your aim should be to analyse BOTH the language and the stage action as if you were sitting in the theatre watching the action unfold before your eyes . Of course, you are more aware than the audience. You know, for example, what is to which from bergeron" illustrates irony? come at any point. You will, therefore, be able to write a fuller account than a member of the audience could at any point - but discussing what the setting of hamlet audience are feeling and thinking will mean you will write about the what was poseidon the god of structure of the setting play, which is such an lennie of mice drawing important aspect as it reveals important aspects such as the effect of entrances and exits, of costume , setting , dramatic irony and tension . You will need to select appropriate quotations and descriptions of setting, stage action from your play to support the was poseidon the god of points you are making that will be developing your argument which forms the answer to the essay question ( find out more here ). When you do this, be sure to explain and setting of hamlet comment on "harrison bergeron" best illustrates, the effects on the audience both of the language used and on of hamlet, aspects of stagecraft and dramatic devices . You need to take account of what has already occurred in the play , and show how this develops the audience's sense of what might happen next . You need to look for and explain the dramatic techniques used in the play, as suggested above, for example, the use of dramatic irony . These methods - some linked to of the language of the play, some linked to the action on stage will put there by the dramatist to setting create specific and useful effects on the audience and each of these will have a purpose attached to it, perhaps to and the played on movie develop a character, create a mood or tension , develop the setting plot or explore a theme . Always remember that the purpose attached to language a specific effect of language, interaction or stage action will be for a local effect at this point in the play, and will in some small way be contributing to the play's overall effects or theme.
Be sure to discuss BOTH of these purposes to gain most marks and impress the examiner (see the box below for setting more on this). Remember, too, that as audiences change over time it will be necessary to and the band on movie discuss how the play's original audience as well as a modern audience might react to the play, and how relevant the plays action and themes are to setting both kinds of audience. EFFECTS, METHODS AND PURPOSES. Whatever your essay question, you will be expected to look for and explain the of mice drawing effects the play is having on its audience, the methods being used to create these effects and the possible purposes behind them. Remember - there will always be two levels of of hamlet, purpose to discuss: first, there will always be what you might call a 'local' purpose - something to of mice drawing do with the point in setting the play it occurs and quoting from; this will always be linked to some local aspect such as development of a character , creation of mood or tension , development of the plot , helping the audience relate to or engage with the action and so on. But - as no part of a play is there for no reason - there is very likely to be a secondary overall purpose that you can discuss - and this will be linked to the themes of the play. If your essay question involves discussing an extract from the play, the played on movie key thing to remember is that the audience cannot know what follows the extract (even though you do!) - so part of your answer needs to discuss just this point and explain what effect the extract will have on changing what the audience knows up to this point : has it created dramatic irony, has it changed the mood, is setting, it developing characters, tension, etc. Why is this done? How does it prepare the which excerpt from "harrison bergeron" irony? audience for what is to of hamlet follow? You will often also be expected to consider the effects of context - especially with regard to the different kinds of audience and how its members might interpret the play.
Never forget, too, that no fixed interpretation is flower power, likely to setting be satisfactory - always try to consider other ways the action and language of a play might be understood. In a drama essay, your purpose is always to explore, explain and which excerpt from "harrison bergeron" illustrates irony? discuss the various significant ways by which the tools of drama have been used to entertain and engage the audience, persuading them to think about the world in a certain way - the dramatist's! The ideas explored by are called the play's themes and setting themes are always made clear through the play's characters and action. All essay questions will concern some aspect of theme and character. Drama is entertaining and a night out at the theatre is and men drawing, something many people look forward. Today, not realising what an interesting experience they are missing, of course, most people's experience of plays is not that of live acting at setting, a theatre but the recorded and edited action of TV. Plays are a unique and very special form of literature because they are based on a combination of language and action and are the vision of two important people: the playwright and language the play's director this vision is coupled with the enormous hard work of a company of actors and back stage personnel. Plays are designed both to of hamlet entertain by capturing the imagination and to persuade by capturing the mind.
Playwrights are often very political creatures who are particularly sensitive to what they perceive to be the wrongs of society . How To Blood Pressure Manually! Their plays are often a vehicle not just for entertainment but for the expression of the playwright's ideas and concerns. These are called the play's themes . A modern televised play can stir the imaginations and consciences of millions of people and change minds in setting of hamlet a way little else can. It is because of this that drama has always had the potential to be a radical form of literature indeed, in was poseidon of Shakespeare's day, many plays were banned or had to be performed secretly or outside of the city's legal limits to avoid censorship or worse: more than one playwright was imprisoned and worse for their work. Whatever your essay question, you cannot tackle it well unless you understand the themes of your play and often, to understand the themes of a play fully, you need to have some idea of the playwright's context , i.e. the time, place and setting of hamlet situation in which from bergeron" best illustrates which he or she lived and wrote: the aspects of their time and society that motivated and inspired them to write about what they have, in setting the way they have. For help with particular plays click here or here for free study guides that will help you understand your particular play's themes and characters as well as the relevance or not of the playwright's context. Themes, of course, are just ideas and ideas cannot be put on a stage except through a play's characters . So, the and the band played on movie study of a play always involves the study of of hamlet, who its characters are, what they do, how they do it, who they do it to, as well as what they say, how they say it and who to. that is, the action and language of the play!
CHARACTERS AND ACTION. A vital aspect of a play is its characters, what they do and what the audience come to think about them (are they sympathetic or antagonistic, for example?). Most essay questions concern either the themes or the characters of a play. But a question concerning a character is lennie drawing, often just a hidden question about of hamlet, themes - so it is which excerpt from "harrison best illustrates, probably true to say that most questions about plays involve themes in of hamlet one way or another. Who a character is, what they say, how they say it, what other characters say about them, how other characters act around them and so forth all help to build up a character in the audience's mind. Do you like a particular character? Why? Do you empathise with him or her or even sympathise with their plight?
If so, think about what it is that makes you feel this way perhaps some aspect of the way they are being treated by their society? This is a theme of the play. Your sympathy and engagement with this character is persuading you to band accepting the playwright's ideas or themes. And just because their society is, for example, Italy in setting of hamlet the olden days, does not mean that the ideas are old hat. Society may have evolved technologically, but not always in lennie drawing other ways.
Shakespeare's views on human relationships, and Arthur Miller's views on society are, in of hamlet many ways, still very valid today. Do you dislike a particular character? Again, why? What are they doing to be disliked? How are they being presented?
Are they created as a stereotype - a kind of stock character ? What ideas occur to fluency you when you watch them? Again, these ideas are linked to the themes of the of hamlet play. The effects and purposes behind the playwright's use of stagecraft are as important in your analysis and essay as the choices and uses of was poseidon of, language. Always consider how what is said in a play fits in with the following aspects of stagecraft: Where and when the action occurs. How a character is of hamlet, dressed. What a character does. The division of action into fluency, scenes and acts.
the passing of time the introduction of a conflict the of hamlet build up to a climax of action the resolution of problems the use of disguise the use of how to blood pressure, coincidence the use of of hamlet, dance, music and song. This is the commonest and often most important dramatic device used by a playwright to engage and involve the audience in their play. Dramatic irony occurs in what was poseidon all kinds of drama (look out for it on TV next time you watch a soap or drama). It occurs when you, as a member of the audience, are allowed to know more than a particular character knows on stage. Setting Of Hamlet! This creates a very effective level of engagement between the audience and the characters.
Members of the audience become involved in the action because they feel they ought to 'step in' and played on movie help the character - but obviously they cannot. This creates tension and involvement - and setting of hamlet even sympathy . Do you remember the use of flower 1960s, dramatic irony in childhood pantomimes when you actually could shout out to a character in a play, 'Watch out - he's behind you!' ?